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Re: Res: [tied] Reindeer domestication : two orig ins

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  • tgpedersen
    ... Actually Proto-PGmc or PPGmc, to split another hair. ... I only got around to OCR ing parts of it; here s the index: Inhaltsverzeichnis Vorwort Symbole,
    Message 1 of 77 , Dec 19, 2008
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      --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, Piotr Gasiorowski <gpiotr@...> wrote:
      >
      > On 2008-12-15 18:39, tgpedersen wrote:
      >
      > > Proto-Germanic accent was initial. Let's be more specific.
      > > The accent of some ancestor of Germanic was not.
      >
      > Well, it did not become initial till after VL, which means --
      > fairly recently. Of course if one exclusively reserves the name
      > "Proto-Germanic" for the very last common ancestor of the
      > historically known languages, the PGmc. so defined had initial
      > stress, but perhaps it would be an exercise in hairsplitting to
      > call a stage older by just a couple of centuries "pre-PGmc."

      Actually Proto-PGmc or PPGmc, to split another hair.

      > > Possibly the accent
      > > of some major donor of loans to Proto-Gmc. wasn't either. Now wrt.
      > > glaesum there's ODa. glar "glass", wrt. Hase/hare the
      > > corresponding Latin is *k^a[s]-n- > ca:n-, thus with matching
      > > /a/'s as in Kuhn'slist,
      >
      > It may be a schwa secundum after all. There are some Gmc. forms
      > with /e/ (ON hjasi), suggesting *k^es-o:[n]/*k^&s-n-ós. Then the
      > Latin word (which is not as exact match for the Gmc. one) would
      > represent *k^&s-nó-. Skt. s'as'a- could even reflect *k^eso-.
      >
      > > and I can't think up any example of a Gmc. noun with Verner
      > > alternation that is without indicators that it might be a loan;
      > > could you cite an example?
      >
      > You don't know 'wheel' (for example; there are many more)? There'a
      > a whole thick book about such nouns (S. Schaffner, 2001, _Das
      > Vernersche Gesetz und der innerparadigmatische grammatische Wechsel
      > des urgermanischen im Nominalbereich_, Innsbruck: Meid).

