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Re: [XTalk] Davies Re: Paul and Jesus' teaching

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  • Frank McCoy
    ... (Steve Davies) ... (Frank McCoy) Who was a Galilean peasant prophet? Are you referring to Jesus the Nazorean? If so, what makes you sure he was a
    Message 1 of 10 , Jul 3, 2002
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      --- sdavies0 <sdavies@...> wrote:
      > --- In crosstalk2@y..., Bob Schacht
      > <bobschacht@i...> wrote:
      >

      (Steve Davies)
      > Or not. We have a frightening tendency to fall into
      > the "drunk under
      > the streetlamp" fallacy, which is to look for our
      > lost keys under
      > the streetlamp because that's where the light is
      > rather than look in
      > the darker vicinity of the place we lost the keys.
      > So we look for
      > information from the writings of General - Priest
      > Josephus or the
      > Essene (Priestly?) collection from Qumran for the
      > "how did they do
      > it" of a Galilean peasant prophet because we have no
      > good
      > information about how Galilean peasant prophets did
      > it.

      (Frank McCoy)
      Who was a Galilean peasant prophet? Are you referring
      to Jesus the Nazorean? If so, what makes you sure he
      was a Galilean? If so, what makes you sure he was a
      peasant? If so, what makes you sure he was a prophet?


      (Bob Schacht)
      > > We must also avoid rampant anachronism and
      > ethnocentrism.

      (Steve Davies)
      > Good idea. Can I include in "ethnocentrism" the
      > notion that the
      > Nazarene was a Judean?

      (Frank McCoy)
      According to John 4:44-45, a prophet has no honor in
      his own country, but Jesus was greeted by the
      Galileans upon his arrival there after having come
      there from Judea by way of Samaria.

      What makes you sure, then, that the Nazorean was not a
      Judean?

      Frank McCoy
      1809 N. English Apt. 17
      Maplewood, MN USA 55109





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    • Frank McCoy
      I propose the hypothesis that there are two written sources for GTh. The first solely consists of free-standing sayings of Jesus: making it of the same genre
      Message 2 of 10 , Jul 7, 2002
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        I propose the hypothesis that there are two written
        sources for GTh. The first solely consists of
        free-standing sayings of
        Jesus: making it of the same genre as the Nag Hammadi
        text, The Sentences of
        Sextus. The other consists of dialogues between Jesus
        and others: making it
        of the same genre as the Nag Hammadi texts, The
        Apocryphon of James and The
        Dialogue of the Savior.

        I further propose that this is what comes from the
        sayings document: Introduction,
        1-5, 7-11, 15-17. 19, 23, 25-36, 38-42, 44-50, 54-59,
        61a, 62-71, 73-78,
        80-90, 92-98, 101-103, and 105-112; and that this is
        what comes from the
        dialogue document: 6, 12-14, 18, 20-22, 24, 37, 43,
        51-53, 60, 61b, 72, 79,
        91, 99-100, 104, and 113-114.

        In "The Rhetoric of Marginality: Apocalypticism,
        Gnosticism, and Sayings Gospels" (Harvard Theological
        Review, 88:4, 1995), Bill Arnal postulates the
        existence of two stratum in GTh. The earlier (see p.
        478) is "the sapiential stratum" and it includes GTh
        3.
        5. 6. 9. 14. 16. 20. 26. 31, 32, 34-36, 42, 45, 47,
        54, 55, 57, 63-65, 71, 74, 76, 89, 95-98, 107, 109,
        and 110. The later (see p.479) is "the
        gnostic-leaning stratum" and it includes Gth 11, 13,
        15, 18, 21-22, 27-28, 49-50, 51, 60, 61, 83, 84, 101,
        105, 108, 11, and 114. This is thirty-three logia for
        the sapiential stratum and twenty logia for the
        gnostic-leaning stratum--a ratio of 3.3/2.

        There is a marked difference in the ratios between
        the postulated sayings document (to be referred to as
        the Thomas Saying Document or TSD) and the postulated
        dialogue document (to be referred to as the Thomas
        Dialogue Document or TDD).

        In the postulated TSD, there are thirty logia which
        come from
        the postulated sapiential stratum (3, 5, 9, 16, 26,
        31-32, 34-36, 42, 45,
        47, 54-55, 57, 63-65, 71, 74, 76, 86, 89, 95-98, 107,
        and 109-110) and
        twelve logia which come from the postulated
        gnostic-leaning stratum (11, 15,
        27-28, 49-50, 83-84, 101, 105, 108, and 111). This is
        a ratio of 3/1.2.

