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Re: [XTalk] Excavating GThomas

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  • Frank McCoy
    I propose the hypothesis that there are two written sources for GTh. The first solely consists of free-standing sayings of Jesus: making it of the same genre
    Message 1 of 10 , Jul 7, 2002
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      I propose the hypothesis that there are two written
      sources for GTh. The first solely consists of
      free-standing sayings of
      Jesus: making it of the same genre as the Nag Hammadi
      text, The Sentences of
      Sextus. The other consists of dialogues between Jesus
      and others: making it
      of the same genre as the Nag Hammadi texts, The
      Apocryphon of James and The
      Dialogue of the Savior.

      I further propose that this is what comes from the
      sayings document: Introduction,
      1-5, 7-11, 15-17. 19, 23, 25-36, 38-42, 44-50, 54-59,
      61a, 62-71, 73-78,
      80-90, 92-98, 101-103, and 105-112; and that this is
      what comes from the
      dialogue document: 6, 12-14, 18, 20-22, 24, 37, 43,
      51-53, 60, 61b, 72, 79,
      91, 99-100, 104, and 113-114.

      In "The Rhetoric of Marginality: Apocalypticism,
      Gnosticism, and Sayings Gospels" (Harvard Theological
      Review, 88:4, 1995), Bill Arnal postulates the
      existence of two stratum in GTh. The earlier (see p.
      478) is "the sapiential stratum" and it includes GTh
      3.
      5. 6. 9. 14. 16. 20. 26. 31, 32, 34-36, 42, 45, 47,
      54, 55, 57, 63-65, 71, 74, 76, 89, 95-98, 107, 109,
      and 110. The later (see p.479) is "the
      gnostic-leaning stratum" and it includes Gth 11, 13,
      15, 18, 21-22, 27-28, 49-50, 51, 60, 61, 83, 84, 101,
      105, 108, 11, and 114. This is thirty-three logia for
      the sapiential stratum and twenty logia for the
      gnostic-leaning stratum--a ratio of 3.3/2.

      There is a marked difference in the ratios between
      the postulated sayings document (to be referred to as
      the Thomas Saying Document or TSD) and the postulated
      dialogue document (to be referred to as the Thomas
      Dialogue Document or TDD).

      In the postulated TSD, there are thirty logia which
      come from
      the postulated sapiential stratum (3, 5, 9, 16, 26,
      31-32, 34-36, 42, 45,
      47, 54-55, 57, 63-65, 71, 74, 76, 86, 89, 95-98, 107,
      and 109-110) and
      twelve logia which come from the postulated
      gnostic-leaning stratum (11, 15,
      27-28, 49-50, 83-84, 101, 105, 108, and 111). This is
      a ratio of 3/1.2.

      In the postulated TDD, there are three logia which
      come from
      the postulated sapiential stratum (6, 14, and 20) and
      eight logia which come
      from the postulated gnostic-leaning stratum (13, 18,
      21-22, 51, 60, 61b, and
      114). This is a ratio of 3/8.

      The two ratios are radically different: with (1) the
      postulated sayings
      document have almost three times as many logia in the
      postulated sapiential
      stratum as in the postulated gnostic-leaning stratum,
      but with (2) the
      postulated dialogue document having almost three times
      as many logia in the
      postulated gnostic-leaning stratum as in the
      postulated sapiential stratum.

      These radically different ratios lend support to the
      hypothesis that there
      are two written sources for GTh: a sayings document
      (TSD) and a dialogue
      document (TDD).

      Also, since the postulated TSD has a much higher
      percentage of
      material from the postulated earlier sapiential
      stratum than does the
      postulated TDD, this evidence is consistent with the
      hypothesis that the postulated TSD was written earlier
      than was
      the postulated TDD.

      Next, I propose the hypothesis that the postulated
      TSD, which might be the earliest written source for
      GTh, is divisible into two layers: an early layer and
      a later layer. Further, the later layer was added to
      the original document by block insertion of material,
      so that the TSD consists of alternating blocks
      of early and late material.

      The hypothesised early version of the TSD, consisting
      solely of the postulated early layer, will be referred
      to as the Early Thomas Saying Document or ETSD.

      For detecting possible blocks of early and late
      material in the postulated
      TSD, two methods of detection are used.

      The first regards sayings from Arnal's postulated
      sapiential layer of
      tradition (to be referred to as S sayings) and sayings
      from his postulated
      gnostic-leaning layer of tradition (to be referred to
      as G sayings).

      It will be assumed that S sayings will tend to be
      found in the early layer
      blocks, while G sayings will tend to be found in the
      late layer blocks.

      The second regards the Jesus Seminar's grading of the
      sayings in GTh as
      recorded in their The Five Gospels.

      It will be assumed that sayings they designate as
      wholly black (to be
      referred to as B sayings) will tend to be found in the
      late layer blocks,
      while sayings they designate wholly or in part either
      pink or red (to be
      referred to as P sayings) will tend to be found in the
      early layer blocks.

      When the postulated TSD is analyzed this way, it can
      be divided
      into postulated early and late blocks of material as
      follows:

      1. A late block of material: The Introduction and
      saying 1. One B saying
      (1) and no S, G, or P sayings..

      2. An early block of material: Sayings 2-10. One B
      saying (7) and four P
      sayings (2.5.9.10), three S sayings (3.5.9) and no G
      sayings.

      3. A late block of material: Sayings 11-30. One P
      sayings (26), ten B
      sayings (11.15.16.17.19.23.27.28.29.30), two S sayings
      (16 and 26), and four
      G sayings (11,15.27.28).

      4. An early block of material: Sayings 31-48. Nine P
      sayings
      (31,32,33,35,36,39,41,45,47), two B sayings (38, 44),
      seven S sayings
      (31,32,34.36.42.45,47), and no G sayings.

      5. A late block of material: Sayings 49-59. One P
      saying (54), five B
      sayings (49,50,56,58,59), three S sayings (54,55,57),
      and two G sayings
      (49,50).

      6. An early block of material: Sayings 61-65. Four P
      sayings (62,63,64,65),
      no B sayings, three S sayings (63,64,65), and no G
      sayings.

      7. A late block of material: Sayings 66-88. Four P
      sayings (69,76,78,86), 14
      B sayings (66,67,70,71,73,74,75,77,80,83,84,85,87,88),
      four S sayings
      (71,74,76,86), and two G sayings (83,84).

      8. An early block of material: Sayings 89-98. Seven P
      sayings
      (89,92,94,95,96,97,98), one B saying (90), five S
      sayings (89,95,96,97,98),
      and no G sayings.

      9. A late block of material: Sayings 101-112. One P
      saying (109), seven B
      sayings (101,102,105,108,110,111,112), and four G
      sayings (101,105,108,111).

