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Visuddhimagga, Ch XVII, 277-279 and Tiika.

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  • Nina van Gorkom
    Visuddhimagga, Ch XVII, 277-279 Intro: Four kinds of defilements are classified as aasava: the canker of sense-desire, kaamaasava, the canker of clinging to
    Message 1 of 6 , Jul 7, 2008
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      Visuddhimagga, Ch XVII, 277-279

      Intro: Four kinds of defilements are classified as aasava: the
      canker of sense-desire, kaamaasava, the canker of clinging to
      rebirth, bhaavaasava, the canker of wrong view, di.t.thaasava and the
      canker of ignorance, avijjaasava.
      In the preceding section it was explained that the canker of sense-
      desire leads to sorrow. In the following sections, it is stated that
      the canker of wrong view, the canker of clinging to rebirth and the
      canker of ignorance lead to sorrow.
      ----------

      Text Vis. 277: And all these come about with the arising of the
      canker of views, according as it is said: 'In one who possesses [the
      view] "I am materiality", "my materiality", with the change and
      transformation of materiality there arise sorrow and lamentation,
      pain, grief and despair' (S.iii,3).

      -------

      N: The Tiika explains pariyu.t.thaayii: one who possesses the view,
      who is possessed by wrong view, is established in (ti.t.thati) wrong
      view.

      There are three levels of defilements: anusaya, the latent tendencies
      accumulated in the citta; they do not arise but they condition the
      arising of akusala citta. Pariyutthaana kilesa, medium defilements
      that arise with akusala citta. Viitikkama kilesa, transgressions,
      coarse defilements which motivate evil deeds.

      As to the quoted text, "I am materiality", "my materiality", this
      refers to personality belief, sakkayadi.t.thi, wrong view with regard
      to each of the five khandhas.

      ------

      Text Vis. 278: And as with the arising of the canker of views, so
      also with the
      arising of the canker of becoming, according as it is said: 'Then
      whatever deities there are, long-lived, beautiful, blissful, long-
      resident in grand palaces, when they hear the Perfect One's teaching
      of the Dhamma, they feel fear, anxiety and a sense of urgency' (S.iii,
      85), as in the case of deities harassed by the fear of death on
      seeing the five signs.43
      --------------------
      Note 43, taken from the Tiika: Their flowers wither, their clothes
      get dirty, sweat comes from their armpits, their bodies become
      unsightly, and they get restless (see MA.iv,170).
      --------
      N: They do not delight in the world of devas. The Tiika explains that
      when they have seen these signs, their strong clinging to becoming
      leads to strong sorrow.
      ----------
      Text Vis. 279. And as with the arising of the canker of becoming, so
      also with the canker of ignorance, according as it is said: 'The
      fool, bhikkhus,
      experiences pain and grief here and now in three ways' (M.iii,163).
      --------
      N: The fool: who is ignorant (avidvaa), the Tiika adds.
      The Vis. text refers to the Discourse on Fools and the Wise (M. III,
      129.) The fool has done wrongly through body, speech and mind. He has
      a threefold anguish: he hears people talking about his akusala, he
      has anguish when he sees that the King inflicts the most gruesome
      punishments on evildoers, and he has fear and remorse when he
      remembers his evil deeds at the time he is dying. The Tiika adds that
      kamma as cause is shown, and that at the time of dying, due to the
      kamma that is present, he suffers.
      --------
      Text Vis. Now these states come about with the arising of the
      cankers, and so when they are established, they establish the cankers
      which are the cause of
      ignorance. And when the cankers are established, ignorance is also
      established because it is present when its condition is present. This,
      in the first place, is how ignorance, etc., should be understood to be
      established by sorrow and so on.
      ---------
      N: As to, �they establish the cankers� (aasave saadhenti), sorrow
      etc. establish the cankers. The Tiika states: they make the cankers
      evident. Thus, they make clear that there are cankers.
      --------
      Conclusion:

      The first link of the Dependent Origination is ignorance and at the
      end of the teaching of the Dependent Origination it is stated:
      conditioned by birth, old age, death, sorrow, lamentation, pain,
      grief and despair come into being.
      In the preceding sections it has been explained that all the cankers
      lead to sorrow, grief, lamentation etc. Sorrow etc. establishes the
      cankers and the cankers are the cause of ignorance. The cycle of
      birth and death is like a vicious circle with ignorance as the first
      link and ending with sorrow that also establishes ignorance.
      The cankers or intoxicants are like liquor that has fermented, they
      are like poisonous drugs. They keep on flowing. The arahat has
      eradicated all the cankers. The sotaapanna has eradicated the canker
      of wrong view, that is the first canker to be eradicated. The
      Visuddhimagga text refers to personality belief which leads to
      sorrow. It is important not merely to think of the words �I am ruupa,
      ruupa is mine�, but to realize when personality belief arises. When
      seeing arises, we believe that we see, but its characteristic should
      be known so that it is realized as a conditioned dhamma. This is the
      only way eventually leading to the eradication of personality belief.

