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  • Miriam Taylor
    ... From: Abraham Kogan Date: Wed, 30 Nov 2005 17:20:10 +0300 To: Miriam Taylor Subject: Sadagura and Boyany
    Message 1 of 1 , Dec 2, 2005
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      ------ Forwarded Message
      From: "Abraham Kogan" <kogana@...>
      Date: Wed, 30 Nov 2005 17:20:10 +0300
      To: "Miriam Taylor" <mirtaylo@...>
      Subject: Sadagura and Boyany

      History of Jews in Bukowina [Volume I, pages 84 - 88)Mimi, This is a very
      interesting story.

      You may wish to disseminate it to the whole group as some sort of
      "background literature, since it is in English. I have a wgole list of
      recommended literature, almost all of those publications are in German.



      « Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page »


      [Page 85]


      The Rabbinical Courts
      in Sadagura and Boyany
      by Dr. Samuel Josef Schulsohn (New York)
      Translated by Jerome Silverbush
      Tiny Bukovina bordered by Russia, Galicia, Hungary and Romania, with its
      120,000 Jews played a very special roll for Jews before World War I in the
      following respects: The political, social and cultural situation of the Jews
      was unique in the Austro-Hungarian Empire as well as in the rest of Europe.
      In Bukovina, however where Romanians and Ruthiens lived in equal numbers the
      Jews played a leading roll as carriers of the German culture and as
      representatives of business, industry, the learned professions and as estate
      owners, and enjoyed not only all rights and freedoms in equal measure with
      all other nationalities in the land, but they also acquired for themselves
      solid positions in all areas of endeavor. They were able to do this thanks
      to the generous constitution of 1866, the liberal regime of of Kaiser Franz
      Joseph and the leadership of Dr. Benno Straucher,
      The religious-national situation of the Jews in Bukovina was also unique and
      exerted a tremendous influence not only on the Bukovina Jews, but also on
      the Jews in the bordering countries. Chadisidism, as taught and spread by
      the Ruzyner Tzaddik1 and the Friedmann Dynasty, supported this positive
      situation in large measure. Both had significant influence on Jewish society
      and Jewish life. The power and sphere of influence of Chasidism encompassed
      not only the great masses of simple uneducated village Jews but also, their
      educated and enlightened children.

      In this way, the small insignificant market town of Sadagura in the vicinity
      of Czernowitz where the Ruzyner Tzaddik Israel Friedmann (1796-1850) settled
      in 1842 and established his ³court2² became the center of Chasidism from
      where the tremendous influence of the Tzaddik spread to deep in Russia, the
      Ukraine, Bessarabia , the Moldavia and to East Galicia.

      He faced almost insurmountable obstacles and difficulties after he escaped
      from Russia. The Bukovina district captain at that time, Issaczeskul was one
      of the first among the non-Jews who recognized the importance of this leader
      of the Chasidic movement. He leveled his path by stating in his report to
      his superiors, that ³the useful consequences of his settling here and the
      power of his personality,² and further ³this pious Rabbi with his good
      manners, his civilized attitude, his tactful behavior, and the powerful
      almost magical power he has on his believers and worshipers,² so argued the
      district captain, ³would exercise a great and strong influence on the Jews
      and it would be in the interest of the state to give him permission to
      settle here because of his educational value as well as the material well
      being and the ascendance of Bukovina.²

      His followers acquired for him, the Potok-Zyloty estate and tried to get the
      agreement of the leading rabbis of Galicia, in this way hoping to get the
      government to issue a residence permit. Through intercession by the Tzaddik
      of Ujhley, Moses Teitelbaum, the Pressburger Rabbi, Chatam Sofer declared,
      that even though he didn't highly value Ruzyner's significance in Pilpul, he
      could testify however that thousands of Jews were his followers.

      The position of the leading rabbis of Galicia, like that of the Vienna
      sermonizer, Mannheimer and the Krakau Rabbi Dow Berisch Meisels led
      Chancellor Metternich to deny Russia's demand for extradition of Ruzyner and
      to allow him to settle in Sadagura.

      Physically, Sadagura was a small insignificant village, but spiritually, it
      became a center for the Chasidic movement and it exercised a magnetic
      attraction for tens of thousands of Jews who streamed from the most remote
      regions into Sadagura, either to see the Tzaddik and to be astounded by the
      magnificence and glory of the court or to learn and experience Chasidism and
      to be absorbed in Jewish feelings and experience. From near and far, from
      deepest Russia, from Moscow or the coast of the Black Sea, from Romania or
      Galicia, Jews traveled to Sadagura, either singly or in groups, especially
      during the High Holidays.