      The net tallies for the postulated early blocks of
      material are: 24 P
      sayings, four B sayings, 18 S sayings, and no G
      sayings.

      The net tallies for the postulated late blocks of
      material are: 7 P sayings,
      37 B sayings, 12 S sayings, and 12 G sayings.

      In any event, here is the text of the hypothesised
      Early Thomas Saying
      Document (ETSD), consisting of the postulated early
      layer of the postulated
      TSD--which hypothesised ETSD is my current best guess
      as to what constitutes
      the earliest material in GTh:

      2. Jesus said, "Let him who seeks continue seeking
      until he finds. When he
      finds he will become troubled. When he becomes
      troubled, he will be
      astonished, and he will rule over the All."
      3. Jesus said, "If those who lead you say to you,
      'See, the Kingdom is in
      the sky,' then the birds of the sky will precede you.
      If they say to you,
      'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you.
      Rather the Kingdom is
      inside of you, and it is outside of you. When you
      come to know yourselves,
      then you will become known, and you will realize that
      is is you who are the
      sons of the living Father. But if you will not know
      yourselves, you dwell
      in poverty and it is you who are that poverty."
      4.Jesus said, "The man old in days will not hesitate
      to ask a small child
      seven days old about the place of life, and he will
      live. For many who are
      first will become last, and they will become one and
      the same."
      5.Jesus said, "Recognize what is in your sight, and
      that which is hidden
      from you will become plain to you. For there is
      nothing hidden which will
      not become manifest."
      7.Jesus said, "Blessed is the lion which becomes man
      when consumed by man;
      and cursed is the man whom the lion consumes, and the
      lion becomes man."
      8. And he said, "The man is like a wise fisherman who
      cast his net into the
      sea and drew it up from the sea full of small fish.
      Among them the wise
      fisherman found a fine large fish. He threw all the
      small fish back into the
      sea and chose the large fish without difficulty.
      Whoever has ears to hear,
      let him hear."
      9. Jesus said, "Now the sower went out, took a handful
      (of seeds), and
      scattered them. Some fell on the road; the birds came
      and gathered them up.
      Others fell on rock, did not take root in the soil,
      and did not produce
      ears. And others fell on thorns; they choked the
      seed(s) and worms ate
      them. And others fell on the good soil and produced
      good fruit: it bore
      sixty per measure and a hundred and twenty per
      measure."
      10. Jesus said, "I have cast fire upon the world, and
      see, I am guarding it
      until it blazes."
      31. Jesus said, "No prophet is accepted in his own
      village; no physician
      heals those who know him."
      32. Jesus said, "A city built on a high mountain and
      fortified cannot fall,
      nor can it be hidden."
      33. Jesus said, "Preach from your housetops that which
      you hear hear in your
      ear (and) in the other ear. For no one lights a lamp
      and puts it under a
      bushel, nor does he put it in a hidden place, but
      rather he sets it on a
      lampstand so that everyone who enters and leaves will
      see its light."
      34. Jesus said, "If a blind man leads a blind man,
      they will both fall into
      a pit."
      35. Jesus said, "It is not possible for anyone to
      enter the house of a
      strong man and take it by force unless he binds his
      hands; then he will (be)
      able to ransack his house."
      36. Jesus said, "Do not be concerned from morning
      until evening and from
      evening until morning about what you will wear."
      38.Jesus said, "Many times have you desired to hear
      these words which I am
      saying to you, and you have no one else to hear them
      from. There will be
      days when you will look for Me and will not find Me."
      39. Jesus said, "The Pharisees and the scribes have
      taken the keys of
      Knowledge and hidden them. They themselves have not
      entered, nor have they
      allowed to enter those who wish to. You, however, be
      as wise as serpents
      and as innocent as doves."
      40. Jesus said, "A grapevine has been planted outside
      of the Father, but
      being unsound, it will be pulled up by its roots and
      destroyed."
      41. Jesus said, "Whoever has something in his hand
      will receive more, and
      whoever has nothing will be dprived of even the little
      he has."
      42. Jesus said, "Become passers-by."
      44.Jesus said, "Whoever blasphemes against the Father
      will be forgiven, and
      whoever blasphemes against the Son will be forgiven,
      but whoever blasphemes
      against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven either on
      earth or in heaven."
      45. Jesus said, "Grapes are not harvested from thorns,
      nor are figs gathered
      from thistles, for they do not produce fruit. A good
      man brings forth good
      from his storehouse; and evil man brings forth evil
      things from his evil
      storehouse, which is in his heart, and says evil
      things. For out of the
      abundance of the heart he brings forth evil things."
      46. Jesus said, "Among those born of women, from Adam
      until John the
      Baptist, there is no one so superior to John the
      Baptist that his eyes
      should not be lowered (before) him. Yet I have said,
      whichever one of you
      comes to be a child, will be acquainted with the
      Kingdom and will become
      superior to John."
      47. Jesus said, "It is impossible for a man to mount
      two horses or to
      stretch two bows. And it is impossible for a servant
      to serve two masters;
      otherwise he will honor the one and treat the other
      contemptuously. No man
      drinks old wine and immediately desires to drink new
      wine. And new wine is
      not put into old wineskins, lest they burst; nor is
      old wine put into a new
      wineskin, let it spoil it. An old patch is not sewn
      into a new garment,
      because a tear would result."
      48. Jesus said, "If two make peace with each other in
      this one house, they
      will say to the mountain, 'Move away,' and it will
      move away."
      61a. Jesus said, "Two will rest on a bed: the one will
      die and the other
      will live."
      62.Jesus said, "It is those [who are worthy of My]
      mysteries that I tell my
      mysteries. Do not let your left hand know what your
      right hand is doing."
      63. Jesus said, "There was a rich man who had much
      money. He said, "I shall
      put my money to use so that I may sow, reap, plant,
      and fill my storehouse
      with produce, with the result that I shall lack
      nothing.' Such were his
      intentions, but that same night he died. Let him who
      has ears hear."
      64. Jesus said, "A man had received visitors. And
      when he had prepared the
      dinner, he sent his servant to invite the guests. He
      went to the first one
      and said to him, 'My master invites you.' He said, 'I
      have claims against
      some merchants. They are coming to me this evening.
      I must go and give
      them my orders. I ask to be excused from the dinner.'
      He went to another
      and said to him, 'My master has invited you.' He said
      to him, 'My friend is
      going to get married, and I am to prepare the banquet.
      I shall not be able
      to come. I ask to be excused from the dinner.' He
      went to another and said
      to him, 'My master invites you.' He said to him, 'I
      have just bought a
      farm, and I am on my way to collect the rent. I shall
      not be able to come.
      I ask to be excused.' The servant returned and said
      to his master, 'Those
      whom you invited to the dinner have asked to be
      excused.' The master said to
      his servant, 'Go outside to the streets and bring back
      those whom you happen
      to meet, so that they may dine.' Businessmen and
      merchants will not enter
      the Places of My Father.'"
      65. He said, "There was a good man who owned a
      vineyard. He leased it to
      tenant farmers so that they might work it and he might
      collect the produce
      from them. He sent his servant so that the tenants
      might give him the
      produce of the vineyard. They seized his servant and
      beat him, all but
      killing him. The servant went back and told his
      master. The master said,
      'Perhaps <they> did not recognize <him>.' He sent
      another servant. The
      tenants beat this one as well. Then the owner sent
      his son and said,
      'Perhaps they will show respect to my son.' Because
      the tenants knew that
      it was he who was the heir to the vineyard, they
      seized him and killed him.
      Let him who has ears hear."
      89. Jesus said, "Why do you wash the outside of the
      cup? Do you not realize
      that he who made the inside is the same one who made
      the outside?"
      90. Jesus said, "Come unto me, for My yoke is easy and
      My lordship is mild,
      and you will find repose for yourselves."
      92.Jesus said, "Seek and you will find. Yet, what you
      asked Me about in
      former times and which I did not tell you then, now I
      do desire to tell, but
      you do not inquire after it. 93. Do not give what is
      holy to dogs, lest
      they throw them on the dung-heap. Do not throw the
      pearls to swine, lest
      they grind it [to bits]."
      94. Jesus [said], "He who seeks will find, and [he who
      knocks] will be let
      in."
      95. [Jesus said,], "If you have money, do not lend it
      at interest, but give
      [it] to one from whom you will not get it back."
      96. Jesus [said], "The Kingdom of the Father is like a
      certain woman. She
      took a little leaven, [concealed] it in some dough,
      and made it into large
      loaves. Let him who has ears hear."
      97. Jesus said, "The kingdom of the [Father] is like a
      certain woman who was
      carrying a jar full of meal. While she was walking
      [on] a road, still some
      distance from home, the handle of the jar broke and
      the meal emptied out
      behind her on the road. She did not ralize it; she
      had noticed no accident.
      When she reached her house, she set the jar down and
      found it empty,"
      98. Jesus said, "The Kingdom of the Father is like a
      certain man who wanted
      to kill a powerful man. In his own house he drew his
      sword and stuck it
      into the wall in order to find out whether his hand
      could carry through.
      Then he slew the powerful man."

