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Veganism Can End The Drought If we can get enough people to become vegans

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  • njjay5764
    Veganism Can End The Drought If we can get enough people to become vegans A drought for the ages By Patrick O Driscoll, USA TODAY DENVER — Drought, a fixture
    Message 1 of 1 , Oct 27, 2007
      Veganism Can End The Drought If we can get enough people to become

      A drought for the ages
      By Patrick O'Driscoll, USA TODAY
      DENVER — Drought, a fixture in much of the West for nearly a decade,
      now covers more than one-third of the continental USA. And it's
      spreading.half the nation is either abnormally dry or in outright
      drought from prolonged lack of rain that could lead to water
      shortages, according to the U.S. Drought Monitor, a weekly index of
      conditions. Welcome rainfall last weekend from Tropical Storm Barry
      brought short-term relief to parts of the fire-scorched Southeast.
      But up to 50 inches of rain is needed to end the drought there, and
      this is the driest spring in the Southeast since record-keeping
      began in 1895, according to the National Climatic Data Center.
      Coast to coast, the drought's effects are as varied as the
      •In central California, ranchers are selling cattle or trucking them
      out of state as grazing grass dries up. In Southern California's
      Antelope Valley, rainfall at just 15% of normal erased the spring
      bloom of California poppies.
      •In South Florida, Lake Okeechobee, America's second-largest body of
      fresh water, fell last week to a record low — an average 8.89feet
      above sea level. So much lake bed is dry that 12,000 acres of it
      caught fire last month. Saltwater intrusion threatens to contaminate
      municipal wells for Atlantic coastal towns as fresh groundwater
      levels drop.
      •In Alabama, shallow ponds on commercial catfish farms are
      dwindling, and more than half the corn and wheat crops are in poor
      Dry episodes have become so persistent in the West that some
      scientists and water managers say drought is the "new normal" there.
      Reinforcing that notion are global-warming projections warning of
      more and deeper dry spells in the Southwest, although a report in
      last week's Science magazine challenges the climate models and
      suggests there will be more rainfall worldwide later this century.
      "It seems extremely likely that drought will become more the norm"
      for the West, says Kathy Jacobs of the Arizona Water Institute, a
      research partnership of the state's three universities. "Droughts
      will continue to come and go, but … higher temperatures are going to
      produce more water stress." That's because warmer temperatures in
      the Southwest boosts demands for water and cause more to evaporate
      from lakes and reservoirs.
      "The only good news about drought is it forces us to pay attention
      to water management," says Peter Gleick of the Pacific Institute, a
      think tank in Oakland that stresses efficient water use.
      This drought has been particularly harsh in three regions: the
      Southwest, the Southeast and northern Minnesota.
      Severe dryness across California and Arizona has spread into 11
      other Western states. On the Colorado River, the water supply for 30
      million people in seven states and Mexico, the Lake Powell and Lake
      Mead reservoirs are only half full and unlikely to recover for
      years. In Los Angeles County, on track for a record dry year with
      21% of normal rain downtown since last summer, fire officials are
      threatening to cancel Fourth of July fireworks if conditions worsen.
      On Wednesday, Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa urged residents
      to voluntarily cut water use 10%, the city's first such call since
      the 1990s.
      In Minnesota, which is in its worst drought since 1976, the
      situation is improving slowly, although a wildfire last month burned
      dozens of houses and 115 square miles in the northeastern part of
      the state.
      The Southeast, unaccustomed to prolonged dry spells, may be
      suffering the most. In eight states from Mississippi to the
      Carolinas and down through Florida, lakes are shrinking, crops are
      withering, well levels are falling and there are new limits on water
      use. "We need 40-50 inches of rainfall to get out of the drought,"
      says Carol Ann Wehle of the South Florida Water Management District.
      Despite a recent storm, water hasn't flowed in Florida's Kissimmee
      River, which feeds Lake Okeechobee, in 212 days. The district has
      imposed its strictest water-use limits ever in 13 counties, cutting
      home watering to once a week and commercial use by 45%.

      in California, winter snowpack in the Sierra Nevada range was only
      27% of normal this year, another dry winter would tax supplies.
      Gleick says water managers are not reacting forcefully enough to the
      drought: "The time to tell people that we're in the middle of a
      drought and to institute strong conservation programs is today, not
      a year from now." The Metropolitan Water District of Southern
      California is doing that. Last month, it began a "Let's Save" radio
      After nearly a decade of drought in parts of the West, the nation's
      fastest-growing region wrestles with rising water demands and
      declining supply.
      Donald Wilhite of the National Drought Mitigation Center says the
      Southwest and Southeast are "becoming gradually more vulnerable to
      drought" because the rising population will need more water. "We
      think of water as an unlimited resource," he says. "But what happens
      when you turn on the tap and it's not there?"
      Contributing: Doyle Rice