        In the postulated TDD, there are three logia which
        come from
        the postulated sapiential stratum (6, 14, and 20) and
        eight logia which come
        from the postulated gnostic-leaning stratum (13, 18,
        21-22, 51, 60, 61b, and
        114). This is a ratio of 3/8.

        The two ratios are radically different: with (1) the
        postulated sayings
        document have almost three times as many logia in the
        postulated sapiential
        stratum as in the postulated gnostic-leaning stratum,
        but with (2) the
        postulated dialogue document having almost three times
        as many logia in the
        postulated gnostic-leaning stratum as in the
        postulated sapiential stratum.

        These radically different ratios lend support to the
        hypothesis that there
        are two written sources for GTh: a sayings document
        (TSD) and a dialogue
        document (TDD).

        Also, since the postulated TSD has a much higher
        percentage of
        material from the postulated earlier sapiential
        stratum than does the
        postulated TDD, this evidence is consistent with the
        hypothesis that the postulated TSD was written earlier
        than was
        the postulated TDD.

        Next, I propose the hypothesis that the postulated
        TSD, which might be the earliest written source for
        GTh, is divisible into two layers: an early layer and
        a later layer. Further, the later layer was added to
        the original document by block insertion of material,
        so that the TSD consists of alternating blocks
        of early and late material.

        The hypothesised early version of the TSD, consisting
        solely of the postulated early layer, will be referred
        to as the Early Thomas Saying Document or ETSD.

        For detecting possible blocks of early and late
        material in the postulated
        TSD, two methods of detection are used.

        The first regards sayings from Arnal's postulated
        sapiential layer of
        tradition (to be referred to as S sayings) and sayings
        from his postulated
        gnostic-leaning layer of tradition (to be referred to
        as G sayings).

        It will be assumed that S sayings will tend to be
        found in the early layer
        blocks, while G sayings will tend to be found in the
        late layer blocks.

        The second regards the Jesus Seminar's grading of the
        sayings in GTh as
        recorded in their The Five Gospels.

        It will be assumed that sayings they designate as
        wholly black (to be
        referred to as B sayings) will tend to be found in the
        late layer blocks,
        while sayings they designate wholly or in part either
        pink or red (to be
        referred to as P sayings) will tend to be found in the
        early layer blocks.

        When the postulated TSD is analyzed this way, it can
        be divided
        into postulated early and late blocks of material as
        follows:

        1. A late block of material: The Introduction and
        saying 1. One B saying
        (1) and no S, G, or P sayings..

        2. An early block of material: Sayings 2-10. One B
        saying (7) and four P
        sayings (2.5.9.10), three S sayings (3.5.9) and no G
        sayings.

        3. A late block of material: Sayings 11-30. One P
        sayings (26), ten B
        sayings (11.15.16.17.19.23.27.28.29.30), two S sayings
        (16 and 26), and four
        G sayings (11,15.27.28).

        4. An early block of material: Sayings 31-48. Nine P
        sayings
        (31,32,33,35,36,39,41,45,47), two B sayings (38, 44),
        seven S sayings
        (31,32,34.36.42.45,47), and no G sayings.

        5. A late block of material: Sayings 49-59. One P
        saying (54), five B
        sayings (49,50,56,58,59), three S sayings (54,55,57),
        and two G sayings
        (49,50).

        6. An early block of material: Sayings 61-65. Four P
        sayings (62,63,64,65),
        no B sayings, three S sayings (63,64,65), and no G
        sayings.

        7. A late block of material: Sayings 66-88. Four P
        sayings (69,76,78,86), 14
        B sayings (66,67,70,71,73,74,75,77,80,83,84,85,87,88),
        four S sayings
        (71,74,76,86), and two G sayings (83,84).

        8. An early block of material: Sayings 89-98. Seven P
        sayings
        (89,92,94,95,96,97,98), one B saying (90), five S
        sayings (89,95,96,97,98),
        and no G sayings.

        9. A late block of material: Sayings 101-112. One P
        saying (109), seven B
        sayings (101,102,105,108,110,111,112), and four G
        sayings (101,105,108,111).

        The net tallies for the postulated early blocks of
        material are: 24 P
        sayings, four B sayings, 18 S sayings, and no G
        sayings.

        The net tallies for the postulated late blocks of
        material are: 7 P sayings,
        37 B sayings, 12 S sayings, and 12 G sayings.