      *******
      Nina.

      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • LBIDD@webtv.net
      Hi Nina, Thanks for all your excellent work. I really enjoy reading these every week. One alternate reading on bhava asava would be desiring eternal
      Message 2 of 6 , Jul 7, 2008
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        Hi Nina,

        Thanks for all your excellent work. I really enjoy reading these every
        week.

        One alternate reading on "bhava asava" would be "desiring eternal
        existence" as in the Buddhist Dictionary, rather than clinging to
        rebirth, which seems to be pretty much a sure thing ;-))

        I always thought it had something to do with eternalism and nihilism,
        but apparently not.

        Larry
      • Nina van Gorkom
        Hi Larry, ... N: Bhavaasava can be accompanied by wrong view or without wrong view. When accompanied by wrong view one clings to eternity belief. Expositor (p.
        Message 3 of 6 , Jul 8, 2008
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          Hi Larry,
          Op 8-jul-2008, om 7:45 heeft LBIDD@... het volgende geschreven:

          > One alternate reading on "bhava asava" would be "desiring eternal
          > existence" as in the Buddhist Dictionary, rather than clinging to
          > rebirth, which seems to be pretty much a sure thing ;-))
          >
          > I always thought it had something to do with eternalism and nihilism,
          > but apparently not.
          --------
          N: Bhavaasava can be accompanied by wrong view or without wrong view.
          When accompanied by wrong view one clings to eternity belief.
          Expositor (p. 475): <lust coexistent with eternalistic view>

          Bhavaasava without wrong view, I quote from my Cetasikas:
          <The canker of desire for rebirth, bhavasava, is another one of the
          asavas. The Atthasalini (II, Book II, Chapter II, 370) explains that
          this "arises by way of aspiring to rebirth in rupa and Arupa forms of
          life". Even the anagami who has eradicated all clinging to sensuous
          objects, can still have clinging to rebirth which is the result of
          jhana, So long as there is attachment to any kind of rebirth one has
          to continue to be in the cycle of birth and death. >

          Under the classification of ta.nhaa we find: bhava ta.nhaa and
          vibhava ta.nhaa, and vibhava ta.nhaa is always wrong view,
          annihilation belief.
          Nina.




          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • LBIDD@webtv.net
          Hi Nina, Thanks for the clarification on bhava asava. So desire to keep living _isn t_ bhava asava? Larry
          Message 4 of 6 , Jul 8, 2008
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            Hi Nina,

            Thanks for the clarification on bhava asava. So desire to keep living
            _isn't_ bhava asava?

            Larry
          • Nina van Gorkom
            Hi Larry, ... N: It may be clinging to life, and this is actually desire for sense objects in the sensuous plane of existence. It may also be eternalism, and
            Message 5 of 6 , Jul 9, 2008
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              Hi Larry,
              Op 9-jul-2008, om 5:13 heeft LBIDD@... het volgende geschreven:
              >
              > Thanks for the clarification on bhava asava. So desire to keep living
              > _isn't_ bhava asava?
              -------
              N: It may be clinging to life, and this is actually desire for sense
              objects in the sensuous plane of existence.
              It may also be eternalism, and then there is wrong view: one may
              believe in an eternal soul that will go on existing, or one hopes
              that this is so. This is very common in the world.
              Nina.



              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • LBIDD@webtv.net
              Hi Nina, Nina: This is very common in the world. Larry: That s what I was looking for. Most of us aren t intoxicated with the idea of being reborn as a god.
              Message 6 of 6 , Jul 9, 2008
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                Hi Nina,

                Nina: "This is very common in the world."

                Larry: That's what I was looking for. Most of us aren't intoxicated with
                the idea of being reborn as a god. But we are still subject to bhava
                asava.

                Larry
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