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Re: [XTalk] Re: Two Jesuses: the Provocative Parallels

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  • Stephen C. Carlson
    ... Thanks. ... I d like to review the chronology. Josephus states that the Jesus ben Ananias incident started during Sukkot about four years before the war
    Message 1 of 10 , Feb 3, 2005
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      At 11:09 PM 2/2/2005 -0500, Theodore Weeden wrote:
      >Good insight. I need to check that out.

      Thanks.

      >Stephen Carlson wrote on February 2, 2005:
      >> That being said, I think that the collection of these omens is an
      >> editorial
      >> selection of various traditions by Josephus, so the historical value, if
      >> any, of each one has to be assessed independently. In other words, the
      >> credibility of the Jesus ben Ananias account does not stand or fall with
      >> either the comet omen or the bizarre cow story.
      >
      >True. But I think the stories are told to make the point that God gave
      >sufficient, and more than sufficient, warning of God's impending judgment if
      >the Judeans pursued their rebellion against Rome. So the historicity of any
      >of these omens is not at issue for the story teller(s) who first formulated
      >them nor for Josephus. As I noted in my post to Bob Schacht tonight on the
      >genre of the story of Jesus son of Ananias. I think that the story of
      >Jesus-Ananias was fabricated to conform to the wisdom tale genre, with
      >Isaianic suffering servant features, a Deuteronomistic hermeneutical
      >creation produced after, and as a result of, the fall Jerusalem.

      I'd like to review the chronology.

      Josephus states that the Jesus ben Ananias incident started during
      Sukkot about four years before the war started, so we're looking at
      66-4 = 62 (autumn). After the incident, Jesus ben Ananias continued
      to mutter "Woe to Jerusalem," especially at festivals, for another
      7 years and five months, which takes us to spring of 70. When the
      thing started, however, Josephus either on his way to Rome or in
      Rome and did not return to Jerusalem until 65. The war started in
      66, and Josephus was appointed to a military position in Galilee,
      where he was captured in July 67. After some political maneuvering,
      Josephus ended up being a translator for Titus and arrived at
      Jerusalem on May 1, just in time for one of the Romans to kill
      the guy with some kind of catapult attack.

      Josephus was not in Jerusalem when the whole thing started, so
      he had no personal knowledge of what happened at any trial. He
      did have first-hand knowledge of this guy muttering "Woe to
      Jerusalem" when Josephus was at Jerusalem in 65/66 and 70, and
      it looks like this picqued his curiosity and Josephus asked
      around and got an account or accounts of the 62 trial at least
      second-hand. Josephus was politically connected, so his sources
      were reasonably well placed, but I doubt that Josephus relied
      on written records for this information but relied on his oral
      inquiries probably under very informal circumstances.

      It really seems unlikely to me that the Jesus ben Ananias is a
      complete fabrication. The man's behavior was too public and
      Josephus was too close to it for the complete fabrication
      scenario to explain why Josephus would be making this up.

      The way Josephus described Jesus ben Ananias, it just looks
      to me that the latter was mentally ill (a "madman" as what
      Josephus tells us about Albinus's concluded ). Interpreting
      Jesus ben Ananias as an omen about the destruction of Jerusalem
      can only be ex post facto, by one with a pro-Roman apolegetical
      interest. This was Josephus's Tendenz in War, and I have to
      think that this interpretation as a bad omen was largely invented
      by Josephus. I think we see the Josephus's spin in the other
      omens. For example, I doubt Comet Halley was thought of before
      the War as a bad omen for the Jews, but as a bad omen against
      the Romans. Frankly, I doubt that any Jew in Jerusalem except
      for Jesus actually interpreted these as bad omen against them.
      It's just post-war spin for Josephus.

      The next question to consider is where did the seemingly Christian
      details in the account come from. I suppose there are a couple
      of possibilties. For example, Josephus deliberately shaped the
      telling of account to being out the parallels between Jesus of
      Nazareth and the madman Jesus and possibly discredit Jesus in the
      process. As another example, Josephus wanted to relate a trial
      scence but did not have any real detais, so he took it from Mark
      or Luke. Alternatively, one could flip it arround and argue that
      Mark or Luke shaped their accounts of the trial around those of
      Jesus ben Ananias. A final possibility is that when Josephus asked
      about Jesus ben Anaaias's trial, his source got confused and
      told him the details for another trial of a Jesus--i.e., Jesus
      of Nazareth -- or the two trial accounts were already conflated
      in the ppopular imagination by the time Josephus inquired about
      it. I like the last possibility the best.

      >> As for Jesus ben Ananias, I cannot help but wonder whether Josephus was
      >> colored by the case of Jesus of Nazareth in choosing which details to
      >> highlight and which ones to suppress. It is hard to do history when
      >> there is only one source for an event, and a second source would allow
      >> us to assess whether and how much the first source spun an earlier event.
      >> Sometimes the spin is so great that what actually happened is
      >> unrecognizable.
      >
      >Stephen, I am not sure I fully understand your point here. Could you help
      >me?

      I'm having trouble understanding my point too. I'll be happy to
      help once I figure what I was aiming at. Don't hold your breath,
      though.