      Sadagura became the most well-known and radiant citadel of Chasidism. The
      court was distinguished by its worldliness, splendor, riches and luxury no
      less than through its mysticism The Rabbi lifted his Chasidim,
      intellectually and spiritually, and awoke in them the longing for God. It
      was a sort of aristocratic Chasidism. The Rabbi remained unseen, he prayed
      in private in a small room that was built onto the prayer house, the
      ³klaus.² One heard his sighing, his groaning, and his quiet inward directed
      praying. It was not a noisy prayer, no body movements or gestures. One saw
      in Rabbi Ruzyner, whose every move was dignified, no stormy movements. He
      prayed in the most dignified and serious manner and no believer dared to
      disturb the solemnity of the service through a profane word or disagreeable
      movement. Everyone was captured by the spell of this holy man. Also, an
      uncomfortable silence and an exemplary discipline ruled at meals in spite of
      the presence of thousands of men. When the Rabbi entered or left the prayer
      house, his followers formed a cordon and they stood motionless looking full
      of awe in his radiant face with his glorious glowing eyes from which a magic
      power radiated as well as at his awe inspiring figure.

      In contrast to many Chasidic leaders, who mostly lived in great poverty and
      isolation, Ruzyner and his successors in Sadagura and Boyany with their
      aristocratic manners and fashionable elegant ways of life were able to
      engross and bewitch their followers. His main effort therefore was directed
      to restoring the external dignity of Judaism to its original brilliance. ³We
      must meet God with splendor and glory,² taught Ruzyner, ³and serve him with
      joyfully shining and glowing faces and appear in fitting clothing before the
      King of all Kings.² Therefore, the finest taste in choice of clothing, the
      hairstyle, the walk, the gestures, the dwelling, and every other detail.
      This contrasted with his early life in which he practiced the most extreme
      abstinence from enjoyment, which led to an amazing reduction in the quantity
      of nourishment. He rejected asceticism entirely and replaced it with
      enjoyment and joy in life. ³A small hole in the human body,² so goes the
      saying, ³causes a large hollow in the soul.²

      First with the arrival of his family from Kischinew, where they were held by
      the Russian officials, began the real court life with full splendor, as seen
      at no other Tzaddik's court

      His optimistic ³world view² was one of his most striking characteristics.
      Ruzyner explained his inclination to finery and opulence with the teaching
      that the Tzaddik is the intermediary and through him the world is provided
      for, that through the Tzaddik, the people receive nourishment and life and
      through him all salvation is spread over the earth. In the interest of the
      well being of the people, the rabbi should not be humble and modest, but
      should dress in rich finery, and surround himself with luxury, splendor and
      pageantry using the brilliant lifestyle of King Solomon as an example in
      order to restore the honor and dignity which was lost during thousands of
      years of oppression and persecution.

      So Ruzyner made pomp and pageantry a principal of Chasidism, surrounded
      himself with great splendor, dressed himself and his family elegantly, drove
      in a splendid coach drawn by four horses, had his own band which especially
      on Purim, and on the evenings following Yom Kippur and Simchat Torah
      entertained the whole community, old and young, he lived in a magnificent
      palace and each of his grown children had his own building, in short, he
      lived the life of a prince. His life was so grandiose that among the people
      it was said that Ruzyner wanted to build a temple in Sadagura on the pattern
      of the temple in Jerusalem. His appearances were like those of a king. His
      followers considered him as leader of the entire Chassidic world and the
      uncrowned king of the Chasidim.

      His fascinating character, his attractive appearance and his piercing
      intelligence had a tremendous influence on his contemporaries, even on many
      noblemen and dignitaries and naturally even greater for his followers who
      streamed to him in droves. The attraction of his personality and his court
      were so great that his followers came from great distances braving dangers
      and deprivations only to be in his presence, which considering their huge
      numbers, was not easy.