      Frank McCoy
      1809 N. English Apt. 17
      Maplewood, MN USA 55109





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    • goranson@duke.edu
      Perhaps you would be interested in an article in the latest Vigiliae Christianae which presents several possible schemes for the growth of Gospel of Thomas.
      Message 2 of 10 , Jul 8, 2002
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        Perhaps you would be interested in an article in the latest Vigiliae
        Christianae which presents several possible schemes for the growth of
        Gospel of Thomas.

        best,
        Stephen Goranson
        goranson@...
      • Frank McCoy
        ... Dear Stephen Goranson: Thank you! This is a most informative article. It has helped me to develop yet another possible early version of GTh, a
        Message 3 of 10 , Jul 16, 2002
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          --- goranson@... wrote:
          > Perhaps you would be interested in an article in the
          > latest Vigiliae
          > Christianae which presents several possible schemes
          > for the growth of
          > Gospel of Thomas.
          >

          Dear Stephen Goranson:

          Thank you! This is a most informative article.

          It has helped me to develop yet another possible early
          version of GTh, a Proto-Thomas text, which is outlined
          below.

          DEFINITIONS

          There are certain terms used in this post that should
          be defined for purposes of clarity.

          1. Unit = a numbered division of GTh, of which there
          are 114. It is assumed that this strictly modern
          numbering system accurately reflects the individual
          units of GTh as conceived by its author(s).

          2. Saying Unit = a unit in which only Jesus speaks

          3. Dialogue Unit = a unit in which, besides Jesus, one
          or more other people also speak.

          4. Section = a sequence of an odd number of units: (a)
          that is symmetrical, so that the two end units of a
          sequence will always be of the same type and (b) in
          which the two end units belong to a different type of
          unit than the center unit (i.e., if the two end units
          are saying units, then the center unit is a dialogue
          unit, and if the two end units are dialogue units,
          then
          the center unit is a saying unit).

          5. Special Unit = a unit that is one of the end or
          center units of a section

          A PROPOSAL

          It is proposed that there was an earlier version of
          GTh. a Proto-Thomas, consisting of these three
          sections:

          Section 1 GTh 2-10

          Section 2 GTh 31-48 and 61-65 and 89-90.

          Section 3 GTh 91-99

          REASONS FOR THINKING THIS LIKELY WAS A REAL DOCUMENT

          There are two basic reasons for thinking that the
          postulated Proto-Thomas likely was a real document.
          The first basic reason is that it appears to have
          internal organization. The second basic reason is
          that, it appears, the units in it are, on the average,
          of earlier origin than the rest of the units in
          GTh--which is what we would expect it it consists of
          the part of GTh first written down.

          INTERNAL ORGANIZATION--PART I

          Where s = saying unit and d = dialogue unit and a
          capitalized s (i.e. S) or a capitalized d (i.e., D) =
          a special unit, this is how each of the three
          proposed sections looks:

          1. 2-10: SsssDsssS

          2. 31-48, 61-65, 89-90:
          SsssssdsssssDsssssdsssssS

          3. 91-99: DsssSsssD

          Note that, if the center special unit be treated as a
          mirror plane, then each of these three sections
          displays mirror symmetry.

          Note, too, that each section consists of a square
          number of units. Thus, sections 1 and 3 each consist
          of 9 units--and 3x3 = 9. Again, section 2 consists of
          25 units--and 5x5 = 25.

          Indeed, this does not appear to be coincidence: for
          each of the 3x3 sections consists of three groups,
          with each of the three groups consisting of three
          units. So, in section 1, there are two sss groups and
          the remainding units (2S and 1D) constitute a third
          group of three units. Again, in section 3, there are
          two sss groups and the remaining units (2D and 1S)
          constitute a third group of three units.

          Further, section 2, the 5x5 section, consists of five
          groups, with each of the five groups consisting of
          five units. So, it contains four sssss groups and the
          remaining units (2S, 2d, and 1D) constitute a fifth
          group of five units.

          Note that, while section one is symmetrical, and while
          section three is symmetrical, and while both are of
          the same length, they are, as respects their special
          units, in an oppositional type of relationship:
          1. SsssDsssS
          3. DsssSsssD

          In any event, the highly organized mirror symmetrical
          arrangement to each of the three sections of the
          proposed Proto-Thomas is evidence which supports
          the hypothesis that this proposed document really did
          exist.

