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FW: meanings of dhamma 1.

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  • nina van gorkom
    ... Van: nina van gorkom Datum: Wed, 30 Jul 2003 19:42:05 +0200 Aan: Pali yahoo Onderwerp: meanings of dhamma 1. Jim
    Message 1 of 1 , Jul 31, 2003
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      Van: nina van gorkom <nilo@...>
      Datum: Wed, 30 Jul 2003 19:42:05 +0200
      Aan: Pali yahoo <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
      Onderwerp: meanings of dhamma 1.

      Jim has done the exploration of the meanings of dhamma and Dimitri has
      collected excellent texts. I do not like this excellent work to sink into
      oblivion. I shall try to summarize the meanings and translate some of this
      material, a little at a time.
      Meanings of Dhamma 1

      To recapitulate: the first meaning is gu.na, virtue or good quality. In
      different commentaries this is explained as kusala kamma different from
      akusala kamma. Kusala kamma is denoted as dhamma and akusala kamma is
      denoted as adhamma. We read in the Atthasaalinii, 38:
      "Na hi dhammo adhammo ca, ubho samavipaakino;
      dhamma, adhamma bear no equal fruit:
      adhammo niraya.m neti, dhammo paapeti suggatin"ti.
      adhamma leads to hell, dhamma causes one to reach heaven.
      (theragaa. 304; jaa. 1.15.386)-

      The second meaning given of dhamma is pariyatti: the wording of the
      teachings as contained in the Tipitaka. We read in the "Dhammapada
      Atthakataa 1.22:
      Dhamma.m vo, bhikkhave, desessaami aadikalyaa.nan"ti (ma. ni. 3.420)
      aya.m desanaadhammo naama.
      I shall teach you, monks, Dhamma that is beautiful in the beginning (middle
      and end),
      this is the dhamma of teaching.
      "Idha pana, bhikkhave, ekacce kulaputtaa dhamma.m pariyaapu.nanti sutta.m
      geyyan"ti (ma. ni. 1.239)
      Here, monks, some men of a good family learn thoroughly the dhamma: sutta,
      geyya, etc.
      aya.m pariyattidhammo naama.
      This is the dhamma which is the wording of the teachings.

      My remarks:The word of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Vinaya as taught by
      him, consists of nine divisions which are: Sutta, Geyya, Veyyaakarana,
      Gaathaa, Udaana, Itivuttaka, Jaataka, Abbhuta and Vedalla.
      See the ³Expositor², Atthasaalinii, Introductory Discourse, 26. The
      teachings as compiled (not yet written) literature are thus enumerated in
      the scriptures as nine divisions, for example in the ³Middle Length Sayings²
      I, no. 22.

      Sutta includes all Discourses, such as the ³Mangala sutta² (²Good Omen
      Discourse ³, Minor Readings, V), and also the Vinaya Pitaka and the Niddesa.
      In this classification the Vinaya is in the section of Sutta. The
      ³Atthasaalinaa² mentions in this section on Sutta the Sutta-Vibhanga and
      Parivaara, which belong to the Vinaya.
      Geyya includes all suttas with verses (gaathaa), such as the Sagaathaa-vagga
      of the Sa.myutta Nikaaya or ³Kindred Sayings².
      Veyyaakarana or ³Exposition² includes the Abhidhamma Pi.taka, the suttas
      without verses, and the words of the Buddha which are not included in the
      other eight divisions.
      Gaathaa or ³Verses², include the Dhammapada, Theragaathaa, Therígaathaa
      (Psalms of the Brothers and Sisters) and those parts of the Sutta-Nipaata
      not called Sutta and entirely in verse.
      Udaana or ³Verses of Uplift² include eightytwo suttas connected with verses
      recited by the Buddha, inspired by knowledge and joy.
      Itivuttaka or ³As it was said² includes hundred and ten suttas beginning
      with ³Thus it was said by the Blessed One²
      Jaataka or Birth Stories include fivehundred and fifty stories of the past
      lives of the Buddha and his disciples, beginning with the ³Apannaka
      Abbhuta, ³Marvellous², includes suttas connected with wonderful and
      marvellous things (dhammas with extraordinary qualities, which are amazing).
      Vedalla includes suttas with questions and answers which have as result
      understanding and delight, such as the ³Cullavedallasutta².
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