      The splendor of the court, the cheerfulness, the spirit of joy was so
      attractive for the people and created so much enthusiasm that the miserable
      unhappy Jews of Poldolia, Moldavia and Galicia forgot their need and with
      elevated spirit and a happy mood, came to the court of the Tzaddik, they
      were transformed, new beings, happy people. Thousands and thousands of
      admirers swarmed around Ruzyner and asserted that he was the awaited
      ³Messiah,² who would reveal himself as soon as the time was right. His
      followers belonged to various categories. Many came to Sadagura to take joy
      in his countenance from which reverence, kindness and intellectual greatness
      radiated; others sought him out in order to learn Torah and the teachings of
      Chasidism in order to perfect themselves, intellectually and spiritually.
      Others wanted his advice or to request his help in a serious situation. To
      his court came not only the poor. miserable, suppliants, spiritually or
      physically broken, cripples, barren, but also intellectually great rabbis,
      scholars, enlightened, rich, landowners, The Tzaddik listened patiently to
      all the suppliants, spoke to them like a father, showed deep understanding
      for them, instructed them with anecdotes or similar situations, consoled
      them and gave them new courage, showed lively interest for their situation
      and special understanding for their problems, put various questions to them,
      in order to uncover the reason for the bad situation, spoke quietly with
      kindness and gentleness, and so analyzed all problems with great wisdom and
      sent them away with advice and blessings. And not only Jews, but also
      dignified non-Jews came to him, had conversations with him, asked for his
      advice, were astounded by his cleverness and experience and were grateful to
      him for life. All visitors to the Rabbi left with the feeling that a
      tremendous load had been lifted from their shoulders, they breathed easier,
      they had full confidence in the wonder working power of the Rabbi and
      returned home joyfully and full of hope. So the Rabbi acquired an
      overwhelming influence over the people, not merely because of educated
      statements and explanations about difficult passages in the Torah, or in the
      Talmud3but first and foremost by personal contact through which he dedicated
      many hours daily to the wants and needs of the petitioners and gave them
      heartfelt interest and understanding and fatherly warmth and kindness.

      Ruzyner was however, not only a guidepost and father to the masses, who
      worshiped him like a god, gave him royal honors and would go through fire
      for him, he also acquired because of his excellent intellect, in spite of
      his youth, the greatest respect from all Chassidic notables and leaders of
      dynasties in Galicia and Poland. They all rendered homage to him and
      respected him as the head of the Chasidic movement and because of that
      traveled to Sadagura. According to the dictum of one of the best experts on
      Chasidism, Israel, the Bal Schem Tov, represents the root of the tree of the
      movement, while Ruzyner symbolized the crown with the fruit. Rabbi Israel
      Friedman4 was a man of practical realpolitic5of religious nationalism, the
      outer regeneration of the individual as well as the national body. He had
      the idea and carried out the plan, to recreate glory of the Jewish kings in
      exile, that is to provide the majority of Jews in the East with a leader
      with true royal grandeur. All the Chasidic leaders bent their knee to him,
      the great grandson of the Maggid (preacher) Dov Baer von Meseritsch and
      recognized him as leader of the movement and as the uncrowned leader of
      Chasidism. He was the ³Urim Wetumim6.² They attempted nothing without asking
      for his advice or getting his approval. And Ruzyner whose fame had spread to
      the wide world, and who was highly respected, bore on his shoulders, and in
      his conscience, the burden and the responsibility for their fate. In 1844 he
      asked Moses Montefiore in London to intervene with Czar Nicolas of Russia to
      lift the ban on collecting money for the Russian Kolel7. The tzaddik R.
      Chaim from Kossow and other Chasidic tzaddiks from Galicia came to Ruzyner
      to ask for advice on how to deal with the bitter battle between the Haskala8
      and the Chasidism. He told the collected leaders of the Chasidim, the
      anecdote of the white roosters who bitterly complained that on the eve of
      Yom Kippur, white fowl are preferred for Kapores9. An old white rooster
      advised them to make their white feathers black in the chimney and thus
      avoid the danger. With his piercing understanding Ruzyner advised them in
      the same way to put aside their usual white clothing to avoid being
      conspicuous and offensive because of the clothing.

      Actually, there was a great difference in appearance between the Sadagura
      Chasidim and other Chasidim. One recognized the Sadagura Chasidim by their
      fine white clothing and their good conduct as well as their sociability and
      comradeship and solidarity. The better-off Chasidim felt their social
      obligation to the poor Chasidim and provided materially for their support.
      So, the Sadagura Chasidim gave the movement a special stamp in that they
      stressed the modern and refined cultural trends and they wanted Jews to feel
      their worth and increase their pride and to elevate in the eyes of the outer
      world, the self respect and honor of Jews and Judaism. The result of this
      teaching and education was the incalculable blossoming of power in the
      religious national life of the Jews of Bukovina and the strong very distinct
      national consciousness. Ruzyner explained the choice of Sadagura as his new
      residence with the meaningful statement: ³Our parents and ancestors, Rabbi
      Abraham Malach (Engel) our grandfather and Meseritscher preacher Dov Baer,
      our great-grandfather announced the honor of God and spread his fame in
      Russia. It is our task to transplant God's greatness and his people's honor
      to the West and to root it in the people.²

      He wouldn't tolerate his Chasidim going around bedraggled and in neglected
      clothing. The Chasidim tell the story of how when he saw, a youth with
      overlong, uncombed side-curls, he took a knife and cut them off.

