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Re: [tied] IE models (was: Ligurian)

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  • Bhrihskwobhloukstroy
    ... Bhrihskwobhloukstroy: Everybody can see here at best to what extent a difference between models can grow. Facts are the existence of nouns from *ab- and
    Message 1 of 15 , May 13, 2012
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      2012/5/13, Tavi <oalexandre@...>:
      >>
      > OEH has *akW-a: while Celtic was *ab-. They're from different
      > paleo-dialects.

      Bhrihskwobhloukstroy:

      Everybody can see here at best to what extent a difference between
      models can grow. Facts are the existence of nouns from *ab- and with
      meaning 'water' in Celtic languages and of names from *akWa: for
      rivers in (approximately) Celtic lands.
      A model (your one) starts from the axiomatic rejection of synonyms in
      the same language and concludes that *ab- and *akWa: must go back to
      different layers. Another model (my one) starts from their factual
      co-existence and projects it back to the (IE) prehistory of the first
      historically known local layer (Gaulish).
      Both are interpretations. I think this can be a fair conclusion of our
      long discussion
    • Tavi
      ... Only that *akWa: isn t a Celtic word, much less Gaulish. ... I d rather say axiomatic negation of the existence of multiple layers. ... Exaggerating a
      Message 2 of 15 , May 14, 2012
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        --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, Bhrihskwobhloukstroy
        <bhrihstlobhrouzghdhroy@...> wrote:
        >
        > > OEH has *akW-a: while Celtic was *ab-. They're from different
        > > paleo-dialects.
        >
        > Everybody can see here at best to what extent a difference between
        > models can grow. Facts are the existence of nouns from *ab- and with
        > meaning 'water' in Celtic languages and of names from *akWa: for
        > rivers in (approximately) Celtic lands.
        >
        Only that *akWa: isn't a Celtic word, much less Gaulish.

        > A model (your one) starts from the axiomatic rejection of synonyms in
        > the same language and concludes that *ab- and *akWa: must go back to
        > different layers.
        >
        I'd rather say "axiomatic negation" of the existence of multiple layers.

        > Another model (my one) starts from their factual
        > co-existence and projects it back to the (IE) prehistory of the first
        > historically known local layer (Gaulish).
        >
        Exaggerating a little, you could also devise a Proto-World or "Adamic"
        language with all required lexemes, morphemes and "sound laws", and
        derive all present-day languages from it, but I'm afraid this won't give
        us any insight into human linguistic prehistory.
      • Bhrihskwobhloukstroy
        ... Bhrihskwobhloukstroy: Celtic *akWa: Gaulish *apa: You can say - quite paradoxically - that Potomac isn t an English river name, but you ll never dare to
        Message 3 of 15 , May 14, 2012
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          2012/5/14, Tavi <oalexandre@...>:
          > (...) *akWa: isn't a Celtic word, much less Gaulish.

          Bhrihskwobhloukstroy:
          Celtic *akWa: > Gaulish *apa:
          You can say - quite paradoxically - that Potomac isn't an English
          river name, but you'll never dare to say that London isn't an English
          name. Of course, London isn't a Germanic name, it coesn't belong to
          the hereditary component of English language, but there has never been
          a moment in which English didn't have the name London.
          If you maintain that there's have a been a moment or more in which
          Gaulish didn't have *akWa: > *apa: (*/kW/ is necessary in order to
          obtain Gaulish /p/) you have to postulate that Gaulish came to Gaul
          shortly before the first mention of Gauls by Ancient Authorities,
          unless you prefer to view Apa-names as Indo-European formations on
          *h2ap- 'water' (in that case you'll think that Gauls have become
          acquainted with apa-names only after non only the Celtic
          dephonologization of /p/, but also the emerging of a new /p/ in
          p-Celtic. Is it correct?
          >
          >> A model (your one) starts from the axiomatic rejection of synonyms in
          >> the same language and concludes that *ab- and *akWa: must go back to
          >> different layers.
          >
          > Tavi:
          > I'd rather say "axiomatic negation" of the existence of multiple layers.

