Re: The census of Quirinius: Carlson's rendering of Lk. 2.2
- <<<<In 1912, however, the discovery by W. M. Ramsey of a fragmentary
inscription at Antioch of Pisidia arguably established Quirinius was
in Syria on a previous occasion. (1) His role was more military to
lead a campaign against the Homanadenses, a tribe in the Taurus
Mountains. This is confirmed by Tacitus. This means that Quirinius
would have established a seat of government in Syria, including
Palestine, from the years 10 to 7 BCE. In this position he would have
been responsible for the census mentioned by Luke. This census of 7
BCE would therefore have been the "first" census taken when Cyrenius
was governor (Luke 2:2) and the historically documented census of 6/7
CE was really the second. There is further evidence of this first
census of 7 BCE in the writings of Tertullian who records the
census "taken in Judea by Sentius Saturninus." (2) C. Sentius
Saturninus was Legate of Syria from 9 to 6 BCE. Another inscription,
the Lapis Tiburtinus, was found in 1764 near Tivoli (Tibur). Composed
after 14 CE, the inscription names an unknown personage who was
legate of Syria twice. The man is described as having been victorious
in war. There is considerable dissension among scholars as to whether
the unnamed person is Quirinius. I think it is more likely that it
does indeed refer to the famous consul and soldier.>>
I am not so sure I want to postulate a hypothetical "first"
governorship of Syria by Quirinius when there is a very real L.
Calpurnius Piso who better fits the wording of the inscription in
question (ILS 918).>>
I'm sure that you're right about Piso, and the inscription is of course
partial, with the name missing. I'm no Latin expert, and perhaps someone can
confirm this, but I believe that '...legatus pr pr divi Augusti iterum Syriam et
Phoenicen optinuit' actually refers to his 'serving again as a legate of the
divine Augustus', ie he had served as a legate elsewhere in the past. I'm not
sure whether or not this would fit Piso.
There is a further problem in that the campaign against the Homonadenses
was carried out by P Quintillius (or Quinctillius) Varus, who was governor
immediately after Herod the Great's death, and was responsible for suppressing
a Jewish uprising at that time. Luke's 'Quirinius', on the other hand,
appears to be P Sulpicius Quirinius, the legate who is recorded by Josephus as
having carried out a census at the time of the establishment of the Province of
Judea, after the exile of Archelaus in 6 AD.
With apologies for the late reply.
[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]