Cetasikas' study corner 209 - Zeal/chanda ( i)
- Dear Friends,
'Cetasikas' by Nina van Gorkom
Questions, comments and different views welcome;-)
[Ch.12 Zeal(chanda) contd]
Kusala chanda is a necessary factor for the development of the
eightfold Path. If there is no wish-to-do one does not develop it.
However, we do not have to try to have chanda, it arises because
of its own conditions together with the citta which develops the
We read in the Kindred Sayings (V, Mahå-vagga, XLV, Kindred
Sayings on the Way, Chapter IV, II, Restraint of Passion, §3) that
chanda is one of the factors which are forerunners of the arising
of the ariyan eightfold Path:
"Just as, monks, the dawn is the forerunner, the harbinger of the arising
of the sun, so possession of desire (chanda) is the forerunner, the
harbinger of the arising of the ariyan eightfold way.
Of a monk who is possessed of desire, monks, it may be expected
that he will cultivate the ariyan eightfold way, that he will make much
of the ariyan eightfold way "
When we develop kusala, chanda may be predominant; it may
have predominance over the accompanying dhammas. There are
four factors which can be predominant, but only one at a time
can be predominant. The four predominant factors (adhipatis)
are: chanda, viriya, citta (particular types of citta) and
investigation or reflection (vímaÿså, which is paññå cetasika)(1).
When these factors have been developed they become
the four Roads to Success (iddhipådas) leading to the attainment
of the supernormal powers (abhiññås). There are five
supernormal powers which are developed through jhåna (Vis.
Chapter XII). The sixth power, which is the extinction of all
defilements, is developed through vipassanå.
Chanda or one of the three other Roads to Success can be predominant in
the development of vipassanå (2).
1) See Dhammasangaùi §269, and Atthasåliní I, Part VII, 212,213. Citta can
be a predominant factor, but not all cittas; only the cittas which are
accompanied by at least two hetus and perform the function of javana can
be predominant. For example, lobha-múla-citta and kusala citta can be
predominant, since they are rooted in more than one hetu, but
moha-múla-citta cannot, since it is rooted only in moha. In the field of
kusala, when chanda, viriya or vimaÿsa are not predominant, there can be
firmness of kusala citta which is predominant.
2) The four Roads to Success are among the thirty seven factors
pertaining to enlightenment, bodhipakkhiya dhammas, Visuddhimagga XXII,
[Ch.12 Zeal(chanda) to be contd]
- Dear Group
Here is a useful post on what "volition means in the Dhamma. Of course it is different from what comfort-seekers sutting on cushions want it to mean:
I highlight one part: > "We should consider why we want to perform kusala kamma. Is
> our aim kusala vipaaka?"I think we are seeking pleasant vipaaka most of the time when we consider Dhamma, seeking comfort. (Even if we are not seeking pleasant mind states in a blatant way, through ritual cushion play.) We have to be honest about that.
Please enjoy the rest of the post.
>From 'Cetasikas' by Nina van Gorkom
> There is no self who can force citta to be kusala citta, but conditions
> can be cultivated so that kusala citta can arise more often. Important
> conditions for the arising of kusala citta with paññ are friendship with
> a person who has right understanding of the Dhamma and who can explain
> the Dhamma in the right way, listening to the teachings and
> studying them, and above all mindfulness of the reality which
> appears now.
> We should consider why we want to perform kusala kamma. Is
> our aim kusala vipåka? Kusala kamma produces kusala vipåka
> because this is the natural course of things, but if we want to
> perform kusala kamma in order to have a pleasant result, such as
> a happy rebirth, there is clinging. The aim of the Buddha's teachings
> is the eradication of defilements. Wholesome deeds will be purer
> if we perform them because we see the benefit of eliminating
> defilements. Since human life is very short we should not lose
> any opportunity for dåna, súa or bhåvan. If we develop the
> eightfold Path there will eventually be purification of all
> [Ch.4 Volition(cetanaa) to be contd]