      I only got around to OCR'ing parts of it; here's the index:
      'Inhaltsverzeichnis
      Vorwort
      Symbole, Quellen, Abkürzungen, Literaturverzeichnis
      I Das Vernersche Gesetz und die Vertretung des urgermanischen
      grammatischen Wechsels in den altgermanischen
      Einzelsprachen
      II Der innerparadigmatische grammatische Wechsel der germanischen
      Nomina vor dem Hintergrund der urindogermanischen Akzent-
      und Ablautklassen
      III Die germanischen a-Stämme mit grammatischem Wechsel
      III Die maskulinen a-Stämme mit grammatischem Wechsel
      *axa-(?) : *aGa- (bzw *aGu-) "Barsch" :
      *axila- : *aGila- "Ähre, Granne"
      *axwala- : *aGwala- "Haken, Gabel"
      *ansa- : *anza- "Balken"
      *Bar(u)xa- : *BaruGa- "verschnittener Eber"
      *Buþla- : *Buðla-() "Aufenthaltsort, Haus"
      *ðara/uþa- : *ðarða- "Speer, Spieß"
      *Gaysa-{?) : *Gayza- "Ger, Speer"
      *Gunþa- : *Gunða- "Eiter, Geschwür"
      *xafra-(?) : *xaBra- "Bock"
      *xanxista- : *xanGista- "Hengst"
      *xarþa-/*xara/uþa- : *xarða- "Wald, Bergwald"
      *xaruxa- : *xaruGa- "Opferstätte, Heiligtum"
      *xixara- : *xiGara- "Häher, Elster, Specht"
      *xufila- : *xuBila- "Hügel"
      *xurþila- : *xurðila- "Hürde, Rahmen"
      *ki:þla- : *ki:ðla- "Keil"
      *mayxwa-(?) : *mayGwa-(?) "Möwe"
      *munþa- : *munða-(?) "Mund"
      *o:sa(n)- : *o:za(n)- "Mündung; Anfang"
      *skayþa- : *skayða- "Scheidung"
      *staþla- : *staðla- "Stehen, Stand"
      *swefla-(?) : *sweBla- "Schwefel"
      *tuxila- : *tuGila- "Band, Riemen, Zügel"
      *þre:xila- (*þraxila-?) : *þreGila- "Diener, Knecht"
      *ux(w)na- : *ufna- : *uG(w)na- "Ofen"
      *wexila- : *weGila- "Rohrweihe, Fischadler"
      III Die neutralen a-Stämme mit grammatischem Wechsel
      *alþra- : *alðra- "Alter, Lebensalter"
      *anþiya- n. "Stirn" : *anðiya- m. n. "Ende, Rand"
      *Basia- : *Bazia- "Beere"
      *Bi:þla- : *Biðla- "Beil, Schwert"
      *Blo:þa- : *Blo:ða- "Blut"
      *Brawþa- : *Brawða- "Brot"
      *Bruþa- : *Bruða-(?) "Brühe"
      *ðu:sa- : *ðu:za- "(Wind)Stille"
      *fanxa- : *fanGa- "Fang"
      *ferxwa- : *ferGwa- "Welt, Leben"
      *fo:þra- : *fo:ðra- "Behälter; Futteral, Scheide"
      *frewsa-(?) : *fruza- "Frost"
      *Gle:/asa- : *Gle:/aza- "Bernstein; Glas"
      *-xanxa- : *-xanGa- "-hang"
      *xliþa- : *xliða- "Deckel, Decke"
      *xrenþ/ða- : *xrunþ/ða- "Rind"
      *xrewþa- : *xrewða- "Ried, Schilf, Röhricht":
      *xulxwa- (*xulxwa-?) : *xulGwa- (*xulGwa-?) "Loch, Höhle"
      *xurxwa- (*xurxwa-?) : *xurGwa- (*xurGwa-?) "Schlamm,
      Schleim, Schmutz"
      *xwexwla- : *xweGw(u)la- "Rad"
      *i:sarna- : *i:zarna-(?) "Eisen"
      *yexwla- : *yeGwla- "Julfest"
      *kasa- : *kaza- "Gefäß"
      *kenþa- : *kenða-(?) "Kind"