          INTERNAL ORGANIZATION--PART II

          There is evidence of a symmetrical relationship
          between the beginning SsssD
          sequence of the proposed Proto-Thomas (i.e., GTh 2-6)
          and the ending SsssD
          sequence of it (i.e., GTh 95-99).

          GTh 2-6 reads, "2. Jesus said, "Let him who seeks
          continue seeking until he finds. When he finds he
          will become troubled. When he becomes troubled, he
          will be astonished, and he will rule over the All."
          3. Jesus said, "If those who lead you say to you,
          'See, the Kingdom is in the sky,' then the birds of
          the sky will precede you. If they say to you,
          'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you.
          Rather the Kingdom is inside of you, and it is outside
          of you. When you come to know yourselves, then you
          will become known, and you will realize that is is you
          who are the sons of the living Father. But if you
          will not know yourselves, you dwell in poverty and it
          is you who are that poverty." 4.Jesus said, "The man
          old in days will not hesitate to ask a small child
          seven days old about the place of life, and he will
          live. For many who are first will become last, and
          they will become one and the same." 5.Jesus said,
          "Recognize what is in your sight, and that which is
          hidden from you will become plain to you. For there
          is nothing hidden which will not become manifest." 6.
          "His disciples questioned Him and said to Him, 'Do You
          want us to fast? How shall we pray? Shall we give
          alms? What diet shall we observe?' Jesus
          said, 'Do not tell lies, and do not do what you hate,
          for all things are plain in the sight of heaven. For
          nothing hidden will not become manifest, and nothing
          covered will remain without being uncovered.'"

          GTh 95-99 reads, "95. [Jesus said,] "If you have
          money, do not lend it at interest, but give [it] to
          one from whom you will not get it back." 96. Jesus
          [said], "The Kingdom of the Father is like a certain
          woman. She took a little leaven, [concealed] it in
          some dough, and made it into large loaves. Let him
          who has ears hear." 97. Jesus said, "The kingdom of
          the [Father] is like a certain woman who was
          carrying a jar full of meal. While she was walking
          [on] a road, still some distance from home, the handle
          of the jar broke and the meal emptied out behind her
          on the road. She did not ralize it; she had noticed
          no accident. When she reached her house, she set the
          jar down and found it empty," 98. Jesus said, "The
          Kingdom of the Father is like a certain man who wanted
          to kill a powerful man. In his own house he drew his
          sword and stuck it into the wall in order to find out
          whether his hand could carry through. Then he slew the
          powerful man." 99. The disciples said to Him, "Your
          brothers and your mother are standing outside." He
          said to them, "These here who do the will of my Father
          are My brothers and My mother. It is they who will
          enter the Kingdom of My Father."

          Note that 5 and 95 are clearly related: for both
          include the topic of alms-giving. Note, too, that we
          do not have the out-right rejection of alms-giving
          that is reflected in GTh 14--which is one of the units
          belonging to the proposed later additions to the
          proposed Proto-Thomas.

          Note that 96-99 regard the Kingdom: with 96-98 being
          three parables of the Kingdom and 99 being an
          admonition about the type of people who will
          enter the Kingdom. Note, too, that 99, where the
          brothers of Jesus are treated harshly, strongly
          contrasts with the outright adulation of James the
          Just (a brother of Jesus) in GTh 12--which is one of
          the units belonging to the proposed later additions to
          the proposed Proto-Thomas.

          In this regard, it is possible that 2-5 also regard
          the Kingdom. This is explicitly the case for 3, which
          describes how the Kingdom is both outside of you and
          inside of you. In 2, what is to be sought and found
          might be the Kingdom. In 4, the place of life might
          be the Kingdom as something outside you. In 5, the
          hidden that will become plain might be the Kingdom as
          something hid inside of you.

          To conclude, 2-6, the beginning to the proposed
          Proto-Thomas, might have a relationship to 95-99, the
          ending to the proposed Proto-Thomas: with 6 relating
          to 95 because both mention alms-giving and with 2-5
          relating to 96-99 because these units might all regard
          the Kingdom. With the units mentioning alms-giving
          designated A and the other units designated B, this
          is the relationship: BBBBA ABBBB

          Such a possible mirror symmetrical relationship
          between the beginning and the ending of the proposed
          Proto-Thomas increases the likelihood that it is
          a real document.

          INTERNAL ORGANIZATION--PART III

          After deleting the above discussed 2-6 and 95-99, the
          remaining units of the proposed Proto-Thomas (i.e.,
          7-10, 31-48, 61-65, and 89-94) have this arrangement:
          sssSSsssssdsssssDsssssdsssssSDsss.

          Let us look at the three S units in this sequence.
          The first is 10, "Jesus said, 'I have cast fire upon
          the earth, and see, I am guarding it until it
          blazes.'" The second is 31, "Jesus said, "No prophet
          is accepted in his own village; no physician heals
          those who know him.'" The third is 90, "Jesus
          said, 'Come unto me, for My yoke is easy and My
          lordship mild, and you will find repose for
          yourselves.'"

          All three of the S units appear to regard Jesus. This
          is clearly the case for 10 and 90. This is probably
          the case for 31. So, in Mark 6:4, Jesus applies this
          saying to himself. Again, in John 4:44, it is assumed
          that this saying applies to Jesus.

          This is remarkable, for, of the 26 s units, only 5
          (roughly, 20%) appear to regard Jesus, i.e., 38, 44
          (if the Son be understood to be Jesus), 62, 65 (if the
          son of the vineyard owner be understood to be Jesus),
          and 92.

          This suggests that it is no accident that the 3 S
          units in the postulated Proto-Thomas in the zone from
          7 to 94 all appear to regard Jesus. As a result, this
          is evidence which supports the hypothesis that the
          postulated Proto-Thomas was a real document.

          Again, let us look at the four dialogue (i.e., d and
          D) units. The first is 37, "His disciples said,
          'When will you become revealed to us and
          when shall we see You?' Jesus said, 'When you disrobe
          without being ashamed and take up your garments and
          place them under your feet like little children and
          tread on them, then [will you see] the Son of the
          Living One and you will not be afraid.'" The second
          is 43, "His disciples said to him, 'Who are You, that
          You should say these things to us?' 'You do not
          realize who I am from what I say to you, but you have
          become like the Jews, for they (either) love the tree
          and hate its fruit (or) love the fruit and hate the
          tree.'" The third is 61, "Jesus said, 'Two will rest
          on a bed: the one will die and the other will live.'
          Salome said, 'Who are You, man, that You, as
          though from the One, have come up on my couch and
          eaten from my table?' Jesus said to her, 'I am He who
          exists from the Undivided. I was given some of the
          things of my Father.' 'I am your disciple.'
          'Therefore I say, if he is <undivided>, he will be
          filled with light, but if he is divided, he will be
          filled with darkness.'" The fourth is 91, "They
          said to Him, 'Tell us who You are so that we may
          believe in You.' He said to them, 'You read the
          face of the sky and of the earth, but you have not
          recognized the one who (or: that which) is before you,
          and you do not know how to read this moment.'"