      Ruzyner loved the Holly Land with all his heart. He collected great sums to
      support the Jews there. He was the leader of the Yeshiva of Russia for the
      Jews who emigrated from Russia to Israel. Every year, the administrator of
      the Yeshiva in Jerusalem, R. Nissan Back came to him and gave him a detailed
      report on the endowment for the Yeshiva. His relation to Eretz10 Israel was
      extremely positive. As a descendant of the house of King David, he saw it as
      his destiny to stand on the peak of the Diaspora and to make the heart of
      Israel ripe for the ³ingathering.² In the persecution of the Jews in Russia,
      he saw the portent of the coming return to Eretz Israel.

      Among the songs that he liked to hear sung were two songs by the Cabalistic
      poet, Israel ben Mosche von Nagara (1530-1587) that expressed the longing
      for the Messiah and Kibbutz Galujoth. He regretted deeply that he himself
      couldn't move to the Holly Land. To emigrate himself and leave the community
      in the diaspora11, he considered irresponsible and immoral. The emigration
      of a large group of Jews at that time was an impossibility.

      In 1843, Nissan Back told Ruzyner that the Russians intended to buy a parcel
      of land near the Wailing Wall and build a church there. The Tzaddik gave
      Back the necessary funds and told him to travel immediately to Jerusalem and
      to buy the parcel of land at any cost. Back accomplished his mission,
      purchased the land and built upon it the synagogue ³Tiphereth Israel² (the
      Glory of Israel), for whose dome, the Kaiser Franz Joseph, during his visit
      to Jerusalem, contributed the gold.

      Ruzyner succeeded because of his intellectual greatness and his altruism in
      bringing the Chasidic movement under his unifying leadership. The Elder of
      the Chasidim, Jehoschua Apter honored him greatly and ascribed superhuman
      wisdom to him. The most pious, highly respected leaders and scholars, like
      Rabbi Chaim Sandzer and Rabbi Jizchak Worker traveled to Ruzyner, studied
      his teachings, approved of their content and showered him with praise and
      admiration. ³The love and concern of Rabbi Ruzyner for his people is so
      exceedingly strong that it can't be equaled by anyone.² Sandzer who spent
      some time with Ruzyner declared later that the sacrifice and dedication of
      Ruzyner for God and Israel is as great as that shown by Isaac on Mount
      Moriah. Even the Kotzk Rabbi, his opposite in ³world view² and style of
      living took the road to Sadagura. Not only Chasidic leaders, but also
      opponents of the movement, Talmudic greats and modern scholars admired
      Ruzyner's spiritual and intellectual greatness. For instance, the Lemberg
      Rabbi Ornstein and the Brody Maggid12, Schlomo Klueger. Highly significant
      and characteristic is the statement by the clear thinking and deeply
      meditative founder of Orthodoxy and extreme piety in Germany, Rabbi Doctor
      Samson Rafael Hirsch: ³It is humanly almost inconceivable, to comprehend and
      understand the intellectual greatness of this giant. From all sides Ruzyner
      is given gold and silver and is heaped with honors. He however, thinks only
      of one thing and this one thing he considers his main task and goal, namely
      to spread the honor of God and of His people, Israel and to lift and bring
      them to their old glory.²

      So great and honored was his name and his fame so widespread that Christian
      nobles and dignitaries came from near and far to get his advice and to plead
      for his blessing. Newspapers and journals sent special reporters to find the
      rabbi and report about him in the world press. A wedding or festivity at his
      court was viewed as a special event and the newspapers described it in great
      detail.