      How Much Water to
      Make One Pound of Beef?
      March 1, 2001 -- To date, probably the most reliable and widely-
      accepted water estimate to produce a pound of beef is the figure of
      2,500 gallons/pound. Newsweek once put it another way: "the water
      that goes into a 1,000 pound steer would float a destroyer."
      Not surprisingly, the beef industry promotes a study that
      determined, using highly suspect calculations, that only 441 gallons
      of water are required to produce a pound of beef.
      (The cattlemen's study applied liberal deductions from water
      actually used, reasoning that water was evaporated at points during
      the process, or was "returned" to the water table after being used
      to grow plant feed, or was returned to the water table via urea and
      excrement from cows. Thus, study authors reasoned these waters were
      not "lost" but "recycled" and therefore could be subtracted from
      gross amount of water actually used in beef production. Of course,
      evaporation and cow dung don't go very far in replenishing water
      pumped from acquifers which took thousands of years to fill. It's
      interesting to consider that if the same fuzzy math were applied to
      calculating how much water it takes to grow vegetables, potatoes
      would probably only require about 2 gallons of water per pound.)
      Bestselling author and vegetarian trailblazer John Robbins has
      examined in detail a variety of estimates and who worked on them,
      and some of his observations are in his new book Food Revolution
      (see here).
      So what's the beef with beef, when it comes to water?
      Simply put: it's wasteful and irresponsible to squander our precious
      resources on a luxury item like meat.
      The only question we're left with is: just how wasteful and
      irresponsible is it?
      Once again, our intrepid investigator, John Robbins, recently
      uncovered some startling new evidence. That evidence comes in the
      form of a scholarly new book which sheds new light on the subject.
      Edited by David Pimentel and others and published in January, the
      book is titled Ecological Integrity: Integrating Environment,
      Conservation and Health (Island Press, Washington DC, 2001).
      Pimentel is a celebrated professor of ecology and agricultural
      science at Cornell University, who has published over 500 scientific
      articles, 20 books and overseen scores of important studies.
      The other editors of the book are Laura Westra, professor of
      environmental studies at Sarah Lawrence College, and Reed Noss,
      president and chief scientist for Conservation Science, Inc., and
      president of the Society for Conservation Biology.
      Drought, warmth bring record low water levels in Lake Superior
      By John Flesher, AP Environmental Writer
      TRAVERSE CITY, Mich. — Drought and mild temperatures have pushed
      Lake Superior's water level to its lowest point on record for this
      time of year, continuing a downward spiral across the Great Lakes.
      Preliminary data show Superior's average water level in September
      dipped 1.6 inches beneath the previous low for that month reached in
      1926, Cynthia Sellinger, deputy director of NOAA's Great Lakes
      Environmental Research Laboratory, said Sunday.
      PHOTO GALLERY: Lake Superior drops to record low levels
      The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which uses a different measuring
      technique, calculated the September level at four inches below the
      record, said Scott Thieme, chief of hydraulics and hydrology for the
      Detroit district office.
      It's the first time in 81 years that the biggest and deepest of the
      lakes, with a surface area matching South Carolina's, has reached a
      new monthly low, Sellinger said. The Army Corps recorded Superior as
      also setting a record by a half-inch in August. But the NOAA lab had
      the lake at slightly above its record level then.
      FIND MORE STORIES IN: Detroit | Mich | Great Lakes | NOAA | Drought
      | Lake Superior | Cynthia Sellinger
      Either way, the lake has plummeted over the past year and has lagged
      beneath its long-term average level for a decade — the longest such
      period in its known history.
      "I've been here since 1959 and this is the lowest I've seen it,"
      said Joel Johnson, owner of Lakehead Boat Basin in Duluth, Minn.
      Some areas had so little water last spring and summer that
      recreational boats couldn't reach docking slips, although other
      marina operators managed operate normally.
      Commercial shippers, who haul iron ore and coal across the lakes to
      manufacturing centers such as Detroit, have been unable to fill
      cargo holds to capacity for fear of scraping bottom in shallow
      The biggest vessels, which hold 67,600 tons, have left 6,000 to
      8,000 tons behind on many trips, said Glen Nekvasil, spokesman for
      the Lake Carriers Association.
      "Light loading has been just creaming the industry this year," he
      All the Great Lakes, which together make up about 20% of the world's
      fresh surface water, have been in decline since the late 1990s.
      Lakes Huron and Michigan are about two feet below their long-term
      average levels, while Lake Superior is about 20 inches off. Lake
      Ontario is about seven inches below its long-term average and Lake
      Erie a couple of inches down.
      The NOAA lab bases its statistics on measurements taken by a gauge
      near Marquette. The Army Corps averages the numbers from several
      gauges around the lake.
      Levels typically fluctuate through the year. Superior, a feeder for
      the other lakes, rises in spring and summer as melted snow flows
      into its headwaters, then recedes in fall and winter.
      But precipitation is well below normal in the Lake Superior
      watershed, and unusually mild winters have reduced the winter ice
      cap, boosting evaporation.
      with Superior at its all-time low point for the beginning of fall —
      when the lake usually begins its annual drop-off — prospects for
      quick improvement wouldn't seem good.
      Scientists point to a number of possible causes for the low water,
      including historical cycles, weather patterns and global warming.
      "Is this going to continue? That's the big question and we don't
      know," Sellinger said.