          As can be seen, each of these discourse units contains
          a request to Jesus, by one or more of his disciples,
          for him to provide knowledge regarding himself.

          This is remarkable, for none of the other 20 discourse
          units in GTh contain a request to Jesus, by one or
          more of his disciples, for him to provide knowledge
          regarding himself.

          This suggests that it is no accident that the four
          discourse units in the postulated Proto-Thomas in the
          zone from 7 to 94 all regard a request to Jesus, by
          one or more of his disciples, for him to provide
          knowledge about himself. As a result, this is
          evidence which supports the hypothesis that the
          postulated Proto-Thomas was a real document.

          EVIDENCE OF EARLY ORIGIN: PART I

          If the postulated Proto-Thomas is real, then, as it is
          postulated to be the early version of GTh, there
          should be evidence that its units, on the average, are
          earlier than the units in the proposed later
          additions. (Note: these proposed later additions are:
          Introduction-1, 11-30, 49-60, 66-88, and 100-114).

          Indeed, such is the case.

          For example, let us take the Jesus Seminar's grading
          of the sayings in GTh as recorded in their The Five
          Gospels--where grades range from black (almost
          certainly not genuine) to red (almost certainly
          genuine).

          It will be assumed that sayings of Jesus they
          designate as wholly black (to be referred to as B
          sayings) will, on average, be later in origin than
          sayings they designate to be wholly or in part either
          pink or red (to be referred to as P sayings).

          Of the 43 units in the proposed Proto-Thomas, there
          are 26 that contain P sayings (2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 31, 32,
          33, 35, 36, 39, 41, 45, 47, 62, 63, 64, 65 89, 92,
          94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99) and 6 that contain B sayings
          (7, 37, 38, 43, 44, 90)

          Conversely, of the 71 units in the proposed later
          additions to Proto-Thomas, there are 47 that contain B
          sayings (1, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, 27,
          28, 29, 30, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 60, 66,
          67, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 77, 80, 83, 84, 85, 87,
          88, 101, 102, 104, 105, 108, 110, 111, 112, 114) and
          10 that contain P sayings (14, 20, 26, 54, 69, 76, 86,
          100, 109, 113).

          So, this does suggest that, on the average, the
          sayings attributed to Jesus in the proposed
          Proto-Thomas are significantly earlier in origin than
          the
          sayings attributed to Jesus in the proposed later
          additions to Proto-Thomas--just as one would expect if
          Proto-Thomas was a real document.

          EVIDENCE OF EARLY ORIGIN: PART II

          In "The Rhetoric of Marginality: Apocalypticism,
          Gnosticism, and Sayings Gospels" (Harvard Theological
          Review, 88:4, 1995), Bill Arnal postulates the
          existence of two stratum in GTh. The earlier (see p.
          478) is "the sapiential stratum" and it includes GTh
          3. 5. 6. 9. 14. 16. 20. 26. 31, 32, 34-36, 42, 45,
          47, 54, 55, 57, 63-65, 71, 74, 76, 89, 95-98, 107,
          109, and 110. The later (see p.479) is "the
          gnostic-leaning stratum" and it includes Gth 11, 13,
          15, 18, 21-22, 27-28, 49-50, 51, 60, 61, 83, 84, 101,
          105, 108, 11, and 114.

          In the proposed Proto-Thomas, the proposed earlier
          Sapiential sayings are more highly represented than
          the proposed later Gnostic-leaning sayings: with 20
          Sapiential sayings (3, 5, 6, 9, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36,
          42, 45, 47, 63, 64, 65, 89, 95, 96, 97, 98) and one
          Gnostic-leaning saying (61).

          Conversely, in the proposed later additions to
          Proto-Thomas, the proposed later Gnostic-leaning
          sayings are more highly represented than the proposed
          earlier Sapiential sayings: with 19 Gnostic-leaning
          sayings (11, 13, 15, 18, 21, 22, 27, 28, 49, 50, 51,
          60, 83, 84, 101, 105, 108, 111, 114) and 13 Sapiential
          sayings (14, 16, 20, 26, 54, 55, 57, 76, 85, 86, 107,
          109, 110).

          Again, this is an indication that, on the average, the
          sayings attributed to Jesus in the proposed
          Proto-Thomas are of significantly earlier origin than
          the sayings attributed to Jesus in the proposed later
          additions to this Proto-Thomas--just as one would
          expect if Proto-Thomas was a real document.

          EVIDENCE OF EARLY ORIGIN: PART III

          In "The Original Gospel of Thomas" (Vigiliae
          Christianae, LVI: 2, 2002, pp. 167-199), A. D.
          DeConick postulates that there was an early edition of
          GTh he calls the kernel gospel.

          Of the 114 units in GTh, he suggests that 60 were
          wholly present in the postulated kernel gospel. Of
          these 60, 34 are present in the postulated
          Proto-Thomas (2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36,
          39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 62, 63, 65, 89,
          90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99) and 26 are not
          (15, 17, 20, 25, 26, 30, 54, 55, 57, 58, 66, 71, 72,
          73, 74, 76, 78, 79, 81, 82, 86, 102, 103, 104, 107,
          109).

          Of the 114 units in GTh, he suggests that 16 were
          partially present in the postulated kernel gospel. Of
          these 16, five are present in the postulated
          Proto-Thomas (4, 6, 38, 61, 64) and 11 are not (11,
          14, 16, 21, 23, 24, 60, 68, 69, 100, 111).

          Of the 114 units in GTh, he suggests that 38 were
          completely absent from the postulated kernel gospel.
          Of these 38, four are in the postulated Proto-Thomas
          (3, 7, 37, 43) and 34 are not (1, 12, 13, 18, 19, 22,
          27, 28, 29, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 59, 67, 70, 75,
          77, 80, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 101, 105, 106, 108, 110,
          112, 113, 114).

          The evidence he presents for the existence of the
          postulated kernel gospel is quite weak. In
          particular, he fails to demonstrate that this kernel
          gospel has any internal organization to it.