        In any event, here is the text of the hypothesised
        Early Thomas Saying
        Document (ETSD), consisting of the postulated early
        layer of the postulated
        TSD--which hypothesised ETSD is my current best guess
        as to what constitutes
        the earliest material in GTh:

        2. Jesus said, "Let him who seeks continue seeking
        until he finds. When he
        finds he will become troubled. When he becomes
        troubled, he will be
        astonished, and he will rule over the All."
        3. Jesus said, "If those who lead you say to you,
        'See, the Kingdom is in
        the sky,' then the birds of the sky will precede you.
        If they say to you,
        'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you.
        Rather the Kingdom is
        inside of you, and it is outside of you. When you
        come to know yourselves,
        then you will become known, and you will realize that
        is is you who are the
        sons of the living Father. But if you will not know
        yourselves, you dwell
        in poverty and it is you who are that poverty."
        4.Jesus said, "The man old in days will not hesitate
        to ask a small child
        seven days old about the place of life, and he will
        live. For many who are
        first will become last, and they will become one and
        the same."
        5.Jesus said, "Recognize what is in your sight, and
        that which is hidden
        from you will become plain to you. For there is
        nothing hidden which will
        not become manifest."
        7.Jesus said, "Blessed is the lion which becomes man
        when consumed by man;
        and cursed is the man whom the lion consumes, and the
        lion becomes man."
        8. And he said, "The man is like a wise fisherman who
        cast his net into the
        sea and drew it up from the sea full of small fish.
        Among them the wise
        fisherman found a fine large fish. He threw all the
        small fish back into the
        sea and chose the large fish without difficulty.
        Whoever has ears to hear,
        let him hear."
        9. Jesus said, "Now the sower went out, took a handful
        (of seeds), and
        scattered them. Some fell on the road; the birds came
        and gathered them up.
        Others fell on rock, did not take root in the soil,
        and did not produce
        ears. And others fell on thorns; they choked the
        seed(s) and worms ate
        them. And others fell on the good soil and produced
        good fruit: it bore
        sixty per measure and a hundred and twenty per
        measure."
        10. Jesus said, "I have cast fire upon the world, and
        see, I am guarding it
        until it blazes."
        31. Jesus said, "No prophet is accepted in his own
        village; no physician
        heals those who know him."
        32. Jesus said, "A city built on a high mountain and
        fortified cannot fall,
        nor can it be hidden."
        33. Jesus said, "Preach from your housetops that which
        you hear hear in your
        ear (and) in the other ear. For no one lights a lamp
        and puts it under a
        bushel, nor does he put it in a hidden place, but
        rather he sets it on a
        lampstand so that everyone who enters and leaves will
        see its light."
        34. Jesus said, "If a blind man leads a blind man,
        they will both fall into
        a pit."
        35. Jesus said, "It is not possible for anyone to
        enter the house of a
        strong man and take it by force unless he binds his
        hands; then he will (be)
        able to ransack his house."
        36. Jesus said, "Do not be concerned from morning
        until evening and from
        evening until morning about what you will wear."
        38.Jesus said, "Many times have you desired to hear
        these words which I am
        saying to you, and you have no one else to hear them
        from. There will be
        days when you will look for Me and will not find Me."
        39. Jesus said, "The Pharisees and the scribes have
        taken the keys of
        Knowledge and hidden them. They themselves have not
        entered, nor have they
        allowed to enter those who wish to. You, however, be
        as wise as serpents
        and as innocent as doves."
        40. Jesus said, "A grapevine has been planted outside
        of the Father, but
        being unsound, it will be pulled up by its roots and
        destroyed."
        41. Jesus said, "Whoever has something in his hand
        will receive more, and
        whoever has nothing will be dprived of even the little
        he has."
        42. Jesus said, "Become passers-by."
        44.Jesus said, "Whoever blasphemes against the Father
        will be forgiven, and
        whoever blasphemes against the Son will be forgiven,
        but whoever blasphemes
        against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven either on
        earth or in heaven."
        45. Jesus said, "Grapes are not harvested from thorns,
        nor are figs gathered
        from thistles, for they do not produce fruit. A good
        man brings forth good
        from his storehouse; and evil man brings forth evil
        things from his evil
        storehouse, which is in his heart, and says evil
        things. For out of the
        abundance of the heart he brings forth evil things."
        46. Jesus said, "Among those born of women, from Adam
        until John the
        Baptist, there is no one so superior to John the
        Baptist that his eyes