      *kurþra- : *kurðra- "Herde"
      *-kusa- : *-kuza- "Wahl, Entscheidung"
      *le:'þa- : *-le:'ða- "Landbesitz"
      *mati-saxsa- : *mati-zaxsa- "Messer"
      *maþla- : *maðla- "Versammlungsort"
      *rasna- : *razna- "Haus; Balken, Planke"
      *rawsa- : *rawza- "Rohr"
      *taxra-/*taxru- : *taGra-/*taGru- "Träne, Zähre"
      *ti:fra-(?) : *ti:bra- n "Opfergabe, Opfertier"
      III Thematische Adjektiva mit grammatischem Wechsel
      *aBuxa- : *aBuGa- "verkehrt, abgewandt"
      *alþa- : *alða- "alt"
      *Balþa- : *Balða- "kühn, mutig, dreist"
      *ðawþ(?) : *ðawða- "tot":
      *ðusiga- : *ðuziGa- "töricht, dumm"
      VII Die maskulinen u-Stämme mit grammatischem Wechsel
      *ferþ/ðu- : *furðu- "Fjord, Bucht; Furt"
      *Grunþu- : *Grunðu- "Grund, Boden"
      *xaþu- : *xaðu- "Kampf, Krieg"
      *xunxru- : *xunGru- "Hunger"
      *kwiþu- : *kwiðu- "Bauch, Magen; Mutterleib"
      *plo:xu-/a-(?) : *plo:Gu-/a-(?) "Pflug"
      *swarþu- : *swarðu- "Schwarte, Kopfhaut"
      *wre:þu- : *wre:ðu- "Herde, Schar"
      *laGu- "See, Wasser" : *lax(w)o:- "Wasserlacke"
      U-stämmige Adjektiva mit grammatischem Wechsel
      *þursu-(?) : *þurzu- "trocken, dürr"
      *tanxu- : *tanGu-(?) "zäh, anhaftend"
      *þranxu- : *þranGu-(?) "gedrängt"
      VIII Die maskulinen n-Stämme mit grammatischem Wechsel
      *an-anþan- : *anðan- "Atem Eifer, Furcht"
      *e:þman- : *e:ðman- "Atem, Hauch"
      *Gre:f(iy)an- : *Gre:B(iy)an- "Graf"
      *xasan- : *xazan- "Hase"
      *xersan- : *xerzn- "Hirn, Schädel, Scheitel"
      *xri:þan- : *xriðan- "Zittern, Fieber"
      *xwerfan- : *xwerBan- "Drehung, Wirbel, Wendung"
      *knuþ/ðan- : *knuttan- "Knoten, Knorren"
      *kunþ(ii)an- : *kunð(iy)an-(?) "Künder, Zeuge"
      *luxan- : *luGan- "Flamme, Lohe"
      *maxan- : *ma/o:Gan- "Mohn"
      *mu:xan- : *mu:Gan- : *mukkan- "Haufen, Menge"
      *sawþan- : *sawðan- "(Sod)brennen, Wallen"
      *slaxan- : *slaGan- "Schläger, Mörder"
      *-tuxan- : *-tuGan- "Führer"
      *wri:xan- : *wri:Gan- "Kniekehle, Rist"
      VIII Neutraler n-Stamm: *awsan-(?) : *awzan- "Ohr"
      IX Reste anderer Konsonantenstämme mit grammatischem Wechsel
      IX Neutrale -es/os-Stämme mit grammatischem Wechsel?
      *xrenþaz/-iz-(?) : *xrunþ/ðaz/-iz-(?) "Rind"
      *kelþaz/-iz- : *kulðaz/-iz-(?) "Kind"
      *þenxaz/-iz-(?) : *þenGaz/-iz-(?) "festgesetzte Zeit; Versammlung"
      IX *nikwus- : *nikwuz- "Wassergeist, Wasserungeheuer"
      IX Fortsetzer amphikinetischer- -nt-Stämme mit grammatischem Wech­sel
      *alunþ-(?) : *alanð-/*alunð- "Aland"
      *e:banþ-(?) : *e:banð-/-unð-(?) "Abend"
      *tanþ-/*tanð- : tunð- "Zahn"
      *wisanð- : *wizunð- "Wisent"
      IX Urgermanisch *stuþ-: *stuð- "Stütze, Säule, Pfeiler"
      X Wortindices'