          Still, I think it likely that the units in his
          proposed kernel gospel are, on the average, of earlier
          origin than the other units in GTh,

          For example, he (p. 198) states, "Second, just over
          fifty percent of the sayings in the kernel gospel are
          paralleled in Q. Not even one saying with a Q
          parallel, however, can be found in the later layers.
          This also cannot be a coincidence. It suggests to me
          that the sayings in the kernel gospel of Thomas are
          some of the oldest witnesses to the Jesus traditions.
          Additionally, my initial analysis of the kernel gospel
          seems to indicate that neither Q nor the kernel Thomas
          were literarily dependent upon the other."

          Assuming that, *on the average*, the units wholly
          present in the postulated kernel gospel are earlier
          than those partially present in the postulated
          kernel gospel and that, in turn, the units partially
          present in the postulated kernel gospel are, *on the
          average*, earlier than those completely absent from
          the postulated kernel gospel, then, if the postulated
          Proto-Thomas is a real document, the expectation is
          that it contains a higher percentage of the units
          wholly in the postulated kernel gospel than of the
          units partially present in the postulated kernel
          gospel and that, in turn, it contains a higher
          percentage of the units partially present in the
          postulated kernel gospel than of the units completely
          absent from the postulated kernel gospel.

          Indeed, this is the case: with the postulated
          Proto-Thomas containing 34/60 (57%) of the units
          wholly present in the postulated kernel gospel, 5/16
          (31%) of the units partially present in the postulated
          kernel gospel, and 4/38 (11%) of the units completely
          absent from the postulated kernel gospel.

          Again, this is an indication that, on the average, the
          sayings attributed to Jesus in the proposed
          Proto-Thomas are of significantly earlier origin than
          the sayings attributed to Jesus in the proposed later
          additions to this Proto-Thomas--just as one would
          expect if Proto-Thomas was a real document.

          (Note: While I find the evidence for the postulated
          kernel gospel to be weak, I think it likely that there
          was at least one intermediate document between the
          proposed Proto-Thomas and GTh. Further, it is
          possible that such an intermediary document might have
          consisted of the proposed Proto-Thomas plus many of
          the kernel sayings not to be found in the proposed
          Proto-Thomas.)

          CONCLUDING REMARKS

          It can be hypothesised that there was a Proto-Thomas
          document consisting of GTh 2-10, 31-48, 61-65, and
          89-99. There are two basic reasons for thinking that
          this hypothesis is likely to be true. First, the
          postulated Proto-Thomas appears to have an internal
          structure to it. Second, the units assigned to
          Proto-Thomas appear to be, on average, of earlier
          origin than
          the units assigned to the later additions to
          Proto-Thomas.

          This is the first part of a two part posting. The
          second part will regard a possible sitz em leben for
          the writing of Proto-Thomas. It also will include the
          text of Proto-Thomas.

          Any suggestions or comments?

          Regards,

          Frank McCoy
          1809 N. English Apt. 17
          Maplewood, MN USA 55109






          > goranson@...
          >
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        • Frank McCoy
          INTRODUCTION This is the second part of a two part posting on Proto-Thomas--a proposed early version of GTh which consists of GTh 2-10, 31-48, 61-65, and
          Message 4 of 10 , Jul 16, 2002
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            INTRODUCTION

            This is the second part of a two part posting on
            Proto-Thomas--a proposed early version of GTh which
            consists of GTh 2-10, 31-48, 61-65, and 89-99.

            In this second part, it is suggested that Proto-Thomas
            was written at Tyre in the late fifties. Also, text
            of Proto-Thomas is given.

            THE SITZ EM LEBEN FOR PROTO-THOMAS

            For determining the sitz em leben for Proto-Thomas, I
            think that unit 61 is a good place to start, "Jesus
            said, 'Two will rest on a bed: the one will die and
            the other will live.' Salome said, 'Who are You, man,
            that You, as though from the One, have come up on my
            couch and eaten from my table?' Jesus said to her, 'I
            am He who exists from the Undivided. I was given some
            of the things of my Father.' 'I am your disciple.'"

            Salome is a very important person to the Proto-Thomas
            community, for she is, except for Jesus himself, the
            only person given a name in Proto-Thomas. Indeed,
            such a unique status indicates, to me, that she
            is the founder of the Proto-Thomas community.

            I suggest that she is the Syro-Phoenician woman, from
            the area around Tyre, mentioned in Mark 7:24-30.

            For one thing, this woman had a daughter lying on a
            bed. Is it a coincidence that lying on a bed/couch
            plays an important role in 61a? I think not.

            For another thing, the Syro-Phoenician woman tells
            Jesus, "Lord, even the doggies under the table eat
            from the crumbs of the children." Is it a
            coincidence that eating at a table plays an important
            role in 61a? I think not.

            So, I suggest, Salome is the name of the
            Syro-Phoenician woman of Mark 7:24-30 and she was the
            founder of the Proto-Thomas community.

            If so, then, as she resided in the vicinity of Tyre,
            and as she was a Gentile, and as Jews were a small
            minority in Tyre, the expectation is that the
            Proto-Thomas community was centered at Tyre and
            consisted of Gentiles.

            In this regard, unit 64 is very important.

            64 is a parable which also is found in the Q
            tradition. The Q tradition version of this parable,
            though, lacks this ending to 64, "Businessmen and
            merchants will not enter the Places of My Father."

            I take this to mean that the ending of 64 is not
            original to the parable, but was added to it because
            the Proto-Thomas community lived in an area which was
            a major center for trade and commerce. In this
            regard, it is significant that Tyre was a major center
            for trade and commerce.

            Also important is unit 8: where a man is fishing in
            the sea and takes the large fish and throws the rest
            back. This parable would have been of interest to
            people living on the sea-coast--and Tyre was on the
            sea-coast.

            Also, in view of the extensive over-lap between the
            Proto-Thomas tradition and the Q tradition, and in
            view of both communities focusing on sayings of Jesus
            and down-playing the significance of Jesus' death,
            there is a likelhood that the Proto-Thomas community
            was geographically close to the Q community.

            This is consistent with the Proto-Thomas community
            being located at Tyre--for Tyre was geographically
            close to Galilee: which probably was the location of
            the Q community.

            Further, there are several indications that the
            Proto-Thomas community consisted of Gentiles.

            Particularly important is unit 43b, where Jesus tells
            his disciples, "You do not realize who I am from what
            I say to you, but you have become like the Jews, for
            they (either) love the tree and hate its fruit (or)
            love the fruit and hate the tree."

            To me, this is a clear indication that the
            Proto-Thomas community consisted of Gentiles.

            Also, the lack of any references to Jewish scriptures
            in Proto-Thomas is consistent with the idea that the
            Proto-Thomas community was purely Gentile: being
            founded by a Gentile (i.e., the Syro-Phoenician woman)
            and consisting of Gentiles.