        should not be lowered (before) him. Yet I have said,
        whichever one of you
        comes to be a child, will be acquainted with the
        Kingdom and will become
        superior to John."
        47. Jesus said, "It is impossible for a man to mount
        two horses or to
        stretch two bows. And it is impossible for a servant
        to serve two masters;
        otherwise he will honor the one and treat the other
        contemptuously. No man
        drinks old wine and immediately desires to drink new
        wine. And new wine is
        not put into old wineskins, lest they burst; nor is
        old wine put into a new
        wineskin, let it spoil it. An old patch is not sewn
        into a new garment,
        because a tear would result."
        48. Jesus said, "If two make peace with each other in
        this one house, they
        will say to the mountain, 'Move away,' and it will
        move away."
        61a. Jesus said, "Two will rest on a bed: the one will
        die and the other
        will live."
        62.Jesus said, "It is those [who are worthy of My]
        mysteries that I tell my
        mysteries. Do not let your left hand know what your
        right hand is doing."
        63. Jesus said, "There was a rich man who had much
        money. He said, "I shall
        put my money to use so that I may sow, reap, plant,
        and fill my storehouse
        with produce, with the result that I shall lack
        nothing.' Such were his
        intentions, but that same night he died. Let him who
        has ears hear."
        64. Jesus said, "A man had received visitors. And
        when he had prepared the
        dinner, he sent his servant to invite the guests. He
        went to the first one
        and said to him, 'My master invites you.' He said, 'I
        have claims against
        some merchants. They are coming to me this evening.
        I must go and give
        them my orders. I ask to be excused from the dinner.'
        He went to another
        and said to him, 'My master has invited you.' He said
        to him, 'My friend is
        going to get married, and I am to prepare the banquet.
        I shall not be able
        to come. I ask to be excused from the dinner.' He
        went to another and said
        to him, 'My master invites you.' He said to him, 'I
        have just bought a
        farm, and I am on my way to collect the rent. I shall
        not be able to come.
        I ask to be excused.' The servant returned and said
        to his master, 'Those
        whom you invited to the dinner have asked to be
        excused.' The master said to
        his servant, 'Go outside to the streets and bring back
        those whom you happen
        to meet, so that they may dine.' Businessmen and
        merchants will not enter
        the Places of My Father.'"
        65. He said, "There was a good man who owned a
        vineyard. He leased it to
        tenant farmers so that they might work it and he might
        collect the produce
        from them. He sent his servant so that the tenants
        might give him the
        produce of the vineyard. They seized his servant and
        beat him, all but
        killing him. The servant went back and told his
        master. The master said,
        'Perhaps <they> did not recognize <him>.' He sent
        another servant. The
        tenants beat this one as well. Then the owner sent
        his son and said,
        'Perhaps they will show respect to my son.' Because
        the tenants knew that
        it was he who was the heir to the vineyard, they
        seized him and killed him.
        Let him who has ears hear."
        89. Jesus said, "Why do you wash the outside of the
        cup? Do you not realize
        that he who made the inside is the same one who made
        the outside?"
        90. Jesus said, "Come unto me, for My yoke is easy and
        My lordship is mild,
        and you will find repose for yourselves."
        92.Jesus said, "Seek and you will find. Yet, what you
        asked Me about in
        former times and which I did not tell you then, now I
        do desire to tell, but
        you do not inquire after it. 93. Do not give what is
        holy to dogs, lest
        they throw them on the dung-heap. Do not throw the
        pearls to swine, lest
        they grind it [to bits]."
        94. Jesus [said], "He who seeks will find, and [he who
        knocks] will be let
        in."
        95. [Jesus said,], "If you have money, do not lend it
        at interest, but give
        [it] to one from whom you will not get it back."
        96. Jesus [said], "The Kingdom of the Father is like a
        certain woman. She
        took a little leaven, [concealed] it in some dough,
        and made it into large
        loaves. Let him who has ears hear."
        97. Jesus said, "The kingdom of the [Father] is like a
        certain woman who was
        carrying a jar full of meal. While she was walking
        [on] a road, still some
        distance from home, the handle of the jar broke and
        the meal emptied out
        behind her on the road. She did not ralize it; she
        had noticed no accident.
        When she reached her house, she set the jar down and
        found it empty,"
        98. Jesus said, "The Kingdom of the Father is like a
        certain man who wanted
        to kill a powerful man. In his own house he drew his
        sword and stuck it
        into the wall in order to find out whether his hand
        could carry through.
        Then he slew the powerful man."