          Bhrihskwobhloukstroy:
          A theorem is made of axioms, definitions, hypotheses, a thesis, its
          demonstration, a conclusion, and corollaries.
          As I've more than once stated, I've just an axiom: the
          Ausnahmslosigkeit der Lautgesetze.
          My hypothesis is to apply IE sound-laws to the maximum amount of
          linguistic material of early attested IE languages.
          My thesis is that such an application doesn't leave anything
          unexplained or explained just by further ad-hoc assumptions.
          My demonstrations are the (thousands) regelmässige etymologies I produce.
          My conclusions comprise the negation of the necessity of the
          existence of multiple layers.

          You may challenge one or more of these phases.
          If you want to dispute an "axiomatic negation of the existence of
          multiple layers", you have to look for another person than me.
          If you question the "axiomatic negation of the existence of
          multiple layers", you are questioning an axiom of someone else, not my
          one.
          Is it clear?
          >
          >> Another model (my one) starts from their factual
          >> co-existence and projects it back to the (IE) prehistory of the first
          >> historically known local layer (Gaulish).
          >
          > Tavi:
          > Exaggerating a little, you could also devise a Proto-World or "Adamic"
          > language with all required lexemes, morphemes and "sound laws", and
          > derive all present-day languages from it, but I'm afraid this won't give
          > us any insight into human linguistic prehistory.

          Bhrihskwobhloukstroy:
          Linguistic inquiries can be useful to this perspective or to the
          one about the origin of the Faculty of Language. Generativists'
          Universal Grammar clearly privileges this latter one. Linguistic
          Reconstruction is manifestly relevant for the former one. One may
          question if all natural/historical languages continue just one or more
          protolanguages, but the method to try to reconstruct it / them doesn't
          change.
          (Since the common ancestor of all present-day human males has lived
          many millennia later than the common female ancestor of all modern
          humans, I'll label Proto-World - the language of the first modern man
          - as "Evic" rather than "Adamic", reserving "Adamic" to the language
          of the last common ancestor of all modern human males)
        • Tavi
          ... AFAIK, this *ap- is just one of the various paleo-IE water roots: *akW-a:, *ap-/*ab-, *ip-/*ib-,*up-/*ub- studied by Villar. ... Yes, it is. ... As you
          Message 4 of 15 , May 14, 2012
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            --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, Bhrihskwobhloukstroy <bhrihstlobhrouzghdhroy@...> wrote:
            >
            > You can say - quite paradoxically - that Potomac isn't an English
            > river name, but you'll never dare to say that London isn't an English
            > name. Of course, London isn't a Germanic name, it doesn't belong to
            > the hereditary component of English language, but there has never been
            > a moment in which English didn't have the name London.
            >
            > If you maintain that there's have a been a moment or more in which
            > Gaulish didn't have *akWa: > *apa: (*/kW/ is necessary in order to
            > obtain Gaulish /p/) you have to postulate that Gaulish came to Gaul
            > shortly before the first mention of Gauls by Ancient Authorities,
            > unless you prefer to view Apa-names as Indo-European formations on
            > *h2ap- 'water'
            >
            AFAIK, this *ap- is just one of the various paleo-IE 'water' roots: *akW-a:, *ap-/*ab-, *ip-/*ib-,*up-/*ub- studied by Villar.

            > in that case you'll think that Gauls have become
            > acquainted with apa-names only after non only the Celtic
            > dephonologization of /p/, but also the emerging of a new /p/ in
            > p-Celtic. Is it correct?
            >
            Yes, it is.

            > A theorem is made of axioms, definitions, hypotheses, a thesis, its
            > demonstration, a conclusion, and corollaries.
            > As I've more than once stated, I've just an axiom: the
            > Ausnahmslosigkeit der Lautgesetze.
            >
            As you once made clear to us (remember the 1957 incident?), your personal clock is a century back.

            > My hypothesis is to apply IE sound-laws to the maximum amount of
            > linguistic material of early attested IE languages.
            > My thesis is that such an application doesn't leave anything
            > unexplained or explained just by further ad-hoc assumptions.
            > My demonstrations are the (thousands) regelmässige etymologies I produce.
            >
            Which *nothing* guarantees to be right.