      How Our Food Choices Can Help Save the Environment
      From a speech delivered to EarthSave Baltimore
      by Professor Steve Boyan
      The Union of Concerned Scientists says that the two things that
      people can do which will most help the environment are (1) to drive
      a fuel efficient automobile (that means, not a SUV or a truck),
      along with a decision to live near to where you work. That
      recommendation is indeed important. Anything you can do either in
      what you drive or where you live is important. The 2nd thing the
      Union of Concerned Scientists proposed that people could do which
      also would have dramatically good consequences for the environment:
      to not eat beef.
      I'm going to go one step farther than UCS: I suggest that you refuse
      to eat any animal or animal product produced on a factory farm. And
      I'm going to tell you why.
      In 1990, when I first read, that 10 people could be fed with the
      grain that you would feed a cow that would be turned into food for
      one person, I was impressed. But I was not moved. The reason was: if
      10 people would be fed because I gave up meat, I'd give it up. But,
      I thought, if I give up meat, it won't have that impact: it probably
      won't have any impact on anything at all, except me.
      I was wrong. If I had known that for every pound of beef I did not
      eat, I would save anywhere from 2500 to 5000 gallons of water - you
      heard it, for every pound of beef, 2500 to 5000 gallons of water, I
      would have been moved. It's a good idea to save water; we are
      depleting our underground aquifers faster than we are replenishing
      them. The largest one, the Ogallala, which covers a vast part of the
      country from the mid-west to the mountain states, is being depleted
      by 13 trillion gallons a year. It is going to run out. Northwest
      Texas is already dry. They can't get any water from their wells.
      John Robbins points out that in the 1980's and 1990's, to conserve
      water, most of us went to low flow showerheads. If we take a daily 7
      minute shower, he says, and we have a 2 gallon per minute low flow
      showerhead, you use about 100 gallons of water per week, or 5200
      gallons of water per year. If you had used the old fashioned 3
      gallon per minute showerhead, I calculate you would have used 7644
      gallons of water per year. So by going low flow, you saved almost
      2500 gallons of water per year. Wonderful. But by giving up one
      pound of beef that year, you'd save maybe double that. By giving up
      one pound of beef, you'd save more water than you would than by not
      showering at all for six months! And that's just one of the
      environmental impacts you'd have.
      The modern factory farming system is a prolific consumer of fossil
      fuel and a prolific producer of poisonous wastes. Up to 100,000
      animals are herded together on huge feedlots. These animals do not
      graze on grass, as picture books tell us; they can't graze at all.
      They are crowded, filthy, and stinking places with open sewers,
      unpaved roads, and choking air. The animals would not survive at all
      but for the fact that they are fed huge amounts of antibiotics.
      It is now conceded that the antibiotics fed to cattle are the main
      cause of antibiotic resistance in people, as the bacteria constantly
      in these environments evolve to survive them. The cattle are fed
      prodigious quantities of corn. At a feedlot of a mere 37,000 cows,
      25 tons of corn is dumped every hour. It takes 1.2 gallons of oil to
      make the fertilizer used for each bushel of that corn. Before a cow
      is slaughtered, she will eat 25 pounds of corn a day; by the time
      she is slaughtered she will be over 1200 lbs. In her lifetime she
      will have consumed 284 gallons of oil. Today's factory raised cow is
      not a solar powered ruminant but another fossil fuel machine.
      And she will produce waste. Livestock now produces 130 times the
      amount of waste that people do. This waste is untreated and
      unsanitary. It bubbles with chemicals and disease-bearing organisms.
      It overpowers nature's ability to clean it up. It's poisoning
      rivers, killing fish, and getting into human drinking water. 65% of
      California's population is threatened by pollution in drinking water
      just from dairy cow manure. It isn't just cows that produce this
      waste. Factory raised hogs produce 4 times the waste in North
      Carolina as the 6.5 million people of that state do. Cases of
      pfiesteria have broken out in that state and even here in Maryland -
      from water polluted from pig farms and chicken farms. Even the
      oceans are polluted: 7000 sq. miles of the Gulf of Mexico are a
      complete dead zone.
      There are more environmental impacts. Cattle don't spend their
      entire lives in feedlots. When they are young, they graze. Where do
      they graze? Well, more than 2/3rds of the land area of the mountain
      states are used for grazing. 70% of the lands in western national
      forests are grazed; 90% of Bureau of Land Management land is grazed.
      These are public lands, lands that President Clinton didn't even try
      to save. These lands are trampled by the cattle, compacting the
      soil. When it rains, the land doesn't absorb the water. Instead, it
      runs off, taking away topsoil, forming deep gullies, and damaging
      streambeds. Your tax dollar subsidizes this activity. The government
      protects the cattle by killing off any creature which might threaten
      the livestock. They poison, trap, snare, den, shoot, or gun down the
      wildlife. Denning, by the way, is the practice by federal agents of
      pouring kerosene into the dens of animals and setting them on fire,
      burning the young animals alive in their nests.
      ccording to Robbins, agents kill badgers, black bear, bobcats,
      coyotes, gray fox, red fox, mountain lions, opossums, raccoons,
      skunks, beavers, porcupines, prairie dogs, black birds, cattle
      egrets, and starlings using these methods. These activities are on
      public lands, which were created in large part to protect the
      I'm not done yet. We in the United States do not get all of our beef
      from the west. We import more than 200 million pounds of beef from
      Central America alone. Every second of every day, 1 football field
      of tropical rainforest is destroyed in order to produce 257
      hamburgers. A ¼ lb hamburger destroys 67 square feet of rainforest.
      Every time you destroy rainforest land, you destroy rich plant and
      animal life, varieties of life we don't even understand, and forms
      of which may provide the medicines we need to cure disease.
      Rainforests supply us with oxygen. They moderate our climates. When
      rainforests are destroyed, it's only a matter of time before the
      land becomes desertified. They absorb some of the carbon dioxide we
      are spewing into the atmosphere.
      We humans have increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the
      atmosphere by 25%, compared to any other period when humans were on
      this planet. Most of that gain has taken place in the last 50 years.
      The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, consisting of some of
      the best scientists in the world, says global warming is a fact. If
      uncontrolled, we will have ecosystem collapses, crop failures,
      weather disasters, coastal flooding, the spreading of previously
      controlled diseases, the death of coral reefs, and new insect pests.
      Some of these things are starting to happen already. Coral reefs are
      dying. Insect pests are spreading out of their range and killing off
      new kinds of trees. Weather patterns are changing. Some places have
      had extreme weather events, with billions of dollars of losses. Some
      island people have had to abandon their islands because rising seas
      have salinated their underground aquifers.
      Carbon dioxide is largely produced by the burning of fossil fuels,
      especially coal, and especially our use of inefficient vehicles for
      transportation. But not often mentioned is the fossil fuel used to
      raise farm animals. As I said earlier, a factory cow is a fossil
      fuel machine, not a solar powered ruminant whose wastes fertilize
      the fields to produce more grass for the cow to eat. When you eat
      beans, for example, you use 1/27th the amount of fossil fuel to
      produce a calorie of energy as you do when you eat beef. You get the
      same food energy producing only 4% of the carbon dioxide that a
      person eating beef does.
      Another fact we don't talk about: cattle produce almost 1/5th of
      global methane emissions. Cattle fart. Big time. Their gas is
      methane. Methane is actually 24 times as potent as carbon dioxide in
      causing climate chaos.
      There's another major environmental consequence of our factory
      system of animal raising: that's the matter of species extinctions.
      Now it is true that species die off all the time. Normally, the
      earth has lost 10 to 25 species per year. But in the billions of
      years of life on this earth, we have had 5 periods of major
      extinctions; the last one was 67 million years ago, when, possibly
      because of a meteor colliding with the earth, we lost the dinosaurs.
      But now there's a sixth extinction, and it is not caused by a
      meteor, but by human beings.
      And this is a big one; we are losing several thousand species per
      year, and maybe tens of thousands. We think of mammals that are
      endangered, and 25% of mammalian species are endangered. But what's
      much more endangered, or wiped out already, are the plants,
      including varieties of plankton, fungi, bacteria, and insects, that
      are fundamental to all so-called higher forms of life. All life will
      unravel if these creatures are wiped out.
      The driving force behind all these extinctions is the destruction of
      wildlife habitat, especially the rainforests of the world. The
      driving force behind the destruction of the rainforests is livestock
      grazing. The leading cause of species in the United States being
      threatened or eliminated is livestock grazing. A 1997 study of
      endangered species in the southwestern United States by the Fish and
      Wildlife Service found that half the species studied were threatened
      by cattle ranching.
      You know, you and I cannot change all this. We are not going to be
      able to get a bill through Congress outlawing factory farming. Yet
      Earthsave as an organization believes we can still have a dramatic
      effect: we believe that you can protect your health and protect the
      environment one bite at a time. Let's review what I've said here: by
      not eating beef - and other farm animals as well - you :
      Save massive amounts of water - 3000 to 5000 gallons of water for
      every pound of beef you avoid
      Avoid polluting our streams and rivers better than any other single
      recycling effort you do
      Avoid the destruction of topsoil
      Avoid the destruction of tropical forest: remember passing up ¼ lb
      of hamburger averts the destruction of 67 sq ft of rainforest
      Avoid the production of carbon dioxide. Your average car produces 3
      kg/day of CO2. To clear rainforest to produce beef for one hamburger
      produces 75 kilograms of CO2. Eating one lb of hamburger does the
      same damage as driving your car for over 3 weeks.
      Reduces the amount of methane gas produced. I imagine the next
      bumper sticker: stop farts, don't eat beef.
      Reduces the destruction of wildlife habitat
      Help to save endangered species.
      That's a pretty good day's work, for just what you don't put in your


      This is a transcript of the Earth Day talk that was given for the
      Baltimore chapter of EarthSave International by Steve Boyan Ph.D., a
      recently retired political science professor at University of
      Maryland, Baltimore County. He has published two books on
      environmental issues, and may be available to speak for other
      groups. His email address is boyan@....
      Drought in West and Southeast spreads to Mid-Atlantic

