> #1 Did the first-century Jews anticipate the coming of a Messiah?
> #2 If so, what sort of Messiah did they anticipate?
> #3 What sources of material can one draw from to determine this?
> #4 Must the source of material for messianism actually use the word "messiah" or its cognates?
In addition to what Richard Anderson gives below, a good web article is ...
Messianic Expectations in 1st Century Judaism -
Documentation From Non-Christian Sources - Glenn Miller
A very important book is
The Messiah: An Aramaic Interpretation, The Messianic Exegesis of the Targum- Samson H. Levy
Three more books should be mentioned, with DSS emphasis.
The Messiah before Jesus - The Suffering Servant and the Dead Sea Scrolls - Israel Knohl
Eschatology, Messianism and the Dead Sea Screolls - Craig Evans and Peter Flint.
The Scepter and the Star - The Messiahs of the Dead Sea Scrolls and other Ancient Literature - John J. Collins
The Signs of the Messiah 4Q521 - James Tabor
WAS THERE A "MESSIAH-JOSHUA" TRADITION AT THE TURN OF THE ERA? by Robert A. Kraft
Messianic Expectations in 4 BC and Other First Century "Christs" - Douglas Gilliland
H.L. Ellison, The Centrality of the Messianic Idea for the Old Testament
S. Mowinckel, He That Cometh
J. Klausner, The Messianic Idea in Israel
H. Ringgren, The Messiah in the Old Testament
J. Liver, "The Doctrine of the Two Messiahs in Sectarian Literature in the Time of the Second Commonwealth," (HTR 52: 14985) 1959.
J. Neusner, Messiah in Context, Judaisms and Their Messiahs at the Turn of the Christian Era
J.H. Charlesworth, The Messiah: Development in Earliest Judaism and Christianity
Messiah Idea in Jewish History - by Julius H. Greenstone.
Another window is the 2nd century ideas about Bar Kochba
(including the supernatural component)
The Image of Barkokhba in Traditional Jewish Literature - False Messiah and National Hero
- by Richard G. Marks
Rabbi Akiba's Messiah: The Origins of Rabbinic Authority
- by Daniel Gruber
Here is the most relevant Talmud passage.
[Messianic_Apologetic] Miracles only Messiah would perform
From the books below, the Abba Silver book only has a small section on the 1st century,
the Gerbern Oegema book has a lot.
My short answers to your questions would be
1) Yes (Simeon and Anna should not be forgotten :-) )
2) Targum Yonathan probably gives the most popular view, and it dovetails well with what
the *expectations* were in the New Testament. I agree with the Samson Levey idea
that Targum Yonathan is from before the 1st century.
3) See above and below, including the New Testament
(where the expectations often differ from the denouement).
Perhaps David Flusser has some good sections on this as well.
4) Hmmm.. good question. Noting that Targum Yonathan actually placed the word "Messiah"
into its interpretative translation of Isaiah 53, I would answer a qualified but not hard and fast yes.
Note, if you google some of the book names, or the Glenn Miller article name, you might find some other good material on the web.
>Main Author: Oegema, Gerbern S., 1958-
>Title: [Gesalbte und sein Volk. English]
> The anointed and his people : messianic expectations from Maccabees to Bar Kochba
>Mowinckel, Sigmund, 1884-1965.
>He that cometh / S. Mowinckel; translated by G. W. Anderson.
>Main Author: Oesterley, W. O. E. (William Oscar Emil), 1866-1950.
>Title: The evolution of the messianic idea : a study in comparative religion / by W. O. E. Oesterley.
>Publisher: London : Pitman, 1908.
>The Davidic dynasty tradition in early Judaism : its history and significance for Messianism
>/ by Kenneth E. Pomykala
>Main Author: Silver, Abba Hillel, 1893-1963.
>Title: A history of Messianic speculation in Israel: from the first through the seventeenth centuries