Re: cetanaa, was: Not Hard to Accept
- Dear Scott and Howard,
I quote from my cetasikas, Ch 4:
The Atthasalini (I, Part , Chapter I, 111) states about cetana that
its characteristic is coordinating the associated dhammas (citta and
the other cetasikas) on the object and that its function is willing.
... There is no such thing as volition in the four planes of
existence without the characteristic of coordinating: all volition
has it. But the function of 'willing' is only in moral (kusala) and
immoral (akusala) states... It has directing as manifestation. It
arises directing associated states, like the chief disciple, the
chief carpenter. etc. who fulfil their own and others' duties....
The cetana which accompanies kusala citta and akusala citta has, in
addition to coordinating, another task to perform: 'willing' or
'activity of kamma' (1 Ayuhana which meana 'striving' or pursuing, is
translated in the English text of the Atthasalini as conation, and in
the english text of the Visuddhimagga as accumulation.). According to
the Atthasalini, as to activity in moral and immoral acts, cetana is
exceedingly energetic whereas the accompanying cetasikas play only a
restricted part. Cetana which accompanies kusala citta and akusala
citta coordinates the work of the other cetasikas it arises together
with and it 'wills' kusala or akusala, thus, it makes a "double
effort". The Atthasalini compares the double task of cetana to the
task of a landowner who directs the work of his labourers, looks
after them and also takes himself an equal share of the work. He
doubles his strength and doubles his effort. Even so volition doubles
its strength and its effort in moral and immoral acts. ..
The cetana which accompanies vipakacitta and kiriyacitta merely
coordinates the tasks of the other dhammas it accompanies, it does
not 'will' kusala or akusala and it does not motivate wholesome or
unwholesome deeds. For example, seeing-consciousness, which is
vipakacitta, the result of kamma, is accompanied by cetana and this
cetana is also vipaka. The cetana which accompanies seeing-
consciousness directs the tasks which the accompanying dhammas have
to fulfil with regard to visible object. It directs, for example,
phassa which contacts visible object, vedana which feels and sanna
which marks and remembers visible object.
Cetana which accompanies kusala citta or akusala citta has a
double task, it is 'exceedingly energetic'. Apart from coordinating
the other dhammas, it 'wills' kusala or akusala and when it has the
intensity to motivate a deed through body, speech or mind, it is
capable of producing the result of that deed later on. When we speak
about kusala kamma or akusala kamma we usually think of course of
action (kamma pathas) which can be performed through body, speech or
mind. However, we should remember that when we perform wholesome or
unwholesome deeds it is actually the wholesome or unwholesome
volition or intention which motivates the deed and this is the
activity of kamma which is accumulated and can produce its
appropriate result later on. Thus, akusala kamma and kusala kamma are
actually akusala cetana and kusala cetana.
Op 1-aug-2007, om 2:32 heeft Scott Duncan het volgende geschreven:
> Howard: "I know that the official Abhidhammic take on this is that[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
> cetana is a universal, but it does not seem to me that intention
> arises all the time. Not every state seems to me to carry the
> "impulsion" that I think of as cetana.
- Dear Nina and Scott
Thank you for your kind replies.
> N: "...First the Buddha asks Raahula what a mirror is for. Forbut
> reflection. The Dhamma is like a mirror. It is not just thinking,
> reflection with awareness..."Paccavekkhanattho
> Scott: In the Paa.li sutta, this is phrased:
> "...Ta.m kimma~n~nasi raahula kimatthiyo aadaasoti.
> bhanteti..."time. I
> Scott: Paccavekkhana is not just thinking, as you note. I see where
> it refers to a 'reviewing' or a going over something a second
> see how 'reflection' is given as one of the functions of pa~n~naAndrew: I am a little confused, too. Are thinking and reflection two
> I'm assuming that this too has to arise and cannot be directed. In
> Atthasaalinii it is said:
> "'Reflection,' or, in whom it arises it makes him think of
> impermanence - this is 'reflection.'"
different dhammas or the same dhamma but associated with different
sets of cetasikas?
The last quote above seems to suggest that reflection is citta with
vicara + vitakka and with anicca as object? So it couldn't be
satipatthana (as anicca isn't a dhamma).