        Frank McCoy
        1809 N. English Apt. 17
        Maplewood, MN USA 55109





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      • goranson@duke.edu
        Perhaps you would be interested in an article in the latest Vigiliae Christianae which presents several possible schemes for the growth of Gospel of Thomas.
        Message 3 of 10 , Jul 8, 2002
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          Perhaps you would be interested in an article in the latest Vigiliae
          Christianae which presents several possible schemes for the growth of
          Gospel of Thomas.

          best,
          Stephen Goranson
          goranson@...
        • Frank McCoy
          ... Dear Stephen Goranson: Thank you! This is a most informative article. It has helped me to develop yet another possible early version of GTh, a
          Message 4 of 10 , Jul 16, 2002
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            --- goranson@... wrote:
            > Perhaps you would be interested in an article in the
            > latest Vigiliae
            > Christianae which presents several possible schemes
            > for the growth of
            > Gospel of Thomas.
            >

            Dear Stephen Goranson:

            Thank you! This is a most informative article.

            It has helped me to develop yet another possible early
            version of GTh, a Proto-Thomas text, which is outlined
            below.

            DEFINITIONS

            There are certain terms used in this post that should
            be defined for purposes of clarity.

            1. Unit = a numbered division of GTh, of which there
            are 114. It is assumed that this strictly modern
            numbering system accurately reflects the individual
            units of GTh as conceived by its author(s).

            2. Saying Unit = a unit in which only Jesus speaks

            3. Dialogue Unit = a unit in which, besides Jesus, one
            or more other people also speak.

            4. Section = a sequence of an odd number of units: (a)
            that is symmetrical, so that the two end units of a
            sequence will always be of the same type and (b) in
            which the two end units belong to a different type of
            unit than the center unit (i.e., if the two end units
            are saying units, then the center unit is a dialogue
            unit, and if the two end units are dialogue units,
            then
            the center unit is a saying unit).

            5. Special Unit = a unit that is one of the end or
            center units of a section

            A PROPOSAL

            It is proposed that there was an earlier version of
            GTh. a Proto-Thomas, consisting of these three
            sections:

            Section 1 GTh 2-10

            Section 2 GTh 31-48 and 61-65 and 89-90.

            Section 3 GTh 91-99

            REASONS FOR THINKING THIS LIKELY WAS A REAL DOCUMENT

            There are two basic reasons for thinking that the
            postulated Proto-Thomas likely was a real document.
            The first basic reason is that it appears to have
            internal organization. The second basic reason is
            that, it appears, the units in it are, on the average,
            of earlier origin than the rest of the units in
            GTh--which is what we would expect it it consists of
            the part of GTh first written down.

            INTERNAL ORGANIZATION--PART I

            Where s = saying unit and d = dialogue unit and a
            capitalized s (i.e. S) or a capitalized d (i.e., D) =
            a special unit, this is how each of the three
            proposed sections looks:

            1. 2-10: SsssDsssS

            2. 31-48, 61-65, 89-90:
            SsssssdsssssDsssssdsssssS

            3. 91-99: DsssSsssD

            Note that, if the center special unit be treated as a
            mirror plane, then each of these three sections
            displays mirror symmetry.

            Note, too, that each section consists of a square
            number of units. Thus, sections 1 and 3 each consist
            of 9 units--and 3x3 = 9. Again, section 2 consists of
            25 units--and 5x5 = 25.

            Indeed, this does not appear to be coincidence: for
            each of the 3x3 sections consists of three groups,
            with each of the three groups consisting of three
            units. So, in section 1, there are two sss groups and
            the remainding units (2S and 1D) constitute a third
            group of three units. Again, in section 3, there are
            two sss groups and the remaining units (2D and 1S)
            constitute a third group of three units.

            Further, section 2, the 5x5 section, consists of five
            groups, with each of the five groups consisting of
            five units. So, it contains four sssss groups and the
            remaining units (2S, 2d, and 1D) constitute a fifth
            group of five units.

            Note that, while section one is symmetrical, and while
            section three is symmetrical, and while both are of
            the same length, they are, as respects their special
            units, in an oppositional type of relationship:
            1. SsssDsssS
            3. DsssSsssD

            In any event, the highly organized mirror symmetrical
            arrangement to each of the three sections of the
            proposed Proto-Thomas is evidence which supports
            the hypothesis that this proposed document really did
            exist.

            INTERNAL ORGANIZATION--PART II

            There is evidence of a symmetrical relationship
            between the beginning SsssD
            sequence of the proposed Proto-Thomas (i.e., GTh 2-6)
            and the ending SsssD
            sequence of it (i.e., GTh 95-99).

