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----- Original Message -----
Sent: Thursday, October 23, 2003 8:35 AM
Subject: Did the Scandinavians beat Columbus to America
(And the Kelts "beat" the Nordic tribes to
America; only to be
slaughtered by the invading Mongolian tribes from the
now known as "Native Americans".)
Did the Scandinavians beat Columbus to America twice?
22, 3:38 AM ET Add Offbeat - AFP to My Yahoo!
STOCKHOLM (AFP) - Archeologists have already established
explorers beat Christopher Columbus to America by about 500
experts in Sweden now hope to determine whether another group
Scandinavians landed in the New World in 1362, 130 years before
90-kilo (200-pound) rune stone, a block of stone featuring
engravings common during the Viking era, has been sent from the
States to Sweden's Museum of National Antiquities to establish
really dates from 1362, as its markings claim, or is just a
If confirmed as an authentic relic, the so-called Kensington
prove that another wave of explorers, more than 300 years after
Vikings, made it to the American continent before Columbus did in 1492.
"The stone is very important. But whether or not history will have
re-written because of this stone is very difficult to say,"
curator Karl-Olof Cederberg told AFP.
A farmer in
Kensington, Minnesota claimed to have found the stone on his
1898. The man, Olof Ohman, originally from Sweden,
immediately suspected it
was a rune stone.
He handed the slab over to experts, many of whom
dismissed it as a fake;
after years of dispute over its origin, the stone
was returned to Ohman,
who put it to use as a doorstep.
later, interest in the stone was resuscitated and it eventually
ended up on
display in various US museums, including the Smithsonian
- web sites) in Washington.
Now, a dozen experts have descended
upon Sweden's Museum of National
Antiquities -- which is featuring the rune
stone in an exhibit that opens
Thursday -- to examine the stone's
inscriptions and geological
composition to determine its true origin.
According to experts, the inscription, translated into English,
"Eight Geats (southern Swedes) and 22 Norwegians on this
journey from Vinland in (unclear) west. We made camp at two
day's journey north of this stone. We went fishing one day.
return we found 10 men red from blood and death, Ave Maria. Save
evil. There are 10 men down by the sea guarding our ships, 14
journey from this island. Year 1362."
Those who believe
that the stone is authentic claim that the marshy
surroundings of its
origin were areas of water in 1362, and therefore the
area in Minnesota
where it was found was indeed an island at the time.
At least one
US expert, Scott Walter, has concluded that the stone was
weather and winds for several centuries, boosting the claim
that it is
One theory is that the Swedish-Norwegian king Magnus
Eriksson in 1354
sent a team of explorers to find out what had happened to
he had sent to Greenland. It would be this team that
ultimately ended up
However, sceptics note that
the era of Viking exploration is believed to
have ended some 300 years
before the stone's date, and point out that the
Viking practice of
engraving rune stones was no longer common in the
also wonder whether a group that has just found 10 companions
murdered would hang around to laboriously engrave a rune stone.
The Stockholm museum is now pinning its hopes on modern technology
group of Nordic experts to once and for all resolve the more
100-year-old mystery of the Kensington stone.
conclusions are drawn, they will be interesting. If it is a
still interesting because it would show that emigrants used
the stone as
part of their identity-building, playing on the references
to the Vikings,"
Long Live Odin! - The Allfather - The
Aryan Christ of the Second Coming.
That site can be
viewed the best in Explorer. Russian resistence music with simultaneous
translation can be listened to only in Explorer.
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