      Why so few? Why so many a's?
      And a good deal of them seem to be NWEurope or Germanic only.


      > > In the meanwhile,
      > > 1) *xrinþiz- ~ *xrunþiz-, as if they should be divided
      > > *xr-inþ-iz- ~ *xr-unþ-iz-, in which case the i/u alternation is a
      > > case of Gmc. suffix vowel alternation and we can leave out Verner
      > > effects.
      >
      > I doubt if you can divide them like that, since I neever, niver,
      > never in my leaf, life, loaf saw an -nt- participle become an *-es-
      > neuter.

      There are only two s-neuters on the list beside *xrinþaz-, one is
      *kelþaz, of which *kendaz might be suspected of being a variant,
      although I can't see what kind of root *k- would represent.


      Torsten
    • Torsten
      ... BTW, from Møller VISW d1 k^-nk- hang (
      Message 77 of 77 , Mar 16, 2010
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        --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, "Torsten" <tgpedersen@...> wrote:

        And in English:

        --- In cybalist@yahoogroups.com, "Torsten" <tgpedersen@> wrote:
        >

        BTW, from Møller VISW
        d1 k^-nk- "hang" (< Proto-IE k^-n-g-, intr. k^ánag-),
        Got. OHG. ha:han OE ho:n trans. "hang",
        intr. OHG hange:n MHG hangen ON hanga OE hongian "hang",
        Sanskr. s^an,ka-te: "(suspensus est, >) wavers, doubts, is worried",
        s^an,ká : "doubt, worry, fear",
        s^an,kita- "worried for, apprehensive of",
        Lat. cunctor "wavers, hesitates",
        ON hæ:tta "jeopardize, risk, dare",
        (with a:) "let be dependent of something";

        : IE k^-n-g- (< pre-IE-Semitic k^-n-G.-) in
        OHG henchen MHG henken "execute";
        this k^-ng-
        = Semit. s^-n-k.- (k. < Proto-Semit. G.),
        Arab. s^anak.a "ligavit, alligavit,
        he bound (the camel with the s^ina:k.),
        he curbed (the camel) by means of his zima:m (or nose-rein),
        he bound (the head of the beast) to the head of a tree or to an
        elevated peg so that his neck became extended,
        he suspended (the waterskin) to a peg",
        (post-classical s^anak.a > Modern Arab.
        s^enek. "he hanged (him) by the neck till he died",
        mis^na-k.atuN > Modern Arab. mes^nak.a "a gallows",
        part. mas^nu:k.uN "put to death by being hanged"),
        intr. s^anik.a "he became attached (to a thing)",
        Syr. senek. "indiguit", aph. "indigere fecit, induxit, coegit",
        Arab. s^anak.uN "the heart's longing for a thing",
        sina:k.uN "any cord by which a thing is suspended, the suspensory
        cord of a waterskin".'
        http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/cybalist/message/45244
        http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/cybalist/message/45248
        http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/cybalist/message/45262


        If this comparison refers to something real, it means that the
        *xanx- etc root means not "hang" as in "suspend in the air" but
        primarily "tie (to something)" (note that hangings were first
        done by bending a flexible tree down to the ground, tie the
        culprit by the neck to the tree and then letting go of the tree).
        That means that xanx-ist- etc might have been a paraveredus, a
        spare horse, led by a rope (whatever the last element of the
        composite is. Why 'spare horse'? Seems that was the only way to
        think of a horse minus man in the saddle, in times of war.

        http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/cybalist/message/49417



        UEW:
        'c^onc^e "line (of the net)" FU
        ? Saami (Lind.-Öhrl.) tsuotse
        "extremity of fishermen's dragnets or outmost part",
        L suohttse:: suohttse: (stielas)
        "the piece (stielas) of a dragnet placed at the end of both wings",
        K (T. I. Itk., WbKKlp. 639) Kld. tsu:ot,t,s,,
        Ko. Not. tsu&^ot,´t,s,E
        "knot between the upper end of the dragnet and the outmost line (made up by two loops)"
        (> Finn. suotsa "loop connecting the line of the net with the other line or with the line of the dragnet") |

        ? Khanty (952)
        V c^on.c^&G, DN c^unc^&, Ni. s^uns^& "rope (V DN Ni.), line (DN)".

        Khanty &G is a derivation suffix.

        On the Saami-Khanty semantic corresponce cf.
        Finn. siula "outer part of the net" ~
        Saami L siulo- "line made out of sinews";
        Swed.-Dan. garn "yarn" ~ "net".

        Because of the geographically distant relationship the set is uncertain.

        Toivonen (FUF 19:114) places
        Finn. huntu "women's head shawl"
        here. Phonetically this is irreproachable, but it should be rejected for semantic reasons'.

        And the -est- part would then have been the Venetic -est-
        adjectivising suffix.