      WASHINGTON (AP) -- Confirming what many farmers, boaters and others
      already knew, the government reported Tuesday that the drought
      parching much of the West and Southeast spread into the Mid-Atlantic
      area in September.
      Water levels at Lake Carter, about 90 miles north of Atlanta,
      Georgia, are at record lows.
      At the end of September about 43 percent of the contiguous United
      States was in moderate to extreme drought, the National Climate Data
      Center said Tuesday.
      Worldwide, meanwhile, the agency said the year to date has been the
      warmest on record for land. It has been the seventh warmest year so
      far over the oceans, working out to the fourth warmest overall
      But drought is probably the greatest concern in many parts of the
      country and the year to date has been the driest on record for
      Tennessee and North Carolina.
      The eastern seaboard from Maine to the Carolinas and across parts of
      Florida was unusually dry in September, NCDC said.
      And the September dryness extended across the Ohio Valley and into
      the southern Great Lakes.
      The agency, a division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric
      Administration, said drier-than-normal weather was also experienced
      in September across parts of the Pacific Northwest and northern
      Drought-related conditions included:
      --As of September 25, Pasadena, California, experienced its driest
      year since records began in 1878. Many California communities
      imposed water use restrictions.
      --The Great Lakes, which together make up about 20 percent of the
      world's fresh surface water, have been in decline since the late
      1990s. Lakes Huron and Michigan were about two feet below their long-
      term average levels, while Lake Superior was about 20 inches off,
      Lake Ontario 7 inches below and Lake Erie a few inches down.
      --Maryland and Pennsylvania had about half of their counties under a
      drought watch. Many areas in upstate New York reported record low
      reservoir levels and dried-up wells and farm ponds.
      --Alabama Power, the state's largest utility, has been operating
      some of its coal plants at significantly reduced levels to avoid
      raising water temperatures in the Coosa, Black Warrior and Mobile
      --The Tennessee Valley Authority shut down Browns Ferry Unit II
      nuclear power plant due to inadequate stream flow.
      --At the end of September, the Georgia Environmental Protection
      Division declared a level four drought response across the northern
      third of the state, which prohibits most types of outdoor
      residential water use. Watch drought conditions in Georgia »
      The report said that while September was only the eighth warmest
      month on record for the United States, it was still hot enough to
      break 1,000 daily high records across the country.
      With the worldwide warming, the extent of Arctic Sea ice reached its
      lowest amount in September since satellite measurements began in
      1979, shattering the previous record low set in 2005
      News Flash: Long Term Drought Drying Up Large Parts of USA - Atlanta
      has 3 Months of Water Left
      September 12, 2007 — The June-August 2007 summer season ended with a
      long-lasting heatwave that set more than 2,000 new daily high
      temperature records across the southern and central U.S., according
      to scientists at NOAA's National Climatic Data Center in Asheville,
      N.C. The record heat helped make this the second warmest August and
      the sixth warmest summer on record for the contiguous U.S., based on
      preliminary data. At the end of August, drought affected almost half
      of the continental U.S. The global surface temperature was seventh
      warmest on record for the June-August period. (Click NOAA image for
      larger view of the August 2007 statewide temperature rankings.
      Please credit "NOAA.")
      U.S. Temperature Highlights for Summer
      For summer 2007 (June-August), the average temperature for the
      continental U.S., based on preliminary data, was 73.8 degrees F
      (23.2 degrees C), which was 1.7 degrees F (1.0 degrees C) above the
      20th century mean and the sixth warmest summer since national
      records began in 1895.
      This was the warmest summer for Utah and Nevada and it ranked in the
      top 10 warmest summers on record for 11 other states. Alaska had its
      fourth warmest summer on record. Only Texas and Oklahoma were cooler
      than average.
      The much warmer-than-average conditions in the Southeast and
      throughout the West contributed to above average residential energy
      demand for the nation. Using the Residential Energy Demand
      Temperature Index (REDTI - an index developed at NOAA to relate
      energy usage to climate), the nation's residential energy demand was
      approximately 8 percent higher than what would have occurred under
      average climate conditions for the season.
      U.S. Temperature Highlights for August
      For the contiguous U.S., the average temperature for August was 75.4
      degrees F (24.1 degrees C), which was 2.7 degrees F (1.5 degrees C)
      above the 20th century mean and the second warmest August on record,
      based on preliminary data.
      A severe heatwave persisted throughout much of the month across
      southern and central parts of the nation. More than 30 all-time high
      temperature records were tied or broken and more than 2,000 new
      daily high temperature records were established.
      Raleigh-Durham, N.C., equaled its all-time high of 105 degrees F
      Aug. 21. Columbia, S.C., had 14 days in August with temperatures
      over 100 degrees F, which broke the record of 12 set in 1900.
      Cincinnati, Ohio, reached 100 degrees F five days during August, a
      new record for the city.
      This was the warmest August in the 113-year record for West
      Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, the Carolinas, Georgia, Alabama,
      Florida and Utah. For the Southeast, the length, severity and area
      of the heat wave led to comparisons with events in 1983 and 1954.
      U.S. Precipitation Highlights for Summer
      Overall, the summer was drier than average for the nation. Rainfall
      was below average in the Southeast, mid-Atlantic, Ohio Valley, the
      northern Plains and Northern Rockies. (Click NOAA image for larger
      view of the June-August 2007 statewide precipitation rankings.
      Please credit "NOAA.")
      Texas had its wettest summer on record and Oklahoma its fourth
      wettest. The unusually wet period was punctuated by heavy and
      persistent rains in June and July that produced devastating flooding
      in the region. In the Southeast, this was the driest summer since
      records began in 1895 for North Carolina and the second driest for
      A hot and dry July in the Northern Rockies contributed to a fast
      start to the wildfire season, and August remained very active as
      warmer and drier-than-average conditions persisted in many areas. By
      early September, more than 7 million acres had burned across the
      nation, most of it in the western U.S.
      U.S. Precipitation Highlights for AugustNews Flash: Long Term
      Drought Drying Up Large Parts of USA - Atlanta has 3 Months of Water

      The record warmth and below-average rainfall in August led to an
      expansion of drought in the Southeast and parts of the mid-Atlantic
      and Ohio Valley. At the end of August, drought affected
      approximately 83 percent of the Southeast and 46 percent of the
      contiguous U.S., according to the federal U.S. Drought Monitor.
      (Click NOAA image for larger view of the U.S. Drought Monitor.
      Please credit "NOAA.")
      Severe drought persisted throughout much of the West and an area
      that stretched from northern Minnesota to the Upper Peninsula of
      Part of the Midwest received record precipitation in August, as a
      persistent frontal system provided a focus for heavy rain and
      thunderstorms. Precipitation was two to three times normal for the
      month in a wide band across the central Midwest, and major flooding
      occurred in parts of a region that stretched from southeastern
      Minnesota to central Ohio. Iowa had its wettest August on record.
      Tropical Storm Erin made landfall near Lamar, Texas, Aug. 16,
      bringing heavy rains to areas already much wetter than normal for
      the year. Widespread flooding ensued in southern Texas and Oklahoma.
      Global Highlights
      The combined global land and ocean surface temperature for August
      was the eighth warmest on record, 0.85 degrees F/0.47 degrees C
      above the 20th century mean. The global surface temperature for June-
      August (Northern Hemisphere summer) was the seventh warmest since
      records began in 1880.
      Separately, the global land-surface temperature was the third
      warmest for August and the fifth warmest for boreal summer. The
      August ocean-surface temperature was the ninth warmest in the 128-
      year period of record as cooler-than-average conditions in the
      central and eastern equatorial Pacific indicated the ongoing
      development of a La Niña episode.
      Hurricane Dean, the first major hurricane of the Atlantic hurricane
      season made landfall as a category 5 storm near Costa Maya, Mexico
      Aug. 21. This was the first Atlantic Basin hurricane to make
      landfall as a category 5 storm since Hurricane Andrew struck Florida
      in August 1992.
      Heavy monsoon-related rainfall that began in June continued to
      affect parts of South Asia in August. Millions of people were
      affected by flooding and thousands of flood-related deaths were
      NOAA, an agency of the U.S. Commerce Department, is celebrating 200
      years of science and service to the nation. From the establishment
      of the Survey of the Coast in 1807 by Thomas Jefferson to the
      formation of the Weather Bureau and the Commission of Fish and
      Fisheries in the 1870s, much of America's scientific heritage is
      rooted in NOAA.