            GTh 2-6 reads, "2. Jesus said, "Let him who seeks
            continue seeking until he finds. When he finds he
            will become troubled. When he becomes troubled, he
            will be astonished, and he will rule over the All."
            3. Jesus said, "If those who lead you say to you,
            'See, the Kingdom is in the sky,' then the birds of
            the sky will precede you. If they say to you,
            'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you.
            Rather the Kingdom is inside of you, and it is outside
            of you. When you come to know yourselves, then you
            will become known, and you will realize that is is you
            who are the sons of the living Father. But if you
            will not know yourselves, you dwell in poverty and it
            is you who are that poverty." 4.Jesus said, "The man
            old in days will not hesitate to ask a small child
            seven days old about the place of life, and he will
            live. For many who are first will become last, and
            they will become one and the same." 5.Jesus said,
            "Recognize what is in your sight, and that which is
            hidden from you will become plain to you. For there
            is nothing hidden which will not become manifest." 6.
            "His disciples questioned Him and said to Him, 'Do You
            want us to fast? How shall we pray? Shall we give
            alms? What diet shall we observe?' Jesus
            said, 'Do not tell lies, and do not do what you hate,
            for all things are plain in the sight of heaven. For
            nothing hidden will not become manifest, and nothing
            covered will remain without being uncovered.'"

            GTh 95-99 reads, "95. [Jesus said,] "If you have
            money, do not lend it at interest, but give [it] to
            one from whom you will not get it back." 96. Jesus
            [said], "The Kingdom of the Father is like a certain
            woman. She took a little leaven, [concealed] it in
            some dough, and made it into large loaves. Let him
            who has ears hear." 97. Jesus said, "The kingdom of
            the [Father] is like a certain woman who was
            carrying a jar full of meal. While she was walking
            [on] a road, still some distance from home, the handle
            of the jar broke and the meal emptied out behind her
            on the road. She did not ralize it; she had noticed
            no accident. When she reached her house, she set the
            jar down and found it empty," 98. Jesus said, "The
            Kingdom of the Father is like a certain man who wanted
            to kill a powerful man. In his own house he drew his
            sword and stuck it into the wall in order to find out
            whether his hand could carry through. Then he slew the
            powerful man." 99. The disciples said to Him, "Your
            brothers and your mother are standing outside." He
            said to them, "These here who do the will of my Father
            are My brothers and My mother. It is they who will
            enter the Kingdom of My Father."

            Note that 5 and 95 are clearly related: for both
            include the topic of alms-giving. Note, too, that we
            do not have the out-right rejection of alms-giving
            that is reflected in GTh 14--which is one of the units
            belonging to the proposed later additions to the
            proposed Proto-Thomas.

            Note that 96-99 regard the Kingdom: with 96-98 being
            three parables of the Kingdom and 99 being an
            admonition about the type of people who will
            enter the Kingdom. Note, too, that 99, where the
            brothers of Jesus are treated harshly, strongly
            contrasts with the outright adulation of James the
            Just (a brother of Jesus) in GTh 12--which is one of
            the units belonging to the proposed later additions to
            the proposed Proto-Thomas.

            In this regard, it is possible that 2-5 also regard
            the Kingdom. This is explicitly the case for 3, which
            describes how the Kingdom is both outside of you and
            inside of you. In 2, what is to be sought and found
            might be the Kingdom. In 4, the place of life might
            be the Kingdom as something outside you. In 5, the
            hidden that will become plain might be the Kingdom as
            something hid inside of you.

            To conclude, 2-6, the beginning to the proposed
            Proto-Thomas, might have a relationship to 95-99, the
            ending to the proposed Proto-Thomas: with 6 relating
            to 95 because both mention alms-giving and with 2-5
            relating to 96-99 because these units might all regard
            the Kingdom. With the units mentioning alms-giving
            designated A and the other units designated B, this
            is the relationship: BBBBA ABBBB

            Such a possible mirror symmetrical relationship
            between the beginning and the ending of the proposed
            Proto-Thomas increases the likelihood that it is
            a real document.

            INTERNAL ORGANIZATION--PART III

            After deleting the above discussed 2-6 and 95-99, the
            remaining units of the proposed Proto-Thomas (i.e.,
            7-10, 31-48, 61-65, and 89-94) have this arrangement:
            sssSSsssssdsssssDsssssdsssssSDsss.

            Let us look at the three S units in this sequence.
            The first is 10, "Jesus said, 'I have cast fire upon
            the earth, and see, I am guarding it until it
            blazes.'" The second is 31, "Jesus said, "No prophet
            is accepted in his own village; no physician heals
            those who know him.'" The third is 90, "Jesus
            said, 'Come unto me, for My yoke is easy and My
            lordship mild, and you will find repose for
            yourselves.'"