        This is out on limb, but most of what I write is anyway, so what the heck:

        Saddles have horns to fasten things to, cf
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saddle
        http://saddlezone.com/html-top/saddle_history.htm
        Since the idea is new to the Roman in the 1st cent BCE, I suspect Sarmatian provenance.

        Any one who googles 'ponying' (seems to be the technical term) and 'saddle horn' will discover that extra horses are lead by looping the guide rope over the saddle horn, not tying it.
        Leading as many as four horses, you'd need up to four horns, or?
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mongol_military_tactics_and_organization
        'Each Mongol soldier typically maintained between 3 or 4 horses.'
        http://afe.easia.columbia.edu/mongols/conquests/khans_horses.pdf
        'Genghis Khan understood the importance of horses and insisted that his troops be solicitous of their steeds. A cavalryman normally had three or four, so that each was, at one time or another, given a respite from bearing the weight of the rider during a lengthy journey.'
        One wonders what else the four horns of the Sarmatian(?) saddle could be used for. So, cf. here the entry in UEW following the one I already quoted:

        'c^uc^æ 'bar, rafter' U
        ? Saami (Toiv.: FUF 19:89) L sos:o
        "the middle rafter in the rack on which the dragnet is suspended to dry" |

        mord. (Ravila: JSFOu. 61:92)
        E c^oc^ko, (IE) M s^oc^ka, z^oc^ka "trunk, beam" ||

        Samoyed
        Selkup
        Ta. c^uods^o, tooto "bridge",
        Ke. coodsa, coodso "rafter",
        Ke. coods "bridge" id.,
        (Donn.: MSFOu. 67:74) TaU totä, Ty. c^o:c^ "rafter for drying fish".

        Mord. ko and ka are denom. nominal suffixes.

        The s in auslaut in Saami s irregular. It is possible that *c became s under the assimilatory influence of the inlaut consonant. Also because of the infrequent occurrences it is uncertain whether the Saami word belongs here.

        For phonetic reasons the
        Finn. töntö (Gen. tönnön)
        "rafter for supporting or blocking, support, locking bar"
        (...) erroneously assigned here does not belong in this context.

        Some researchers (Wichmann: ibd.; Setälä: ibd.; Beitr. 136 with ?) placed the Perm. and Samoyed words together with
        Saami N cå3'3å -33- "steady rock, ledge vel sim., where you can get a foothold on a pile of rocks or on a precipitous rockface or in a river".
        That is not acceptable, for phonetic and semantic reasons.

        Udmurt 3^a3^i and Komi 3^a3^ "shelf, set of shelves" (...) do not belong here, for phonetic (Komi-Udmurt a < *ä) and semantic reasons."

        It's tempting to postulate some connection between
        c^onc^e "line (of the net)" and
        c^uc^æ "support (for hanging things on)"
        which would be outside of Uralic (or UEW would have claimed it).

        And now the IE version.

        Pokorny:

        '2. k^a(:)k-, nasalised k^ank- "branch, twig, peg";
        k^a(:)kha: f. "curved branch, plough".
        Sanskrit s´á:kha: f. "branch" (: Got. ho:ha, Arm. c.ax);
        s´ákala- m. n. "chip, splitter, log, chipping, piece"
        (: Lit. s^akaly~s);
        s´an,kú- m. "nog, peg, pole"
        (: ChSl. so,kU, Welsh cainc, ON ha:r);
        s´akti- f. "spear" (: OIr ce:cht);
        Arm. c.ax "twig", perhaps loan from
        Pers. s´a:x id., and this from
        Sansk. s´a:kha:;
        acc. to Meillet Esquisse 3 36, Slave commun 2 23 f. rather from
        PIE *k^sa:kh-;
        because of the sense uncertain
        Alb. thekë "frazzle, tip", cf. still the same sense of
        Norw. hekel "frazzle" under *keg-;
        Welsh cainc (*kanku:, cf. the u-stem Sansk. s´an,ku-), pl. cangau,
        MWelsh canghau "branch",
        MIr. ge:c, nir. géag "branch" (with secondary media in anlaut),
        with -sk-suffix
        gallo-rom. *gascaria (French jachère) "fallow land",
        literally "ploughland", Hubschmied Vox Rom. III 1233;
        OIr ge:scae "twig, branch";
        with t- suffix
        OIr ce:cht "plough"
        (probably as *kank-to- most closely related to Sansk. s´akti-);
        Got. ho:ha "plough" (= Sansk. s´ákha:),
        OHG huohili "aratiuncula";
        nas. ON ha:r "oarlock" (*hanha, Finn. loan),
        hoe:ll "peg, log" (*hanhila-);
        Lit. s^akà "branch" (ablaut. with Sansk. s´á:kha:),
        s^a:ke. "fork",
        s^akaly~s "splitter" (: Sansk. s´ákala-),
        s^aknìs, apr. sagnis f., Latv. sakne "root";
        Lit. s^akarnis "branching",
        Latv. saka:rnis "root end";
        ChSl. so,kU "surculus";
        Slav. socha "baton" (ChSl. usw.) "hook, plough (Russ.),
        Gabelstange" (Pol.),
        Pol. rozsocha "forked branch",
        ChSl. posochU m. "baton".
        WP. I 335, Trautmann 297 ff., Specht Idg. Dekl. 55, 254;
        cf. under
        ke(n)g-, ke(n)k- "peg, hook" S. 537 f. and
        k^enk-, k^onk- "wawer, hang", S. 565.'



        keg-, keng- and kek-, kenk- "peg to hang things on, hook, handle";
        also "be pointed";
        cf. the similar k^ak-, k^ank-; and k^enk-, k^onk-.
        NPers. c^ang "claw, fist" (*kengo-);
        MIr. ail-cheng f. "(weapon) rack"
        (: Lit. kénge., s. below);
        Gmc *hakan-, *ho:ka-, *he:kan- m. "hook" in:
        toponym name Haki m. "hook",
        haka f. "chinn",
        OE haca m. "bar, bolt", hæcce f. "crosier";
        ON ha:kr m. "scamp",
        OHG ha:ko, ha:ggo "hook",
        OE ho:c m. "hook",
        MLG hok, huk m. "corner, promontory",
        ON høkja f. (*ho:kio:n-) "crutch", høkill m. "stern";
        with intensive gemination:
        OE haccian "hack", MLG, MHG hacken id.,
        and the j- verbs:
        OE ofhæccan "amputare",
        OHG hecchen "bite, stab",
        MHG hecken "cut, stab";
        nasalised MLG hank "handle"
        (from that ON ho,nk m., hanki f. "handle"),
        Dutch honk, East Fr. hunk "pole, post";

        Gmc *hakilo: f. "heckle" (from the curved iron teeth) [
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heckling_comb ] in:
        OLG hekilon "heckle",
        Engl. hatchel, MHG hechel "heckle",
        Norw. hekla "heckle";
        Gmc *hakuda- m. "pike" (from the sharp teeth) in OE hacod;
        *hakida in OE hacid m., OHG hachit, hechit, MLG heket "pike" ;
        Lit. kénge. f. "hook, latch";
        Slav. *kogUtI m. in
        Russ. kógotI "claw, curved iron tip",
        OSorb. kocht "thorn, sting" (: Gmc *hakuda-);
        perhaps here also, as
        "hang up on a hook, scratch as with a hook":
        bulg. kác^U, kác^(u)vam "raise, hang",
        za-kác^U, -kác^am "hang, grasp, taunt",
        serb. zàkac^iti "hook on",
        sloven. kác^iti "taunt, annoy" (Berneker 465 f.).
        WP. I 382 f., WH. I 307, Trautmann 112,
        Wissmann Nom. postverb. 182 f.,
        Petersson, Heterokl. 91 f.;
        Stokes BB. 25, 252.