            > My conclusions comprise the negation of the necessity of the existence of multiple layers.
            >
            Which defies common sense.
          • Bhrihskwobhloukstroy
            And this is the end of any possible discussion. Amen
            Message 5 of 15 , May 14, 2012
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              And this is the end of any possible discussion. Amen

              2012/5/14, Tavi <oalexandre@...>:
              > --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, Bhrihskwobhloukstroy
              > <bhrihstlobhrouzghdhroy@...> wrote:
              >>
              >> You can say - quite paradoxically - that Potomac isn't an English
              >> river name, but you'll never dare to say that London isn't an English
              >> name. Of course, London isn't a Germanic name, it doesn't belong to
              >> the hereditary component of English language, but there has never been
              >> a moment in which English didn't have the name London.
              >>
              >> If you maintain that there's have a been a moment or more in which
              >> Gaulish didn't have *akWa: > *apa: (*/kW/ is necessary in order to
              >> obtain Gaulish /p/) you have to postulate that Gaulish came to Gaul
              >> shortly before the first mention of Gauls by Ancient Authorities,
              >> unless you prefer to view Apa-names as Indo-European formations on
              >> *h2ap- 'water'
              >>
              > AFAIK, this *ap- is just one of the various paleo-IE 'water' roots:
              > *akW-a:, *ap-/*ab-, *ip-/*ib-,*up-/*ub- studied by Villar.
              >
              >> in that case you'll think that Gauls have become
              >> acquainted with apa-names only after non only the Celtic
              >> dephonologization of /p/, but also the emerging of a new /p/ in
              >> p-Celtic. Is it correct?
              >>
              > Yes, it is.
              >
              >> A theorem is made of axioms, definitions, hypotheses, a thesis, its
              >> demonstration, a conclusion, and corollaries.
              >> As I've more than once stated, I've just an axiom: the
              >> Ausnahmslosigkeit der Lautgesetze.
              >>
              > As you once made clear to us (remember the 1957 incident?), your
              > personal clock is a century back.
              >
              >> My hypothesis is to apply IE sound-laws to the maximum amount of
              >> linguistic material of early attested IE languages.
              >> My thesis is that such an application doesn't leave anything
              >> unexplained or explained just by further ad-hoc assumptions.
              >> My demonstrations are the (thousands) regelmässige etymologies I
              > produce.
              >>
              > Which *nothing* guarantees to be right.
              >
              >> My conclusions comprise the negation of the necessity of the
              > existence of multiple layers.
              >>
              > Which defies common sense.
              >
              >
            • patrick cuadrado
              ... may be Aks Ax-  too, see Axona river Essone/Aisne (?) France and Axium  Itchen River (Hampshire-GB) but may be the rapid river see Atax =At(e)- Ax
              Message 6 of 15 , May 14, 2012
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                > AFAIK, this *ap- is just one of the various paleo-IE 'water' roots:
                > *akW-a:, *ap-/*ab-, *ip-/*ib-,*up-/*ub- studied by Villar.

                may be Aks<>Ax-  too, see Axona river Essone/Aisne (?) France
                and Axium  Itchen River (Hampshire-GB)
                but may be the rapid river see Atax =At(e)- Ax <>At-aco- = Aude France = very quick
                 


                Patrick
                mon blog/mes oeuvres ici
                Arthur Unbeau
                http://www.pikeo.com/ArthurUnbeau

                [HTML and excess quoting deleted. -BMS]
              • Tavi
                ... Actually, this could be *ap-s- or perhaps *ag-s-, from *ag^- to drive . The forms axo(n)ias, axonis are attested on lead foil inscriptions found at the
                Message 7 of 15 , May 16, 2012
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                  --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, patrick cuadrado <dicoceltique@...> wrote:
                  >
                  > > AFAIK, this *ap- is just one of the various paleo-IE 'water' roots:
                  > > *akW-a:, *ap-/*ab-, *ip-/*ib-,*up-/*ub- studied by Villar.
                  >
                  > may be Aks<>Ax-  too, see Axona river Essone/Aisne (?) France
                  > and Axium  Itchen River (Hampshire-GB)
                  >
                  Actually, this could be *ap-s- or perhaps *ag-s-, from *ag^- 'to drive'.

