correction Visuddhimagga Ch XIV, 176
- Hi Larry, Connie and all,
The first type of moha-muulacitta with doubt does not have determination nor
wish-to-do, chanda. I had omitted to mention this. The whole post follows
with this correction. Not too late for the archives?
Visuddhimagga Ch XIV, 176. Moha-muulacittas.
There are two types of cittas rooted in ignorance, moha-muula-cittas. They
have moha as their only root and they are accompanied by indifferent
feeling. They are:
1) accompanied by indifferent feeling, associated with doubt
2) accompanied by indifferent feeling, associated with restlessness
Restlessness or agitation, uddhacca, accompanies each akusala citta. But in
this case the second type of akusala citta rooted in delusion or ignorance
is called associated with restlessness in order to differentiate it from the
first type of moha-muulacitta. It has moha as its only root.
Text Vis.: 176. (32)-(33) As regards the two rooted in delusion, firstly:
[associated] with [the consciousness that is] associated with
uncertainty (32) are the eleven given in the texts as such thus:
contact (i), volition (ii), applied thought (iii), sustained thought
(iv), energy (vi), life (vii), (xlix) steadiness of consciousness,
consciencelessness (xxxvii), shamelessness (xxxviii), delusion (xl), (l)
The or-whatever-states are these two:
agitation (xlii), attention (xxx).
And these together total thirteen.
N: The Visuddhimagga deals first with the moha-muulacitta accompanied by
vicikicchaa, doubt or uncertainty. It is accompanied by the five universals
(cetasikas which accompany every citta) that are included in the khandha of
formations. These are: contact, volition, life faculty, concentration and
attention. Two universals, feeling and saññaa, which accompany every citta
are not reckoned here since they are not the khandha of formations.
As to concentration, this is denoted here as steadiness of consciousness,
citta.t.thiti, which is, as will be explained, weak concentration.
There are six particulars which accompany cittas of the four jaatis (kusala,
akusala, vipaaka and kiriya), but not every citta. They are: applied
thought, sustained thought, rapture (piiti, sometimes translated as
happiness), energy, wish-to-do (chanda) and determination.
Of these, only three types accompany the first type of moha-muulacitta,
because rapture and determination or decision and wish-to-do are excluded.
There is no piiti since the accompanying feeling is indifferent. When there
is doubt and wavering there cannot be determination, adhimokkha.
There are four akusala cetasikas that accompany every akusala citta: moha,
shamelessness, recklessness, and agitation, uddhacca.
Attention (a universal) and agitation are reckoned here as supplementary
factors, or what-ever cetasikas. The Visuddhimagga follows the enumeration
of the Dhammasa"nga.nii which does not mention all cetasikas concerned but
gives the abreviation of ³or what-ever².
Moreover, the first type of moha-muulacitta is accompanied by doubt and
it is accompanied by thirteen cetasikas in all.
In this case also the universals and particulars perform their functions in
an unwholesome way. All accompanying cetasikas are affected by moha,
ignorance, that does not see that doubt is akusala. There is no shame that
abhors doubt and no fear of the consequences of this way of akusala. There
is also agitation when there is doubt, there cannot be peace of mind.
The second type of moha-muulacitta is not accompanied by doubt, but it is
accompanied by the particular cetasika¹ determination which does not
accompany doubt. Therefore, this type of citta is also accompanied by