            Finally, the harsh attitude towards the brothers of
            Jesus in unit 99 is consistent with the idea that the
            Proto-Thomas community consisted of Gentiles who were
            hostile towards the Jerusalem Church led by James the
            Just, one of the brothers of Jesus--presumably because
            they were resisting pressure, from the Jerusalem
            Church, to start observing the Law of Moses.

            Relevant to the discussion is Acts 21:3-5 (RSV), "When
            we had come in sight of Cyprus, leaving it on the left
            we sailed to Syria, and landed at Tyre; for there the
            ship was to unload cargo (Which underscores the
            importance of Tyre as a center of trade and commerce).
            And having sought out the disciples, we stayed there
            for seven days. Through the Spirit they told Paul not
            to go on to Jerusalem. And when our days there were
            ended, we departed and went on our journey; and they
            all, with wives and children,
            brought us on our way till we were outside the city;
            and kneeling down on the beach we prayed and bade one
            another farewell."

            Here, we learn, there was a Christian community at
            Tyre in the mid-fifties. It apparently consisted of
            Gentiles--for they treat Paul and his followers
            as allies and warn him about the dangers he faced
            (from Christian Jews zealous for the Law)if he
            insisted on going to Jerusalem. This Christian
            community at Tyre, apparently composed of Gentiles,
            is, I suggest, the Proto-Thomas community.

            In line with this idea, it is noteworthy that, in Acts
            21:3-6, it is emphasised, the Spirit was important to
            the members of the Christian community at Tyre.
            Similarly, the Spirit was important to the members of
            the Proto-Thomas community: see unit 44, "Whoever
            blasphemes against the Father will be forgiven, and
            whoever blasphemes against the Son will be forgiven,
            but whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will
            not be forgiven either on earth or in heaven."

            As for the dating of Proto-Thomas, I think that it was
            most likely written after the Proto-Thomas community
            made contact with Paul and/or one or more of his
            followers (for, I suspect, some of the units in it,
            particularly 7, have been influenced by Pauline
            thought), but while James the Just was still
            presiding over the Jerusalem Church (for I suspect
            that the harsh criticism of the brothers of Jesus in
            unit 99 is aimed at him). If the Proto-Thomas
            community be the Christian community at Tyre, with
            which Paul first made contact in the mid-fifties, this
            makes the most likely date for the writing of
            Proto-Thomas to be sometime in the late 50s--after
            Paul made contact with the Proto-Thomas community in
            the mid fifties, but before the death of James the
            Just in the early 60s.

            So, to conclude, it is suggested that the Sitz em
            Leben for Proto-Thomas was Tyre in the late fifties.
            In this case, the Proto-Thomas community was founded
            even while Jesus was still alive by a Syro-Phoenician
            woman named Salome and it consisted of Gentiles. It
            had contacts with both the Q community and the
            Jerusalem Church. As respects the Jerusalem Church
            and
            its leader, James the Just, it appears to have had a
            cool to hostile attitude. In this case, it came into
            contact with Paul in the mid-fifties and he was
            accepted by its members as an ally.

            In this case, the Proto-Thomas community differed in
            some major respects from the GTh community--which took
            Thomas to be its founder and thought that James the
            Just was the cat's meow. This indicates that there was
            a major passage of time between the writing of
            Proto-Thomas and GTh and/or that GTh was written at a
            far different location than Proto-Thomas.

            THE TEXT OF PROTO-THOMAS

            Section 1

            2.Jesus said, "Let him who seeks continue seeking
            until he finds. When he finds he will become
            troubled. When he becomes troubled, he will be
            astonished, and he will rule over the All."
            3. Jesus said, "If those who lead you say to you,
            'See, the Kingdom is in the sky,' then the birds of
            the sky will precede you. If they say to you,
            'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you.
            Rather the Kingdom is inside of you, and it is outside
            of you. When you come to know yourselves, then you
            will become known, and you will realize that is is you
            who are the sons of the living Father. But if you
            will not know yourselves, you dwell in poverty and it
            is you who are that poverty."
            4.Jesus said, "The man old in days will not hesitate
            to ask a small child seven days old about the place of
            life, and he will live. For many who are first will
            become last, and they will become one and the same."
            5.Jesus said, "Recognize what is in your sight, and
            that which is hidden from you will become plain to
            you. For there is nothing hidden which will not
            become manifest."
            6. His disciples questioned Him and said to Him, "Do
            You want us to fast? How shall we pray? Shall we give
            alms? What diet shall we observe?" Jesus said, "Do not
            tell lies, and do not do what you hate, for all things
            are plain in the sight of heaven. For nothing hidden
            will not become manifest, and nothing covered will
            remain without being uncovered."
            7.Jesus said, "Blessed is the lion which becomes man
            when consumed by man; and cursed is the man whom the
            lion consumes, and the lion becomes man."
            8. And he said, "The man is like a wise fisherman who
            cast his net into the sea and drew it up from the sea
            full of small fish. Among them the wise fisherman
            found a fine large fish. He threw all the small fish
            back into the sea and chose the large fish without
            difficulty. Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear."
            9. Jesus said, "Now the sower went out, took a handful
            (of seeds), and scattered them. Some fell on the road;
            the birds came and gathered them up. Others fell on
            rock, did not take root in the soil, and did not
            produce ears. And others fell on thorns; they choked
            the seed(s) and worms ate them. And others fell on
            the good soil and produced good fruit: it bore sixty
            per measure and a hundred and twenty per measure."
            10. Jesus said, "I have cast fire upon the world, and
            see, I am guarding it until it blazes."