        1. kenk- "gird, envelop, tie (to smt.)".
        Ai. káncate: (Dha:tup.) "binds",
        kañcuka- m. "armour, doublet, bodice",
        ka:ñci: f. "belt";
        Greek kigklís "grid" (on i from e s. Solmsen Beitr. I 214 f.),
        kákala n. pl. "walls" (*kn.k-),
        podo-kák(k)e: "fetter";
        lat. cingo:, -ere "gird, enclose in a girdle-like manner",
        umbr. sihitu "cinctos", perhaps also
        c,ihc,er^a "cancellos" (*kinkeda:-);
        lat. -g for c derailment caused by the ambiguous cinxi, cinctum after presents like clingo:, mingo:; WH. I 217 adds to this
        Celt. cing- "walk" (differently above p. 439), if originally "*turn in a circle"; the auslaut variation anyway would be understood more easily than the anlaut variation assumed on p. 439; a third way on
        Celt. cing-
        Kuiper Nasalpräs. 168 f.;
        Lit. kinkau~, -ýti "harness horses".

        An un-nasalised root form *kek- has been proposed in
        Sansk. kaca- m. "human hair ("*tied together"?); scar, seam, band"
        and
        lat. cica:tri:x "scar, scratch"
        (because of a *cica:re from *ceca:re "tie together, cicatrize")?


        k^enk-, k^onk- "waver",
        originally "hang (in the balance)".
        Sanskrit s´án,kate: "vacillates, doubts, fears",
        s´an,ká: "worry, fear, doubt",
        s´an,kita- "worried";
        lat. cunctor "hesitate, am undecided" from *concitor frequentative of *conco:, or deriv. from partcp. *concitos = Sansk. s´an,kita-;
        ON hæ:tta "dare" (*hanhatjan-),
        hæ:tta f. "danger, venture",
        ha:ski m. id. (*hanhaskan-);
        Got. st. V. ha:han (pret. haíha:h) "hang, leave hanging",
        ON hanga (pret. hekk),
        OE ho:n (pret. heng),
        OHG ha:han (pret. hiang) "hang" (trans.);
        Got. weak verb ha:han (pret. ha:haida) "hang",
        ON hanga, OE hongian, OHG hange:n "hang" (intrans.);
        causative ON hengja, OHG henge:n "hang";
        OHG MHG henken "aufhängen" from *hengjan, from that
        German Henkel, Swiss Germ. henkel "carrying strap",
        cf. MHG hengel "iron hook, handle"; further likely
        OHG ha:hila, -ala f., MLG hole n. "kettle hook" (*hanhilo:);
        Hitt. ga-an-ki (kanki) "hangs".
        '

        Latin cunctor must, pace Pokorny, be derived from an old impers. (ie. 3sg. mediopassive) perfect *kunk-to- "was tied" with dative(?).


        I don't think a match could get any better than that.

        The "jump" verb from which *xanx/G-ist "stallion; horse" is usually derived then probably meant "leading (a horse) by a line" (and pace P. here too):

        '1. k^a:k-: k^&k-,
        probably k^a:[i]k-: k^i:k-
        (with k^&k- as ablauting new derivation of k^a:k-)
        "jump (around), gush out".

        Greek ke:kío: "gush out",
        ka:kío:: ´idrou~n árxomai.
        Láko:nes Hes., ke:kí:s, -i~dos, dor. ka:kí:s f.
        "whatever gushes out (blood; purple; frying fat; steam)";
        Lesb. kagkúle: id. Hes.;
        Lit. s^ókti "jump, dance";
        nasalised s^ankùs "agile",
        s^ankìnti "make (a horse) jump" (cf. kagkúle:) and
        OHG hengist, OE hengest "stallion",
        actually superl. "jumping best (onto)",
        Gmc *hangista besides *hanhista (gramm. Wechsel) in
        ON hestr "horse", to the positive *hanha-, further
        Dat. urnord. hahai "to the runner" and
        OHG Ha:h-, Hang-, ON Ha:- in names; further
        Celt. *kankstika: "Stute" in
        Welsh caseg id., bret. pl. kezeg "horses", dial. "mares",
        OCorn. cassec "mare", Gaul. toponym Cassiciate (loc.) "horse park".