      Ruzyner reached an age of only 54 years and passed away on 3 Cheschwan,
      1850. He left behind six sons of whom, the eldest, Rabbi Schulem Josef only
      outlived his father by one year and died in Leipzig. So, the second eldest
      son, Rabbi Abraham Jakob, took over the succession and led for 33 years
      while his brothers, Ber and Nachum settled in Leova and Stefanesti in
      Moldova and the youngest sons David Mosche and Mordche Schrage emigrated to
      Czortkow and Husiatyn in Galicia and started new courts there. The sons led
      the lives of landed nobility like their father did.

      The Sadagura rabbi, Abraham Jakob was very clever, a deep thinker, had a
      tremendous following and was extremely loved honored and treasured. In the
      50's, he built a palace in the Moorish style, which represented one of the
      most beautiful, and view worthy building in Bukovina, and which attracted a
      great number of visitors who wanted to see the magnificent building. The
      Rabbi had a princely court and was surrounded all year round by admirers and
      sycophants. He had a coach with thoroughbred horses, liveried servants and
      used only gold and silver cutlery. He isolated himself and never ate or
      prayed together with the Chasidim. His demeanor was always discreet, he
      never told jokes and was quiet and everyone, rich or poor who came into his
      room had to remain standing before him while he made his request, for he was
      the giver and the Chasid was the suppliant. Also, he never personally
      accepted gifts of money.

      The little town of Sadagura grew rapidly. The Jews made up more than 80% of
      the total population and since 1863; the mayor was always a Jew. Since the
      introduction of universal suffrage in 1907, Sadagura and Czernowitz together
      formed a single voting district and so, the Jews elected Dr. Benno Straucher
      to the Austrian parliament.

      Sadagura became a special concept and for the Chasidim a holy city and
      remained the seat of the Friedmann dynasty also after the death of the
      Sadagura Rabbi on 11 Elul 1863.

      The oldest son, Rabbi Schlome died before the Sadagura Rabbi (1881) and the
      remaining sons, Rabbi Jizchak and Rabbi Israel led the court in Sadagura. In
      1886, Rabbi Jizchak moved from Sadagura to Boyany since his younger brother,
      Rabbi Israel, following the accepted custom, took over the leadership in
      Sadagura. It came to a schism. The settling of Rabbi Jizchak in Boyany had
      the special advantage that the village on the Russian border, was chosen as
      a seat of a part of the Ruzyner Chasidim.

      Rabbi Israel reached an age of 54 years and died at the same age of his
      grandfather whose name he bore. He left behind 6 sons and 3 daughters. Two
      of his sons live in Israel: Abraham Jakob and Schlomoh Chaim who is involved
      in charitable efforts and politics.

      Boyany at the beginning of the Austrian occupation, because of the ban on
      Jewish settlement on the plains, for decades, had no Jewish residents. In
      1817, a single Jewish farmer lived there. Jews started settling there in the
      period, 1839-1842. Until 1860, Boyany belonged to the Jewish Community13 of
      Sprengel-Sadagura. After 1860 Sadagura, became an independent Community with
      its own Rabbi. Until 1914, Iser Sternhell was the rabbi. In 1913, the
      Community numbered 2573 souls of whom 272 were taxpayers. In addition to a
      synagogue, there were 4 prayer houses in Boyany. There was also a Jewish
      school and the Barron Hirsch foundation in the town. One time, Russian
      Chasidim who were traveling to Sadagura for the Shabbat14 were caught by the
      sunset and couldn't continue their trip. Therefore they had to celebrate the
      Shabbat in Boyany. Ruzyner consoled the disappointed faithful with the
      remark that his Shabbat table extended to Boyany. Rabbi Jizchak who was the
      oldest, was followed a great number of adherents and the larger part of the
      followers of Ruzyner remained with the Boyany Rabbi.

      So Sadagura forfeited its preeminent position in the Chasidic world when in
      1886 it split into Sadagura and Boyany factions. Sadagura remained the seat
      of Ryzyner's descendants until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914,
      but it lost its pre-eminence to Boyany which from that time forward, became
      the grand and glorious chief residence of the Friedmann Chasidic dynasty. In
      Boyany, a residence, a prayer house and a festival hall were built. Because
      of the houses built around the Tzaddik by the Jewish inhabitants, Boyany
      took on the character of a city. Since the 90s of the 19th century, the
      deputy mayor of Boyany was always Jewish.

      At the beginning of the First World War, the Jewish quarter of Boyany
      including the residence and the prayer house was burned to the ground by the
      Russians. With that event, the period of glory for Sadagura and Boyany had
      ended. To be sure, the prayer house still stands in Sadagura, but it is
      empty and desolate since very few Jews live today in Sadagura. The burial
      place of Ruzyner and his followers is still visited by individual Jews who
      are seeking his help.