            Section 2

            31.Jesus said, "No prophet is accepted in his own
            village; no physician heals those who know him."
            32. Jesus said, "A city built on a high mountain and
            fortified cannot fall, nor can it be hidden."
            33. Jesus said, "Preach from your housetops that which
            you hear hear in your ear (and) in the other ear. For
            no one lights a lamp and upts it under a bushel, nor
            does he put it in a hidden place, but rather he sets
            it on a lampstand so that everyone who enters and
            leaves will see its light."
            34.Jesus said, "If a blind man leads a blind man, they
            will both fall into a pit."
            35.Jesus said, "It is not possible for any one to
            enter the house of a strong man and take it by force
            unless he binds his hands; then he will (be) able to
            ransack his house."
            36. Jesus said, "Do not be concerned from morning
            until evening and from evening until morning about
            what you will wear."
            37. His disciples said, "When will you become revealed
            to us and when shall we see You?" Jesus said, "When
            you disrobe without being ashamed and take up your
            garments and place them under your feet like little
            children and tread on them, then [will you see] the
            Son of the Living One and you will not be afraid."
            38.Jesus said, "Many times have you desired to hear
            these words which I am saying to you, and you have no
            one else to hear them from. There will be days when
            you will look for Me and will not find Me."
            39. Jesus said, "The Pharisees and the scribes have
            taken the keys of Knowledge and hidden them. They
            themselves have not entered, nor have they allowed to
            enter those who wish to. You, however, be as wise as
            serpents and as innocent as doves."
            40. Jesus said, "A grapevine has been planted outside
            of the Father, but being unsound, it will be pulled up
            by its roots and destroyed."
            41. Jesus said, "Whoever has something in his hand
            will receive more, and whoever has nothing will be
            deprived of even the little he has."
            42. Jesus said, "Become passers-by."
            43. His disciples said to him, "Who are You, that You
            should say these things to us?" "You do not realize
            who I am from what I say to you, but you have become
            like the Jews, for they (either) love the tree and
            hate its fruit (or) love the fruit and hate the tree."
            44.Jesus said, "Whoever blasphemes against the Father
            will be forgiven, and whoever blasphemes against the
            Son will be forgiven, but whoever blasphemes against
            the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven either on earth
            or in heaven."
            45. Jesus said, "Grapes are not harvested from thorns,
            nor are figs gathered from thistles, for they do not
            produce fruit. A good man brings forth good from his
            storehouse; and evil man brings forth evil things from
            his evil storehouse, which is in his heart, and says
            evil things. For out of the abundance of the heart he
            brings forth evil things."
            46. Jesus said, "Among those born of women, from Adam
            until John the Baptist, there is no one so superior to
            John the Baptist that his eyes should not be lowered
            (before) him. Yet I have said, whichever one of you
            comes to be a child, will be acquainted with the
            Kingdom and will become superior to John."
            47. Jesus said, "It is impossible for a man to mount
            two horses or to stretch two bows. And it is
            impossible for a servant to serve two masters;
            otherwise he will honor the one and treat the other
            contemptuously. No man drinks old wine and
            immediately desires to drink new wine. And new wine
            is
            not put into old wineskins, lest they burst; nor is
            old wine put into a new wineskin, let it spoil it. An
            old patch is not sewn into a new garment, because a
            tear would result."
            48. Jesus said, "If two make peace with each other in
            this one house, they will say to the mountain, 'Move
            away,' and it will move away."
            61. Jesus said, "Two will rest on a bed: the one will
            die and the other will live." Salome said, "Who are
            You, man, that You, as though from the One,have come
            up on my couch and eaten from my table?" Jesus said
            to her, "I am He who exists from the Undivided. I was
            given some of the things of my Father." "I am your
            disciple." "Therefore I say, if he is <undivided>, he
            will be filled with light, but if he is divided, he
            will be filled with darkness."
            62.Jesus said, "It is those [who are worthy of My]
            mysteries that I tell my mysteries. Do not let your
            left hand know what your right hand is doing."
            63. Jesus said, "There was a rich man who had much
            money. He said, "I shall put my money to use so that
            I may sow, reap, plant, and fill my storehouse with
            produce, with the result that I shall lack nothing.'
            Such were his intentions, but that same night he died.
            Let him who has ears hear."
            64. Jesus said, "A man had received visitors. And
            when he had prepared the dinner, he sent his servant
            to invite the guests. He went to the first one and
            said to him, 'My master invites you.' He said, 'I
            have claims against some merchants. They are coming
            to me this evening. I must go and give them my
            orders. I ask to be excused from the dinner.' He
            went to another and said to him, 'My master has
            invited you.' He said to him, 'My friend is going to
            get married, and I am to prepare the banquet. I shall
            not be able to come. I ask to be excused from the
            dinner.' He went to another and said ato him, 'My
            master invites you.' He said to him, 'I have just
            bought a farm, and I am on my way to collect the rent.
            I shall not be able to come. I ask to be excused.'
            The servant returned and said to his master, 'Those
            whom you invited to the dinner have asked to be
            excused.' The master said to his servant, 'Go outside
            to the streets and bring back those whom you happen to
            meet, so that they may dine.' Businessmen and
            merchants will not enter
            the Places of My Father.'"
            65. He said, "There was a good man who owned a
            vineyard. He leased it to tenant farmers so that they
            might work it and he might collect the produce from
            them. He sent his servant so that the tenants might
            give him the produce of the vineyard. They seized his
            servant and beat him, all but killing him. The
            servant went back and told his master. The master
            said, 'Perhaps <they> did not recognize <him>.' He
            sent another servant. The tenants beat this one as
            well. Then the owner sent his son and said, 'Perhaps
            they will show respect to my son.' Because the
            tenants knew that it was he who was the heir to the
            vineyard, they seized him and killed him. Let him who
            has ears hear."
            89.Jesus said, "Why do you wash the outside of the
            cup? Do you not realize that he who made the inside
            is the same one who made the outside?"
            90. Jesus said, "Come unto me, for My yoke is easy and
            My lordship is mild, and you will find repose for
            yourselves."

            Section 3

            91. They said to Him, "Tell us who You are so that we
            may believe in You." He said to them, "You read the
            face of the sky and of the earth, but you have not
            recognized the one who (or: that which) is before you,
            and you do not know how to read this moment."
            92.Jesus said, "Seek and you will find. Yet, what you
            asked Me about in former times and which I did not
            tell you then, now I do desire to tell, but you do not
            inquire after it."
            93. <Jesus said,> "Do not give what is holy to dogs,
            lest they throw them on the dung-heap. Do not throw
            the pearls to swine, lest they grind it [to bits]."
            94. Jesus [said], "He who seeks will find, and [he who
            knocks] will be let in."
            95. [Jesus said,], "If you have money, do not lend it
            at interest, but give [it] to one from whom you will
            not get it back."
            96. Jesus [said], "The Kingdom of the Father is like a
            certain woman. She took a little leaven, [concealed]
            it in some dough, and made it into large loaves. Let
            him who has ears hear."
            97. Jesus said, "The kingdom of the [Father] is like a
            certain woman who was carrying a jar full of meal.
            While she was walking [on] a road, still some
            distance from home, the handle of the jar broke and
            the meal emptied out behind her on the road. She did
            not ralize it; she had noticed no accident. When she
            reached her house, she set the jar down and found it
            empty,"
            98. Jesus said, "The Kingdom of the Father is like a
            certain man who wanted to kill a powerful man. In his
            own house he drew his sword and stuck it into the wall
            in order to find out whether his hand could carry
            through. Then he slew the powerful man."
            99. The disciples said to Him, "Your brothers and Your
            mother are standing outside." He said to them,
            "Those here who do the will of My Father are My
            brothers and My mother. It is they who will enter the
            Kingdom of My Father."

            Comments and suggestions are welcomed.

            Frank McCoy
            1809 N. English
            Maplewood, MN USA 55109






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