      NOAA is dedicated to enhancing economic security and national safety
      through the prediction and research of weather and climate-related
      events and information service delivery for transportation, and by
      providing environmental stewardship of our nation's coastal and
      marine resources. Through the emerging Global Earth Observation
      System of Systems (GEOSS), NOAA is working with its federal
      partners, more than 60 countries and the European Commission to
      develop a global monitoring network that is as integrated as the
      planet it observes, predicts and protects.
      Note to Editors: August and June-August 2007 data, graphics and
      analysis, are online at:
      Relevant Web Sites
      August 2007 Data, Graphics and Analysis
      U.S. National Overview - August 2007
      Media Contact:
      John Leslie, NOAA Satellite and Information Service, (301) 713-1265

      What is water? H two O hydrogen and oxygen.
      Guess what the vast numbers of animals that would not exist without
      the demand for animal based foods consume? You guessed right if you
      oxygen. (among other things). Guess what they produce? You guessed
      right if you said carbon dioxide. (among other things). Yes, just
      like people animals
      consume oxygen and produce carbon dioxide.

      We need that oxygen to breathe and we also need that oxygen to make
      Less oxygen means less water. The more animals humans raise to
      satisfy the demand for an animal based diet the less oxygen there is
      to breathe and the less oxygen there is to create water. Water is
      hydrogen and oxygen.

      The United Nations FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization's study on
      this subject makes the message clear.
      "Meat Contributes to Climate Change, UN Study Confirms
      by Megan Tady
      Dec. 7, 2006 – The typical American diet adds significantly to
      pollution, water scarcity, land degradation and climate change,
      according to a United Nations report released last week.
      Written by the UN's Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO),the
      report is the latest research linking meat-eating with environmental
      destruction. According to the FAO, the arm of the UN that works on
      worldwide hunger-defeating initiatives, animal farming presents
      a "major threat to the environment" with such "deep and wide-
      ranging" impacts that it should rank as a leading focus for
      environmental policy.
      The report calls the livestock sector a "major player" in affecting
      climate change through greenhouse-gas production. The FAO found that
      the ranching and slaughter of cows and other animals generates an
      estimated 18 percent of total human-induced greenhouse-gas emissions
      Greenhouse gases – such as methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous
      oxide – are linked to global warming.
      Livestock emit methane and other greenhouse gasses through excrement
      and belching. The FAO estimates that cow manure and flatulence
      generate 30 to 40 percent of total methane emissions from human-
      influenced activities.
      As demand for meat grows, the report explains, so does the need for
      pasture and cropland, making deforestation an additional concern;
      currently, according to the report, the livestock sector occupies 30
      percent of ice-free land on the planet. Extensive grazing also takes
      a toll on arable land.
      The livestock sector also contributes to water depletion; currently,
      the livestock sector accounts for 8 percent of human water use
      globally. Animal wastes, antibiotics and hormones, as well as
      chemicals from tanneries and pesticides from feed crops, also
      contaminate water supplies.
      Henning Steinfeld, an author of the report, said in a press
      statement that "urgent action is required to remedy the situation."
      While the report gives a global picture of meat production,
      sustainable-food advocates say the US is leading the world in
      harmful meat-eating habits and industry practices.
      From 2000 to 2002, consumers in the United States ate on average
      approximately 38.5 million tons of meat per year, second only to
      China, according to the FAO analysis. In those same years, the
      United Kingdom consumed nearly 5 million tons of meat each year,
      Brazil nearly 15.5 million tons and Uganda 308,647 tons.
      North America had one of the highest methane emissions from
      livestock manure management in the world in 2004, according to the
      report. Methane is more readily produced when manure is managed in a
      liquid form, such as in holding tanks or lagoons commonly used in
      North America.
      Additionally, the US is a leader in CO2 emissions from the burning
      of fossil fuels in the manufacture of nitrogen fertilizer used to
      grow food for livestock....

      Dawn Moncrief, director of ... a national food-education
      organization, said that not only are US consumers harming the
      environment through their appetite for meat, but American food
      choices are being exported to other countries.
      "[The US sets] the example, which a lot of the world is trying to
      follow," Moncrief told TNS. "[Meat consumption is] partly being
      exported by our corporate interests who are pushing it as a
      lifestyle because they're making money in it."

      Often serving as a status symbol, meat is becoming a staple in diets
      of countries that, prior to industrialization and Western cultural
      influence, ate far fewer animal products.
      According to FAO, world meat production is expected to double by
      In March 2006, the Department of Geophysical Sciences at the
      University of Chicago released a study that compared the differences
      in greenhouse-gas emissions caused by various plant- and meat-based

      Researchers found that the difference between a red-meat diet and a
      vegan diet – in terms of greenhouse-gas emissions – equaled the
      difference between driving a sedan and driving a sport-utility

      "These results clearly demonstrate the primary effect of one's
      dietary choices on one's planetary footprint, an effect comparable
      in magnitude to the car one chooses to drive," the report concluded.

      Despite such alarming findings, the FAO report stopped short of
      suggesting more people adopt plant-based diets; instead it advocated
      for technological solutions and changes in farming policies.
      "It's not like [the UN is] going to advocate a vegan diet, but they
      could say, 'A plant-based diet would get you [closer to
      sustainability]," Moncreif said.
      Among the remedies, the UN suggested investing technology that
      already exists, including soil-conservation methods, feeding methods
      that reduce livestock's gas emissions, and improved irrigation and
      manure management systems.

      Adopting these changes "with a sense of urgency," wrote the FAO,
      can "make a very significant contribution to reducing and reversing
      environmental damage."
      The report also noted the economic importance of the livestock
      sector to global populations; work with livestock contributes 40
      percent of global agriculture Gross Domestic Product and employs 1.3
      billion people worldwide.

      But Moncrief said simply altering agriculture practices without
      changing consumers' food consciousness and habits will not lead to
      true sustainability, in terms of either environmental health or
      feeding the growing population.

      "They talk about the problems, but then they refuse to advocate a
      reduction of meat as part of the solution," Moncrief said. "We just
      think we're going to be able to outsmart our way out of this."
      Moncrief said educating consumers about their food choices is

      "We need to get organizations who are working on food-policy issues,
      like the UN and the USDA, to at least come out and say, 'Here are
      the health benefits, here are the environmental benefits'" to
      reducing meat consumption, Moncrief said. "If we could get these
      governmental and quasi-governmental agencies to come out and say it,
      that would be a good first step."

