FW: meanings of dhamma 1.
Van: nina van gorkom <nilo@...>
Datum: Wed, 30 Jul 2003 19:42:05 +0200
Aan: Pali yahoo <Pali@yahoogroups.com>
Onderwerp: meanings of dhamma 1.
Jim has done the exploration of the meanings of dhamma and Dimitri has
collected excellent texts. I do not like this excellent work to sink into
oblivion. I shall try to summarize the meanings and translate some of this
material, a little at a time.
Meanings of Dhamma 1
To recapitulate: the first meaning is gu.na, virtue or good quality. In
different commentaries this is explained as kusala kamma different from
akusala kamma. Kusala kamma is denoted as dhamma and akusala kamma is
denoted as adhamma. We read in the Atthasaalinii, 38:
"Na hi dhammo adhammo ca, ubho samavipaakino;
dhamma, adhamma bear no equal fruit:
adhammo niraya.m neti, dhammo paapeti suggatin"ti.
adhamma leads to hell, dhamma causes one to reach heaven.
(theragaa. 304; jaa. 1.15.386)-
The second meaning given of dhamma is pariyatti: the wording of the
teachings as contained in the Tipitaka. We read in the "Dhammapada
Dhamma.m vo, bhikkhave, desessaami aadikalyaa.nan"ti (ma. ni. 3.420)
aya.m desanaadhammo naama.
I shall teach you, monks, Dhamma that is beautiful in the beginning (middle
this is the dhamma of teaching.
"Idha pana, bhikkhave, ekacce kulaputtaa dhamma.m pariyaapu.nanti sutta.m
geyyan"ti (ma. ni. 1.239)
Here, monks, some men of a good family learn thoroughly the dhamma: sutta,
aya.m pariyattidhammo naama.
This is the dhamma which is the wording of the teachings.
My remarks:The word of the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Vinaya as taught by
him, consists of nine divisions which are: Sutta, Geyya, Veyyaakarana,
Gaathaa, Udaana, Itivuttaka, Jaataka, Abbhuta and Vedalla.
See the ³Expositor², Atthasaalinii, Introductory Discourse, 26. The
teachings as compiled (not yet written) literature are thus enumerated in
the scriptures as nine divisions, for example in the ³Middle Length Sayings²
I, no. 22.
Sutta includes all Discourses, such as the ³Mangala sutta² (²Good Omen
Discourse ³, Minor Readings, V), and also the Vinaya Pitaka and the Niddesa.
In this classification the Vinaya is in the section of Sutta. The
³Atthasaalinaa² mentions in this section on Sutta the Sutta-Vibhanga and
Parivaara, which belong to the Vinaya.
Geyya includes all suttas with verses (gaathaa), such as the Sagaathaa-vagga
of the Sa.myutta Nikaaya or ³Kindred Sayings².
Veyyaakarana or ³Exposition² includes the Abhidhamma Pi.taka, the suttas
without verses, and the words of the Buddha which are not included in the
other eight divisions.
Gaathaa or ³Verses², include the Dhammapada, Theragaathaa, Therígaathaa
(Psalms of the Brothers and Sisters) and those parts of the Sutta-Nipaata
not called Sutta and entirely in verse.
Udaana or ³Verses of Uplift² include eightytwo suttas connected with verses
recited by the Buddha, inspired by knowledge and joy.
Itivuttaka or ³As it was said² includes hundred and ten suttas beginning
with ³Thus it was said by the Blessed One²
Jaataka or Birth Stories include fivehundred and fifty stories of the past
lives of the Buddha and his disciples, beginning with the ³Apannaka
Abbhuta, ³Marvellous², includes suttas connected with wonderful and
marvellous things (dhammas with extraordinary qualities, which are amazing).
Vedalla includes suttas with questions and answers which have as result
understanding and delight, such as the ³Cullavedallasutta².