                  The forms axo(n)ias, axonis are attested on lead foil inscriptions found at the thermal station Amélie-les-Bains/Banys d'Arles (Rosselló). They're Italoid votive texts directed to water godesses called kantas niskas 'sacred girls'. These inscriptions, discovered at the beggining of the 20th, have been studied by Coromines in a 1976 article, but are mostly unknown to the rest of the world:

                  KANTAS NISKAS ROGAMOS ET DEP(R)ECAMUS VOS OT SANETE NON LERANCE (E) DEUS ET NESCA PETEIA ET ELETA NESCA SLA(T) SNUKU AS M(E)

                  NISCA ET KILITIUS NETAT(E) VLATE AC SRUET(E) POSQE(MOS)

                  NISKAS AQUIFERAS ROGAMUS SSULTIS NUMENA SRUET VELDELA RES SNUQUAI AUTETE CUMAS MAX(I)M(I)

                  RE NUMENE MAXIMI EFLAVERE ILLIUS SSROES SNUQUAI PANTOVIE SRUID AGETI NET AVOKRIOS
                  S ACAPOSIMA ATXILIAIA S NISKAS CATIONTS AXI(LIAIAS) NESCA EVOSTRI IO NETATI NOS IO CHIRULE (E)XKIGKI

                  DEMETI ITOM(IC)E ... ... SSULTIS FLOINCSON TEIK(ETE)

                  KANTAS NISCAS ALALIKIOS AXO(N)IAS INSTOQDE VOLTAS OSISMI E DEOS KLUEN PSAXE DEMETIM IMP(ETRIO) LERANKE NK

                  AXILII(S) DEAUBS AXSONIS

                  DOMNAS NISKAS ROG(A)MOS ET DE(PRE)CAMUS DINAS NN

                  (RO)GO VOS

                  As usual in a Latinized world, Latin formulae and personal names are also found in the inscriptions.
                • Tavi
                  ... found ... DEUS ... I m really puzzled by the *null* interest shown by IE-ists, even in this list. Of course, kantas is a femenine plural from IE
                  Message 8 of 15 , Feb 24, 2013
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                    --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, "Tavi" <oalexandre@...> wrote:
                    >
                    > The forms axo(n)ias, axonis are attested on lead foil inscriptions
                    found
                    > at the thermal station Amélie-les-Bains/Banys d'Arles
                    > (Rosselló). They're Italoid votive texts directed to water godesses
                    > called kantas niskas 'sacred girls'. These inscriptions, discovered at
                    > the beggining of the 20th, have been studied by Coromines in a 1976
                    > article, but are mostly unknown to the rest of the world:
                    >
                    > KANTAS NISKAS ROGAMOS ET DEP(R)ECAMUS VOS OT SANETE NON LERANCE (E)
                    DEUS
                    > ET NESCA PETEIA ET ELETA NESCA SLA(T) SNUKU AS M(E)
                    > [...]
                    >
                    I'm really puzzled by the *null* interest shown by IE-ists, even in this
                    list.

                    Of course, kantas is a femenine plural from IE *k´wen-to- 'holy'.
                    From the Germanic semantics (e.g. Gothic hunsl 'sacrifice', English
                    housel), I gather the original meaning could be 'offer', as in Iberian
                    eguan (surely a deverbative noun from an unrecorded verb *e-guan-).
                  • Bhrihskwobhloukstroy
                    I knew them and I m also very interested
                    Message 9 of 15 , Feb 24, 2013
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                      I knew them and I'm also very interested

                      2013/2/24, Tavi <oalexandre@...>:
                      > --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, "Tavi" <oalexandre@...> wrote:
                      >>
                      >> The forms axo(n)ias, axonis are attested on lead foil inscriptions
                      > found
                      >> at the thermal station Amélie-les-Bains/Banys d'Arles
                      >> (Rosselló). They're Italoid votive texts directed to water godesses
                      >> called kantas niskas 'sacred girls'. These inscriptions, discovered at
                      >> the beggining of the 20th, have been studied by Coromines in a 1976
                      >> article, but are mostly unknown to the rest of the world:
                      >>
                      >> KANTAS NISKAS ROGAMOS ET DEP(R)ECAMUS VOS OT SANETE NON LERANCE (E)
                      > DEUS
                      >> ET NESCA PETEIA ET ELETA NESCA SLA(T) SNUKU AS M(E)
                      >> [...]
                      >>
                      > I'm really puzzled by the *null* interest shown by IE-ists, even in this
                      > list.
                      >
                      > Of course, kantas is a femenine plural from IE *k´wen-to- 'holy'.
                      > From the Germanic semantics (e.g. Gothic hunsl 'sacrifice', English
                      > housel), I gather the original meaning could be 'offer', as in Iberian
                      > eguan (surely a deverbative noun from an unrecorded verb *e-guan-).
                      >
                      >
                      >
                    • Rick McCallister
                      As you know, nesko (vel sim --trying to remember back 20 years) is Basque for little girl and in some regional forms in Spain means mushroom ... From: Tavi
                      Message 10 of 15 , Feb 24, 2013
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                        As you know, nesko (vel sim --trying to remember back 20 years) is Basque for "little girl" and in some regional forms in Spain means "mushroom"