      Gidon Eshel, assistant professor of physical oceanography and
      climate and co-author of the University of Chicago report, echoed
      Moncrief's concern.
      Eshel told TNS: "It is probably not a bad idea to suggest
      unambiguously that if more people used less animal products in their
      diet than they do today, we [would] be able to sustain a larger
      number of people on earth for an indefinite period of time, or
      afford those who are here a better lifestyle."

      Vegan Animal Rights Environmental Feminist World Hunger Activism

      is really very simple. Get the average person to stop eating animals
      and animal products and you can produce a world in which vast
      numbers of animals are no longer created to satsify the demand for
      animal centered diets. You can help to save the environment, help
      to expand their consciousness about oppression as they end their
      of animals for food they may end their oppressions of one another
      and help to create
      a world in which men and women are equals and food is grown for
      not for so called-food animals.

      You can even cut the funding to petroleum exporting state sponsors of
      terror by eliminating high energy requiring animal centered diets.

      By doing so you can stop those who seek to reverse the progress earth
      has made in attaining women's rights as it is those same petroleum
      state sponsors of terror who seek to see women confined to their
      homes as they were under the Taliban, with so-called "morality
      in the streets whipping any unescorted women they found outside
      their homes.

      You can emulate PETA's alleged takeover of an old anti-vivisection
      by joining environmental and other groups and turning them into
      vegan advocacy

      is the url for
      Cool Cities Across America
      All over America, communities are taking action to help solve global
      warming. From hybrid vehicle fleets in Charlotte, to green buildings
      in Austin, and homes powered with renewable energy in Seattle, local
      governments are moving forward with innovative energy solutions that
      curb global warming, save taxpayer dollars, and create healthier
      cities. At a time when the federal government is failing to act,
      these local leaders are moving America toward a safer and more
      secure future.
      So what is a Cool City? These are cities that have made a commitment
      to stopping global warming by signing the U.S. Mayor's Climate
      Protection Agreement. The Cool Cities campaign helps cities turn
      their commitments into action by pushing for smart energy solutions.
      To find out whether you live in a Cool City, click on your state or
      search by your city. To get involved with a Cool Cities campaign in
      your city, network with citizens taking action nationwide, and gain
      access to campaign resources you can click on the following url:

      I hope that everyone who can will get involved with that campaign.
      Imagine a world in which Cool Cities pledged not to buy animal
      with their city budgets. Imagine a world in which Cool Cities
      taught their citizens, including their school children how to become
      and why they should become vegans and stopped feeding animal products
      to their citizens including their school children.

      You can help to make that happen if you get involved and talk to and
      write and call your local city and town and village officials.

      Imagine the impact vegans and animal rights people
      could have if they packed every one of the upcoming live
      earth parties and turned them into discussion groups
      on how veganism can help to stop global warming and more.


      Did you know that to get the amount of energy your body will receive
      a can of corn requires about 77 calories of energy input. To get the
      amount of energy for your body from steak would require about 21,000
      of energy input.

      Every penny you put into the hands of certain petroleum exporting
      whose names are known to everyone puts more arms, including weapons
      of mass destruction they seek to build, buy, or steal, in the hands
      those nations and the terrorist gangs they support whose members
      seek to destroy America, Israel, and the rest of the civilized world.

      You can fight back against terrorism and the state sponsors of
      that gain their revenues from exporting petroleum by eating directly
      rather than through animals.

      Frances Moore Lappe's classic 1970s era book: DIET FOR A SMALL PLANET
      told us all that it takes on average about 8 to 10 pounds of protein
      input fed to animals to get one pound of animal protein on the plate.
      If you are talking about steak it takes 21 pounds of protein fed to
      animals to get 1 pound of steak protein on the plate.

      86% of corn, oats and barley, 90% of non-exported soybeans
      grown in America have for decades been fed to animals rather
      than grown for and fed to human beings.

      Whether you support the struggle against world hunger or the
      struggle against
      petroleum exporting state sponsors of terrorism eating low on the
      chain helps to make it possible to feed human beings directly and
      helps take money out of the hands of petroleum exporting state
      sponsors of terror.

      Vast numbers of so called "food animals" are raised to satsify demand
      for animals as food. All of those so-called "food animals" compete
      humans for land, food, water and oxygen.

      The very air we breathe is at stake, as is our planet and all of the
      life on it.
      So called "food animals" all produce carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide,
      methane, and other
      deadly greenhouse gases, contributing to global warming and the
      Greenhouse Effect.

      Massive California Fires Consistent With Climate Change, Experts Say
      The catastrophic fires that are sweeping Southern California are
      consistent with what climate change models have been predicting for
      years, experts say, and they may be just a prelude to many more such
      events in the future
      "This is exactly what we've been projecting to happen, both in short-
      term fire forecasts for this year and the longer term patterns that
      can be linked to global climate change," said Ronald Neilson, a
      professor at Oregon State University and bioclimatologist with the
      USDA Forest Service.
      "You can't look at one event such as this and say with certainty
      that it was caused by a changing climate," said Neilson, who was
      also a contributor to publications of the Intergovernmental Panel on
      Climate Change, a co-recipient earlier this month of the 2007 Nobel
      Peace Prize.
      "But things just like this are consistent with what the latest
      modeling shows," Neilson said, "and may be another piece of evidence
      that climate change is a reality, one with serious effects."
      "In the future, catastrophic fires such as those going on now in
      California may simply be a normal part of the landscape," said
      Fire forecast models developed by Neilson's research group at OSU
      and the Forest Service rely on several global climate models. When
      combined, they accurately predicted both the Southern California
      fires that are happening and the drought that has recently hit parts
      of the Southeast, including Georgia and Florida, causing crippling
      water shortages.

      Research Indicates No Relief For Drought, Fire Concerns

      CORVALLIS – It does not appear there will be any major relief this
      spring or summer from the unusually dry weather that has recently
      hit the Pacific Northwest, according to new projections of drought
      severity and fire risk that are based on "general circulation"
      models that forecast global climate.
      The analysis, which was developed by researchers at the U.S.D.A.
      Forest Service and Oregon State University, also shows that the
      northwestern part of the country will face forest and rangeland
      fires this year that could be unusually severe and generally the
      worst of any area in the nation.drought severity and associated fire
      risks in southern Florida, Maine and southeastern Arizona. And there
      is a major problem of historic proportions developing in a six-state
      region that includes Oregon, Washington, northern California, Idaho,
      Montana and Wyoming.
      "We project that the drought severity the northwestern states are
      now experiencing will only get worse in coming months, and reach
      levels that were generally seen during the Dust Bowl of the 1930s,"
      said Ronald Neilson, a bioclimatologist with the U.S. Forest Service
      and professor of botany at OSU.
      The latest consensus forecast for fire risk this spring and summer
      indicate huge forest and rangeland fire outbreaks in northeastern
      Oregon and southeastern Washington, and more isolated but severe
      fire potential in forests near Eugene, Roseburg, Bend and the
      Portland area in Oregon.
      Other severe fires are forecast for parts of southwestern Idaho and
      parts of Montana.
      Unlike short-term weather forecasts, these projections are
      ultimately based on long-term, global climate models and a "general
      vegetation model" created by researchers from the Forest Service and
      OSU, including the work of associate professor of geosciences Chris
      Daly and the OSU Spatial Climate Analysis Service.
      These systems have simulated drought and fire in the American West,
      for instance, fairly accurately backwards in time to 1895, and can
      also be used to make both near-term and longer projections into the
      future. They are constantly updated, and now include the latest
      actual weather information through the end of last January.
      In terms of the current projections for a tier of states in the
      northwestern U.S., it appears the situation is going to go from bad
      to worse. It bears some similarity to conditions last seen in 2001.
      "We use five different global climate models as the underlying basis
      for our projections, and they are all showing the same thing,"
      Neilson said. "It is going to become extremely dry in many parts of
      the Pacific Northwest and northern Rocky Mountain states, and the
      fire risk is going to be significantly higher than normal. There is
      nothing to indicate a wet spring."
      Fire is one obvious implication, the researchers said, but stream
      flows, fisheries, agriculture, recreation and industry may all be