        For ka:ik- : ki:k- are cited the likely
        Thracian-Phrygian síkin(n)is
        "dance of the Satyrs in honor of Dionysos"
        (although i in the lex., but Eur. Cycl. 37 also compatible with i:), probably also
        ki~kus f. "power", more exactly "mobility, freshness",
        ki:kúo:: taxúno:, isxúo: Zonar.,
        ep. ion. áki:kus, -nos "weak, lax";

        ...

        WP. I 334, Hofmann Etym. Gr. Wb. 142, Kluge11 s. v. Hengst.



        And the "hunger, thirst" root is probably "tightening one's belt" (impers./mediopass. "it is tightening", cf the second Sanskrit form):

        '2. kenk- "burn (be dry), hurt;
        also esp. of burning thirst and hunger".
        Ai. ka:n,ks.ati "desires" ("burning longing"),
        kákate: (Dha:tup.) "thirsts";
        Greek kégkei: peina~,
        (from aor. *kakei~n a new pres. *kágko: arose, cf.:)
        kagkoméne:s: kse:ra~s to:,~ phóbo:, Hes.,
        Hom. polukagké:s (dípsa) "very burning",
        kágkanos "dry"
        kagkaínei: thálpei, kse:raínei Hes.,
        kagkaléa: katakekauména Hes.;
        kakithe:s: átrophos ámpelos;
        kakithés: lime:rés;
        kakithá: lime:rá Hes.
        (in the ending Schulze Kl. Schr. assumed 329 *aidh- "burn");
        Got. hu:hrus,
        with gramm. Wechsel
        ON hungr, OE hungor, OHG hungar (*kn.kru-) "hunger"
        (= Greek kak-);
        ablaut. ON ha: "torment" (*hanho:n");
        Lit. kankà "pain, suffering", kankìnti "torment", keñkti "hurt".
        WP. I 401, Trautmann 126, Wissmann Nom. postverb. 42.'


        and

        de Vries
        'sko,kull m. 'rein; shaft',
        nisl. skakel, skekil, nnorw. skokul 'thill',
        nschw. skackel 'shaft',
        nda skagle 'strap in horse tack'. —>
        ae. ON. Scakeltorp (zu sko,kull als BN., s. Ekwall 387), >
        finn. kakkula 'shaft' (Thomsen 2, 180), >
        lpN. skoakkal (Qvigstad 298).
        — ae. sceacol, (ne. shackle), mnl. schakel
        'fetter for animals, chain link, fish net',
        East Fr. schakel 'ring shaped wooden piece',
        demin. zu norw. skaak, nschw. dial skåk 'thill',
        nschw. dial skak 'necklace', zu
        ae sceac 'chain',
        nd. schake 'chain link'.
        — Perhaps from an IE root *(s)ke(n)g and then together with
        lat. cingo 'girt',
        lit. kinkau~, kinkýti 'harness' v.,
        gr. podo-kák(k)e: 'fetter',
        ai. ka:ñci: 'girdle' (FT 979)
        Connection with skaka not recommended here because of the sense, but instead with the forestry word family analyzed under sax.'

        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Horse_tack

        This smells more of horse than the Jolly Jumper theory. It seems thus that whatever horse knowledge the Germani had they had from other languages.

        Most likely leather belts (*kink-, etc) were derived from horse tack, where the material had to be developed first (no human has the girth to warrant their strength).

        Cf. 'cinch'
        http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Girth_%28tack%29



        Torsten
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