            All three of the S units appear to regard Jesus. This
            is clearly the case for 10 and 90. This is probably
            the case for 31. So, in Mark 6:4, Jesus applies this
            saying to himself. Again, in John 4:44, it is assumed
            that this saying applies to Jesus.

            This is remarkable, for, of the 26 s units, only 5
            (roughly, 20%) appear to regard Jesus, i.e., 38, 44
            (if the Son be understood to be Jesus), 62, 65 (if the
            son of the vineyard owner be understood to be Jesus),
            and 92.

            This suggests that it is no accident that the 3 S
            units in the postulated Proto-Thomas in the zone from
            7 to 94 all appear to regard Jesus. As a result, this
            is evidence which supports the hypothesis that the
            postulated Proto-Thomas was a real document.

            Again, let us look at the four dialogue (i.e., d and
            D) units. The first is 37, "His disciples said,
            'When will you become revealed to us and
            when shall we see You?' Jesus said, 'When you disrobe
            without being ashamed and take up your garments and
            place them under your feet like little children and
            tread on them, then [will you see] the Son of the
            Living One and you will not be afraid.'" The second
            is 43, "His disciples said to him, 'Who are You, that
            You should say these things to us?' 'You do not
            realize who I am from what I say to you, but you have
            become like the Jews, for they (either) love the tree
            and hate its fruit (or) love the fruit and hate the
            tree.'" The third is 61, "Jesus said, 'Two will rest
            on a bed: the one will die and the other will live.'
            Salome said, 'Who are You, man, that You, as
            though from the One, have come up on my couch and
            eaten from my table?' Jesus said to her, 'I am He who
            exists from the Undivided. I was given some of the
            things of my Father.' 'I am your disciple.'
            'Therefore I say, if he is <undivided>, he will be
            filled with light, but if he is divided, he will be
            filled with darkness.'" The fourth is 91, "They
            said to Him, 'Tell us who You are so that we may
            believe in You.' He said to them, 'You read the
            face of the sky and of the earth, but you have not
            recognized the one who (or: that which) is before you,
            and you do not know how to read this moment.'"

            As can be seen, each of these discourse units contains
            a request to Jesus, by one or more of his disciples,
            for him to provide knowledge regarding himself.

            This is remarkable, for none of the other 20 discourse
            units in GTh contain a request to Jesus, by one or
            more of his disciples, for him to provide knowledge
            regarding himself.

            This suggests that it is no accident that the four
            discourse units in the postulated Proto-Thomas in the
            zone from 7 to 94 all regard a request to Jesus, by
            one or more of his disciples, for him to provide
            knowledge about himself. As a result, this is
            evidence which supports the hypothesis that the
            postulated Proto-Thomas was a real document.

            EVIDENCE OF EARLY ORIGIN: PART I

            If the postulated Proto-Thomas is real, then, as it is
            postulated to be the early version of GTh, there
            should be evidence that its units, on the average, are
            earlier than the units in the proposed later
            additions. (Note: these proposed later additions are:
            Introduction-1, 11-30, 49-60, 66-88, and 100-114).

            Indeed, such is the case.

            For example, let us take the Jesus Seminar's grading
            of the sayings in GTh as recorded in their The Five
            Gospels--where grades range from black (almost
            certainly not genuine) to red (almost certainly
            genuine).

            It will be assumed that sayings of Jesus they
            designate as wholly black (to be referred to as B
            sayings) will, on average, be later in origin than
            sayings they designate to be wholly or in part either
            pink or red (to be referred to as P sayings).

            Of the 43 units in the proposed Proto-Thomas, there
            are 26 that contain P sayings (2, 5, 6, 9, 10, 31, 32,
            33, 35, 36, 39, 41, 45, 47, 62, 63, 64, 65 89, 92,
            94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99) and 6 that contain B sayings
            (7, 37, 38, 43, 44, 90)

            Conversely, of the 71 units in the proposed later
            additions to Proto-Thomas, there are 47 that contain B
            sayings (1, 11, 12, 13, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 23, 27,
            28, 29, 30, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 60, 66,
            67, 69, 70, 71, 73, 74, 75, 77, 80, 83, 84, 85, 87,
            88, 101, 102, 104, 105, 108, 110, 111, 112, 114) and
            10 that contain P sayings (14, 20, 26, 54, 69, 76, 86,
            100, 109, 113).

            So, this does suggest that, on the average, the
            sayings attributed to Jesus in the proposed
            Proto-Thomas are significantly earlier in origin than
            the
            sayings attributed to Jesus in the proposed later
            additions to Proto-Thomas--just as one would expect if
            Proto-Thomas was a real document.