      To get a pound of steak protein on your plate 21 pounds of feed
      grain protein: corn, oats, barley, soy, wheat, etc. etc. etc. are
      used to fatten that castrated bull called a steer that you eat.

      On average it takes about 8 to 10 pounds of feed protein fed to so
      called food animals to get 1 pound of animal protein on your plate.

      Lots of that is very high energy intensive production using lots of
      petroleum based fertilizers, pesticides,herbicides, etc. Not to
      mention vast quantities of water used by the animals and used to
      irrigate the crops fed to animals. The USA feeds almost all of the
      the soybeans corn oats and barley it grows to animals rather than to
      hungry people.

      Food animals are competitors with humans for oxygen, water, land,
      energy, and life itself.

      40% of the world's oxygen is produced by the tiny plant plankton
      called phytoplantkon in the oceans.
      These phytoplantkton live with krill, a fish plankton,in a very
      fragile ecosystem. These days krill are being used as animal feed
      and pet food.
      As the krill vanish so will the phytoplankton that produce 40% of
      earth's oxygen.

      The phytoplankton are also jeapordized by increased solar
      ultraviolet radiation breaking through the holes in the ozone layer
      above the poles.

      It is estimated that there will be no more fish in the seas by the
      middle of this century c.e.

      Those who want to save energy should consider this, it takes about
      77 calories of energy input to get the food energy a CAN of corn
      will give you. That same amount of food energy from steak would
      require 21,000 calories of energy input.

      If anyone knows how to reach Al Gore, or any other enviornmentally
      concerned people, be they Presidential candidates, or not, please
      reach out to them about how important it is to stop eating animals
      and animal products if they really want to to consistent about being
      advocates for our environment and the survival of life on our
      fragile small planet.

      In fact Frances Moore Lappe's 1970s book, DIET FOR A SMALL PLANET,
      ought to be required reading for every environmentalist and
      Presidential candidate. If you can get hold of it, or other pro-
      vegetarian material send it to every enviornmentalist and
      Presidential candidate you can think of, from Al Gore on down or up
      as the case may be. Please help to bring these truths
      to Al Gore and others who have so far refused to come to terms
      with them by taking action and becoming vegans.

      we are trying to create a veggie world.
      That means of course getting more people to become aware of the need
      to go veggie.
      And what about the veggies who are out there already?

      Well I want to tell you a personal story about that. My late father
      was a veggie when he was younger, but he married a carnivore. As a
      result I was raised as a carnivore, though I can recall my late
      father eating vegetable plates at diners we would go to so he could
      get them and eating vegetarian Chinese food at Chinese restuarants
      we would go to so he could get that food. At long last he finally
      gave up and ended his vegetarianism.

      Though he lived to what some consider to be "a ripe old age" I am
      convinced that had he remained a veggie he would still be alive. He
      has been dead for some years now.

      What all of that means of course is that we need to make sure that
      veggies marry veggies and that they raise their children as veggies.

      So the need for single veggie organizations is enormous.

      Subscribe: NJSingleVegetarians-subscribe@yahoogroups.com

      It was certainly good fortune that I became a veggie myself quite
      awhile ago but many children of these so-called " veg/carnivore"
      or "mixed-marriages" are not quite so lucky and end up as non-

      I am also of course promoting the veggie way of life to others who
      are not yet veggies.

      One key group to promote the veggie way of life to is science
      fiction fans. Why science fiction fans? Well because some science
      fiction fans actually become science fiction writers.

      Why science fiction writers then? Well because the way of life that
      we take for granted here in the so-called "first world", of
      industrialized nations is a way of life that not so long ago
      was considered to be science fiction. It was a science fiction
      writer: Arthur C. Clarke, who
      came up with the idea of communications satellites as a science
      fiction idea.

      Well they are fiction no more. Nor are communications devices that
      do not require wires.
      Remember the "communicators" on StarTrek? Chances are you have a
      cell phone in your pocket or in your car, or if you don't you know
      more than one person who does.

      Once again, fiction no more. Fact.

      The science fiction fan of today is the science fiction writer of

      The science fiction story or idea of today is the fact of tomorrow,
      just as yesterday's science fiction stories and ideas are the facts
      of today.

      Another place I am helping to promote the veggie way of life is in
      the Jewish community.
      I happen to be Jewish and would want nothing but the best way of
      life there is for my fellow Jews. Eating animals is not only not
      good for the animals who are murdered for food, it is not good for
      the humans who eat them.

      Being veggie is also very much in the interests of the Jewish
      community around the world.
      Producing a pound of steak "protein" on the plate requires up to 21
      pounds of so-called
      "feed" protein from things like the 42% of American wheat
      production, the 86% of American corn, oats and barley production,
      the 90% of non-exported soybean production, that goes into the
      creation of that pound of steak "protein" on the plate of the
      American animal eater.

      Producing all of that so-called "feed" requires a lot of energy.
      More energy is used
      as petro-chemical based fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, etc.
      as well as in the transportation of that so-called "feed", and of
      the animals themselves, in the disposal of their wastes, in the
      movement of water to irrigate those crops and to "water" those

      Many of the energy sources involved are nations around the world
      that supply arms to terrorists who slaughter Jews in Israel and
      around the world, as well as other innocents, such as those who were
      slaughtered on September 11th. 2001.

      So I am promoting Jewish singles events at veggie establishments to
      bring the fact of being able to have a veggie meal as a reality to
      my fellow Jews.

      I do so periodically at Veggie Heaven, a Kosher Vegan Chinese
      Restaurant with several locations here in New Jersey. I hope that
      similar restaurants exist elsewhere that may serve as event
      locations. Failing that I hope that vegan house parties can be
      arranged everywhere.

      If you are Jewish yourself I hope that you will do the same wherever
      you may be.
      If you are able to come to some of these events I hope that you will
      do so.

      If you live to far away to get to them by all means create them.
      Create them for your fellow Jews if you are Jewish.

      Create them for your fellow veggies if you are veggie.

      Create them for science fiction fans if you want to see science
      fiction fans become veggie and science fiction ideas created by
      veggie science fiction writers, all of whom start off as science
      fiction fans creating the new facts of life on earth as ones which
      will make it possible for a veggie world to in fact come into being.