      After the war, the oldest son of the Boyany rabbi, Rabbi Nuchem lived in a
      newly built palace in Czernowitz, but the prayer house there was closed in
      1950 by the Russians.

      His two sons, Rabi Ahron and Rabbi Mottale were among the first of the Jews
      of Czernowitz to be deported to Transnistrien. One day after Simchat Torah
      in October 1941 they were sent to Obodowka in Podolia and suffered great
      deprivation and wretchedness before they perished there.

      The second son of the Bojan Tzaddik, Rabbi Nuchem who had his court in
      Leipzig escaped at the outbreak of the Nazi regime escaped to Eretz Israel
      where he spent the remainder of his life. In accordance with his last will
      and testament, he was buried in Safed.

      The Nazis murdered his third son, Rabbi Jaankiniu, Chief Rabbi in Lemberg.

      The husband of the granddaughter of the Boyany Tzaddik, Rabbi Jizchak, Rabbi
      Mojscheniu, who last lived in Krakau was the spiritual leader of the famous
      Yeshiva, Chachmei Lublin. He was murdered by the Nazis on 2 Elul 5703 (1943)
      together with the Jews of Tarnow (West Galicia).

      R. Mojschieniu, who was a major Talmud scholar, left behind a printed
      comentary collection under the title, ³Daath Mosche² which is highly
      esteemed by rabbinical authorities.

      The Nazis destroyed six large volumes of his manuscript and his valuable
      library.

      The youngest son of the Boyany rabbi, Rabbi Mordche Schlomo, lived from
      1914-1926 in Vienna and in 1926 he emigrated to the United States and lived
      in New York where he enjoyed great prestige. He is president of the
      Association of all Chasidic Rabbis, member of the steering committee of the
      Aguda organization and the only Chasidic rabbi from America in the Moaza
      Hagdolah of the Agudath Israel.

      Written by Dr. Samuel Josef Schulsohn (New York)

      « Previous Page Table of Contents Next Page »





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      Notes:
      1) Tzaddik: A general term for a righteous person in Jewish tradition.
      Chasidic sects are organized around a spiritual leader called a tzaddik or
      an admor. The plural is tzaddikim. Return
      2) Court: The Chasidic tzaddikim were treated almost like royalty and
      therefore the word ³court² which encompasses their ³palace,² their followers
      or courtiers, etc. Return

      3) Torah and Talmud: TheTorah is the five books of Moses or the
      Pentateuch, the first five books of the Bible. The Talmud is the vast
      compilation of the Oral Law with rabbinical elucidations, elaborations, and
      commentaries, in contradistinction to the Torah (written law). Return

      4) Rabbi Israel Friedman: This is Ruzyner's actual name. He is probable
      called Ruzyner because he came from the town of Ruzhin in Russia. He is also
      known as the Admor, which is a common name for Chasidic leaders. The
      following JewishGen web page on Sadagura gives a lot of interesting insights
      into Rabbi Friedmann's life style and accomplishments:
      http://www.jewishgen.org/yizkor/pinkas_romania/rom2_00469.html Return

      5) Realpolitic: : politics based on practical and material factors rather
      than on theoretical or ethical objectives. Return

      6) Urim Wetumim: Oracle Return

      7) Kolel: the Jewish community Return

      8) Haskala: Jewish rationalistic "enlightenment" in eighteenth- and
      nineteenth-century Europe. Return

      9) Kapores: Kapores means atonement in Hebrew and Yom Kippur is also known
      as the ³Day of Atonement.² Return

      10) Eretz Israel: Land of Israel. Return

      11) Diaspora: The exile, the settling of scattered colonies of Jews
      outside Palestine after the Babylonian exile. The author uses the Hebrew
      word, ³galuth.² Return

      12) Maggid: A preacher or speaker, like a Rabbi without the title. Return

      13) Jewish Community: Austrian law required that Jews in a city be
      organized in a ³Kultusgemeinde² or religious community. I translate this as
      simply as ³Community.² The Community had to have elected officials, a
      president, several committees, a secretary, a rabbi and so on. If a village
      didn't have enough Jewish residents to form its own Community, it would be
      part of the Community of a nearby town. Return

      14) Shabbat: The Jewish Sabbath. Shabbat starts at sundown on Friday and
      ends at Sundown on Saturday. Pious Jews cannot travel after Shabbat starts.
      Return



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