                        --- On Sun, 2/24/13, Tavi <oalexandre@...> wrote:

                        From: Tavi <oalexandre@...>
                        Subject: Re: [tied] IE models (was: Ligurian)
                        To: cybalist@yahoogroups.com
                        Date: Sunday, February 24, 2013, 11:02 AM

                         

                        --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, "Tavi" wrote:
                        >
                        > The forms axo(n)ias, axonis are attested on lead foil inscriptions
                        found
                        > at the thermal station Amélie-les-Bains/Banys d'Arles
                        > (Rosselló). They're Italoid votive texts directed to water godesses
                        > called kantas niskas 'sacred girls'. These inscriptions, discovered at
                        > the beggining of the 20th, have been studied by Coromines in a 1976
                        > article, but are mostly unknown to the rest of the world:
                        >
                        > KANTAS NISKAS ROGAMOS ET DEP(R)ECAMUS VOS OT SANETE NON LERANCE (E)
                        DEUS
                        > ET NESCA PETEIA ET ELETA NESCA SLA(T) SNUKU AS M(E)
                        > [...]
                        >
                        I'm really puzzled by the *null* interest shown by IE-ists, even in this
                        list.

                        Of course, kantas is a femenine plural from IE *k´wen-to- 'holy'.
                        From the Germanic semantics (e.g. Gothic hunsl 'sacrifice', English
                        housel), I gather the original meaning could be 'offer', as in Iberian
                        eguan (surely a deverbative noun from an unrecorded verb *e-guan-).

                      • Tavi
                        ... Basque for little girl ... Actually, it s neska (unmarried) girl , seemingly a diminutive with the suffix -ka. So niska is seemingly a diminutive from
                        Message 11 of 15 , Feb 25, 2013
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                          --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, Rick McCallister <gabaroo6958@...>
                          wrote:
                          >
                          > As you know, nesko (vel sim --trying to remember back 20 years) is
                          Basque for "little girl"
                          >
                          Actually, it's neska '(unmarried) girl', seemingly a diminutive with the
                          suffix -ka. So niska is seemingly a diminutive from Iberian nis´
                          'woman' (?), a Wanderwort found in several language families (NEC,
                          Uralic, Semitic).

                          > and in some regional forms in Spain means "mushroom"
                          >
                          This is níscalo or mízcalo (Lactarius deliciosus).
                        • dgkilday57
                          ... Does NISKAS have any necessary connection with Basque _neska_? I am reminded of OHG _nichus_, _nih(h)us_ water-elf , OE _nicor_, ON _nykr_, etc., given
                          Message 12 of 15 , Feb 25, 2013
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                            --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, "Tavi" <oalexandre@...> wrote:
                            >
                            > --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, "Tavi" <oalexandre@> wrote:
                            > >
                            > > The forms axo(n)ias, axonis are attested on lead foil inscriptions
                            > found
                            > > at the thermal station Amélie-les-Bains/Banys d'Arles
                            > > (Rosselló). They're Italoid votive texts directed to water godesses
                            > > called kantas niskas 'sacred girls'. These inscriptions, discovered at
                            > > the beggining of the 20th, have been studied by Coromines in a 1976
                            > > article, but are mostly unknown to the rest of the world:
                            > >
                            > > KANTAS NISKAS ROGAMOS ET DEP(R)ECAMUS VOS OT SANETE NON LERANCE (E)
                            > DEUS
                            > > ET NESCA PETEIA ET ELETA NESCA SLA(T) SNUKU AS M(E)
                            > > [...]
                            > >
                            > I'm really puzzled by the *null* interest shown by IE-ists, even in this
                            > list.
                            >
                            > Of course, kantas is a femenine plural from IE *k´wen-to- 'holy'.
                            > From the Germanic semantics (e.g. Gothic hunsl 'sacrifice', English
                            > housel), I gather the original meaning could be 'offer', as in Iberian
                            > eguan (surely a deverbative noun from an unrecorded verb *e-guan-).
                            >
                            Does NISKAS have any necessary connection with Basque _neska_? I am reminded of OHG _nichus_, _nih(h)us_ 'water-elf', OE _nicor_, ON _nykr_, etc., given the context.