      Will you help in these effforts?

      Jewish Singles And Other Events

      There is never any charge for any of our events. When we go to
      a restaurant you pay the restaurant directly for your meal plus tax
      and tip.You never pay us.

      You are invited to this event in this special series of Jewish
      Singles lunches and dinners in New Jersey We would like to invite
      you to this event
      in this series of upcoming Jewish Singles lunches and dinners in New
      for Jewish Single Men born between April 12th, 1945 and January 20th,
      1953 and Jewish Single Women born between January 20th, 1953 and
      20th, 1961

      At Jerusalem Restaurant (this is a cafeteria) in Livingston, New
      Jersey on Tuesday Evening October 30th, 2007 c.e. at 6:30 p.m. You
      do not need a reservation to attend. Just show up.

      Are you A Jewish Single Man born between April 12th, 1945 and January
      20th, 1953?

      If so you were born during the Presidential Administration of Harry
      S.Truman. You are a Jewish Single Truman Man

      Are you A Jewish Single Woman born between January 20th, 1953 and
      January 20th, 1961? If so you were born during the Presidential
      Administration of Dwight
      David Eisenhower. You are a Jewish Single Eisenhower Woman.

      If you are a Jewish Single Truman Man or a Jewish Single Eisenhower
      Woman we would like to invite you to a series of upcoming Jewish
      Singles lunches and dinners in New Jersey for Jewish Single Men born
      April 12th, 1945 and January 20th, 1953 and Jewish Single Women born
      between January 20th, 1953 and January 20th, 1961.

      When we go to restaurants you pay only for what you order
      plus tax and tip. You never pay us anything. You pay the restaurant
      directly. You do not have to be a member
      of any of our Yahoo Groups to attend any of our events. If you do
      join our Yahoo Groups there is no charge to join them and no charge
      to belong to them.

      At Jerusalem Restaurant (this is a cafeteria) in Livingston, New
      Jersey on Tuesday Evening October 30th, 2007 c.e. at 6:30 p.m. You
      do not need a reservation to attend. Just show up.

      You are invited to this event in this series of upcoming Jewish
      Singles lunches and dinners in New Jersey for Jewish Single Men born
      April 12th, 1945 and January 20th, 1953 and Jewish Single Women born
      between January 20th, 1953 and January 20th, 1961

      At Jerusalem Restaurant (this is a cafeteria) in Livingston, New
      Jersey on Tuesday Evening October 30th, 2007 c.e. at 6:30 p.m. You
      do not need a reservation to attend. Just show up.

      Reservations are not needed for this event.
      Please just try to show up on time for it. As Woody Allen
      is quoted as saying: "Half of success in life is just
      showing up on time.", or words to that effect.

      We do not charge anything for any of our events. You pay only
      for what you order when we go to a restaurant. You pay
      the restaurant directly. You do not pay us anything ever.

      The restaurant describes itself as serving "Contemporary Vegetarian
      The restaurant is Shomer Shabbos and the original was
      established in 1974. It is under the supervision of Orthodox
      Rabbis of Metro West. We provide the information as garnered from the
      restaurants we go to, concerning the Kashrut, or lack of same, at
      each restaurant. We are not affiliated with any of the restaurants.

      Please join us at Jerusalem Restaurant (this is a cafeteria) in
      Livingston, New Jersey on Tuesday Evening October 30th, 2007 c.e. at
      6:30 p.m. You do not need a reservation to
      attend. Just show up.

      Jerusalem Restaurant is located at 99 West Mount Pleasant
      Avenue (also known as Route 10) in Livingston NJ, 07039

      The telephone number of the restaurant, in case you get lost is 973

      Please join us at Jerusalem Restaurant (this is a cafeteria) in
      Livingston, New Jersey on Tuesday Evening October 30th, 2007 c.e. at
      6:30 p.m.

      The menu includes Vegetarian Falafel, Chumus,
      salads,pasta,vegetarian (soy)stuffed pepper, stuffed cabbage,
      vegetarian meatballs,vegetarian
      chili,vegetarian cholent, soups, sandwiches, on pitas, Again, this
      is a cafeteria, pay only for what you order plus tax.

      Please join us at Jerusalem Restaurant (this is a cafeteria) in
      Livingston, New Jersey on Tuesday Evening October 30th, 2007 c.e. at
      6:30 p.m. You do not need a reservation to
      attend. Just show up.

      Directions to Jerusalem Restaurant (cafeteria) are as follows:

      From the Garden State Parkway North or South, take Exit 145

      to Route 280 WEST

      to Exit 5A Livingston South,

      go a little over a mile to the 2nd light.

      Make a right at the 2nd light onto Mount Pleasant Avenue (also known
      as Route

      go almost 3 tenths of a mile,

      the restaurant is located just past the VFW,

      make a left into the Jerusalem Restaurant parking lot.

      Go into the cafeteria, get your food, and find us at one or more of
      the tables in the cafeteria Note: if you are coming from the WEST
      take Route 280 EAST to Exit 5A Livingston South

      and follow the directions above. If you are taking Route 287 North
      or South take Route 287 to Route 80 East

      then take Route 280 Eastbound to Exit 5A Livingston South and follow
      the directions above.

      at Jerusalem Restaurant (cafeteria) 99 West Mount Pleasant
      Avenue (also known as Route 10) in Livingston NJ, 07039

      If anyone is interested after the event above we have the option
      of going on to see a movie. We hope to find a movie from the movie
      section of the newspaper.

      If we can find one at a nearby theater we expect that anyone who
      wishes to go to it will do so.

      There are 2 nearby theaters:

      The first is: Loew's East Hanover 12
      145 State Route 10
      East Hanover NJ, 07936
      973-515-1200 973 515-1160

      When you leave the restaurant make a LEFT TURN onto Route 10 West
      go a few miles, you will see a Burger King on your left then
      a Ford Dealer then a Warnock Car Dealership all on your left,
      the movies are also on your left, however to get to them you will
      need to make a
      jughandle type turn, as the movies are on Route 10 Eastbound and you
      will be
      going on Route 10 Westbound from the restaurant. If you get to
      Novartis you have
      gone too far and need to turn around and take Route 10 eastbound to
      the movies.

      The next is: Essex Green Cinema
      495 Prospect Ave
      West Orange, NJ 07052-4100
      (973) 669-1977

      If we decide to go to a movie at the Essex Green Cinema
      we will make a RIGHT TURN when we leave the restaurant and proceed
      on Route 10 East we will be going well past the Livingston NJ Post
      Office and
      well past the Exxon gas station on the RIGHT. Continuing
      on Route 10 Eastbound we will eventually pass an Exxon gas station
      on the LEFT. We will continue to proceed on Route 10 East to the
      next traffic
      light, where we will make a LEFT turn onto
      Prospect Avenue in West Orange, New Jersey.

      We will then make a LEFT turn just past the Exxon and Sunoco gas
      stations (the gas stations will be on our RIGHT) but we will be
      making a LEFT turn into the Essex Green shopping center
      where we will find the movies quite easily.

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