      Stephen

      --
      Stephen C. Carlson mailto:scarlson@...
      Weblog: http://www.mindspring.com/~scarlson/hypotyposeis/blogger.html
      "Poetry speaks of aspirations, and songs chant the words." Shujing 2.35
    • David Hindley
      ... in the account come from. I suppose there are a couple of possibilities. For example, Josephus deliberately shaped the telling of account to being out the
      Message 2 of 10 , Feb 3, 2005
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        Stephen Carlson says:

        >>The next question to consider is where did the seemingly Christian details
        in the account come from. I suppose there are a couple of possibilities.
        For example, Josephus deliberately shaped the telling of account to being
        out the parallels between Jesus of Nazareth and the madman Jesus and
        possibly discredit Jesus in the process. As another example, Josephus
        wanted to relate a trial scene but did not have any real details, so he took
        it from Mark or Luke. Alternatively, one could flip it around and argue
        that Mark or Luke shaped their accounts of the trial around those of Jesus
        ben Ananias. A final possibility is that when Josephus asked about Jesus
        ben Ananias's trial, his source got confused and told him the details for
        another trial of a Jesus--i.e., Jesus of Nazareth -- or the two trial
        accounts were already conflated in the popular imagination by the time
        Josephus inquired about it. I like the last possibility the best.<<

        Those seemingly Christian parallels ("details" suggests a connection that is
        to be proved, not assumed) are pretty vague. Interrogation by a governor,
        scourging and reviling, it would seem to me, may be the norm for all trials
        of this sort. His continued laments may have caused fears among the
        Jerusalem (Jewish) elite that the Romans might interpret them as
        instigations to revolt or at least a potential cause of major unrest.
        Josephus' portrayal of events makes it appear that the Jewish elites did not
        think much of the man, but that is part of the ironic plot of the story.
        Still, I would think that they really had no choice but to send him to the
        governor, if he were indeed real, or risk recriminations.

        The governor releasing him as nothing more than a madman may be a true event
        (the prospect of the Jewish temple and city being destroyed was not a likely
        one at the time, and perhaps even laughable to the Roman ruling class or
        their soldiers, who were fully aware of and/or resentful of the significant
        privileges accorded to Jews and their temple state), but may also again be
        an intentional ironic plot twist. Like a lot of modern 3rd world nations or
        areas, a good roughing up is meant as a "wake up call" for those who engage
        in such behaviors lightly, or whose caretakers (and let's assume JbA had
        some family) did not restrain them. Josephus is using him as a metaphor for
        the Jerusalem elite who had not paid close enough attention to signs of the
        impending disaster of the revolt.

        BTW, I think your scenario for how Josephus could have heard the story about
        this character, assuming it is not entirely made up, is quite reasonable. It
        would be similar to "coffee table" or cocktail party small-talk talk among
        certain crowds today.

        As for Josephus' ability to fabricate pretty fantastic stories, how about
        the one where the gates of the temple swing open on their own? If anything
        like this actually happened, it may have been that the door somehow opened
        unexpectedly (e.g., strong wind, earth movement, etc). The meaning he gave
        to the event was secondary, of course, and pure spin, although here he at
        least acknowledges that the wise men understood the true implications and
        tried to warn the populace. Same with the omens preceding it.

        Sincerely,

        David Hindley
        Cleveland, Ohio USA

        Jwr 6:290-300 290 Thus also, before the Jews' rebellion, and before those
        commotions which preceded the war, when the people were come in great crowds
        to the feast of unleavened bread, on the eighth day of the month of
        Xanthikos [Nisan], (Niese: April 25, Capellus: April 8) and at the ninth
        hour of the night, so great a light shone around the altar and the holy
        house, that it appeared to be bright daytime; which lasted for half an hour.
        291 This light seemed to be a good sign to the unskilful, but was so
        interpreted by the sacred scribes as to portend those events that followed
        immediately upon it. 292 At the same festival also, a heifer, as she was
        led by the high priest to be sacrificed, brought forth a lamb in the midst
        of the temple. 293 Moreover, the eastern gate of the inner [court of the]
        temple, which was of brass, and extremely heavy, and had been with
        difficulty shut by twenty men, and fastened with iron-bound bars, and had
        bolts sunk very deep into the firm floor, which was there made of one entire
        stone, was seen to be opened of its own accord about the sixth hour of the
        night. 294 Now, those who kept watch in the temple, came hereupon running
        to the captain of the temple, and told him of it; who then came up there,
        and not without great difficulty was able to shut the gate again. 295 This
        also appeared to the common people to be a very happy prodigy, as if God
        thereby opened to them the gate of happiness. But the men of learning
        understood it, that the security of their holy house was dissolved of its
        own accord, and that the gate was opened for the advantage of their enemies.
        296 So these publicly declared that the signal predicted the desolation that
        was coming upon them. Besides these, a few days after that feast, on the
        twenty-first day of the month of Artemisios [Iyyar], (Niese: June 8,
        Capellus: May 21) 297 a certain prodigious and incredible phenomenon
        appeared: I suppose the account of it would seem to be a fable, were it not
        related by those who saw it, 298 and were not the events that followed it
        of so considerable a nature as to deserve such signals; for, before
        sunsetting, chariots and troops of soldiers in their armour were seen 299
        running about among the clouds, and surrounding the cities. Moreover, at
        that feast which we call Pentecost, as the priests were going by night into
        the inner [court of the] temple, as their custom was, to perform their
        sacred ministrations, they said that, in the first place, they felt a
        quaking, and heard a great noise, 300 and after that they heard a sound as
        of a great multitude, saying, "We are departing from here." [Loeb
        translation, via BibleWorks]
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