                            DGK
                          • Tavi
                            ... Yes, that s right. ... Etymology? What about -sk-?
                            Message 13 of 15 , Feb 26, 2013
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                              --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, "dgkilday57" <dgkilday57@...> wrote:
                              >
                              > > KANTAS NISKAS ROGAMOS ET DEP(R)ECAMUS VOS OT SANETE NON LERANCE (E)
                              > > DEUS
                              > > ET NESCA PETEIA ET ELETA NESCA SLA(T) SNUKU AS M(E)
                              > > [...]
                              > >
                              > > I'm really puzzled by the *null* interest shown by IE-ists, even in this
                              > > list.
                              > >
                              > > Of course, kantas is a femenine plural from IE *k´wen-to- 'holy'.
                              > > From the Germanic semantics (e.g. Gothic hunsl 'sacrifice', English
                              > > housel), I gather the original meaning could be 'offer', as in Iberian
                              > > eguan (surely a deverbative noun from an unrecorded verb *e-guan-).
                              > >
                              > Does NISKAS have any necessary connection with Basque _neska_?
                              >
                              Yes, that's right.

                              > I am reminded of OHG _nichus_, _nih(h)us_ 'water-elf', OE _nicor_, ON _nykr_, etc., given the context.
                              >
                              Etymology? What about -sk-?
                            • Rick McCallister
                              nesko is obviously from ne-sk-, so look for ne-/ni- words. Who knows, it could be from Celtic, see Gaelic naimh (vel sim) holy, saint or from the
                              Message 14 of 15 , Feb 26, 2013
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                                nesko is obviously from ne-sk-, so look for ne-/ni- words.
                                Who knows, it could be from Celtic, see Gaelic naimh (vel sim) "holy, saint" or from the Lusitanian-Ligurian-Venetic-Illyrian continuum

                                --- On Tue, 2/26/13, Tavi <oalexandre@...> wrote:

                                From: Tavi <oalexandre@...>
                                Subject: Re: [tied] IE models (was: Ligurian)
                                To: cybalist@yahoogroups.com
                                Date: Tuesday, February 26, 2013, 11:12 AM

                                 
                                --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, "dgkilday57" wrote:
                                >
                                > > KANTAS NISKAS ROGAMOS ET DEP(R)ECAMUS VOS OT SANETE NON LERANCE (E)
                                > > DEUS
                                > > ET NESCA PETEIA ET ELETA NESCA SLA(T) SNUKU AS M(E)
                                > > [...]
                                > >
                                > > I'm really puzzled by the *null* interest shown by IE-ists, even in this
                                > > list.
                                > >
                                > > Of course, kantas is a femenine plural from IE *k´wen-to- 'holy'.
                                > > From the Germanic semantics (e.g. Gothic hunsl 'sacrifice', English
                                > > housel), I gather the original meaning could be 'offer', as in Iberian
                                > > eguan (surely a deverbative noun from an unrecorded verb *e-guan-).
                                > >
                                > Does NISKAS have any necessary connection with Basque _neska_?
                                >
                                Yes, that's right.

                                > I am reminded of OHG _nichus_, _nih(h)us_ 'water-elf', OE _nicor_, ON _nykr_, etc., given the context.
                                >
                                Etymology? What about -sk-?

                              • Tavi
                                ... Actually, it s neska, with final -a. ... Not so obvious to me. You forgot Iberian nis´, without diminutive suffix.
                                Message 15 of 15 , Feb 27, 2013
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                                  --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, Rick McCallister <gabaroo6958@...> wrote:
                                  >
                                  > nesko
                                  >
                                  Actually, it's neska, with final -a.

                                  > is obviously from ne-sk-, so look for ne-/ni- words.
                                  >
                                  Not so "obvious" to me. You forgot Iberian nis´, without diminutive suffix.
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