            EVIDENCE OF EARLY ORIGIN: PART II

            In "The Rhetoric of Marginality: Apocalypticism,
            Gnosticism, and Sayings Gospels" (Harvard Theological
            Review, 88:4, 1995), Bill Arnal postulates the
            existence of two stratum in GTh. The earlier (see p.
            478) is "the sapiential stratum" and it includes GTh
            3. 5. 6. 9. 14. 16. 20. 26. 31, 32, 34-36, 42, 45,
            47, 54, 55, 57, 63-65, 71, 74, 76, 89, 95-98, 107,
            109, and 110. The later (see p.479) is "the
            gnostic-leaning stratum" and it includes Gth 11, 13,
            15, 18, 21-22, 27-28, 49-50, 51, 60, 61, 83, 84, 101,
            105, 108, 11, and 114.

            In the proposed Proto-Thomas, the proposed earlier
            Sapiential sayings are more highly represented than
            the proposed later Gnostic-leaning sayings: with 20
            Sapiential sayings (3, 5, 6, 9, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36,
            42, 45, 47, 63, 64, 65, 89, 95, 96, 97, 98) and one
            Gnostic-leaning saying (61).

            Conversely, in the proposed later additions to
            Proto-Thomas, the proposed later Gnostic-leaning
            sayings are more highly represented than the proposed
            earlier Sapiential sayings: with 19 Gnostic-leaning
            sayings (11, 13, 15, 18, 21, 22, 27, 28, 49, 50, 51,
            60, 83, 84, 101, 105, 108, 111, 114) and 13 Sapiential
            sayings (14, 16, 20, 26, 54, 55, 57, 76, 85, 86, 107,
            109, 110).

            Again, this is an indication that, on the average, the
            sayings attributed to Jesus in the proposed
            Proto-Thomas are of significantly earlier origin than
            the sayings attributed to Jesus in the proposed later
            additions to this Proto-Thomas--just as one would
            expect if Proto-Thomas was a real document.

            EVIDENCE OF EARLY ORIGIN: PART III

            In "The Original Gospel of Thomas" (Vigiliae
            Christianae, LVI: 2, 2002, pp. 167-199), A. D.
            DeConick postulates that there was an early edition of
            GTh he calls the kernel gospel.

            Of the 114 units in GTh, he suggests that 60 were
            wholly present in the postulated kernel gospel. Of
            these 60, 34 are present in the postulated
            Proto-Thomas (2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36,
            39, 40, 41, 42, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 62, 63, 65, 89,
            90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99) and 26 are not
            (15, 17, 20, 25, 26, 30, 54, 55, 57, 58, 66, 71, 72,
            73, 74, 76, 78, 79, 81, 82, 86, 102, 103, 104, 107,
            109).

            Of the 114 units in GTh, he suggests that 16 were
            partially present in the postulated kernel gospel. Of
            these 16, five are present in the postulated
            Proto-Thomas (4, 6, 38, 61, 64) and 11 are not (11,
            14, 16, 21, 23, 24, 60, 68, 69, 100, 111).

            Of the 114 units in GTh, he suggests that 38 were
            completely absent from the postulated kernel gospel.
            Of these 38, four are in the postulated Proto-Thomas
            (3, 7, 37, 43) and 34 are not (1, 12, 13, 18, 19, 22,
            27, 28, 29, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 56, 59, 67, 70, 75,
            77, 80, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 101, 105, 106, 108, 110,
            112, 113, 114).

            The evidence he presents for the existence of the
            postulated kernel gospel is quite weak. In
            particular, he fails to demonstrate that this kernel
            gospel has any internal organization to it.

            Still, I think it likely that the units in his
            proposed kernel gospel are, on the average, of earlier
            origin than the other units in GTh,

            For example, he (p. 198) states, "Second, just over
            fifty percent of the sayings in the kernel gospel are
            paralleled in Q. Not even one saying with a Q
            parallel, however, can be found in the later layers.
            This also cannot be a coincidence. It suggests to me
            that the sayings in the kernel gospel of Thomas are
            some of the oldest witnesses to the Jesus traditions.
            Additionally, my initial analysis of the kernel gospel
            seems to indicate that neither Q nor the kernel Thomas
            were literarily dependent upon the other."

            Assuming that, *on the average*, the units wholly
            present in the postulated kernel gospel are earlier
            than those partially present in the postulated
            kernel gospel and that, in turn, the units partially
            present in the postulated kernel gospel are, *on the
            average*, earlier than those completely absent from
            the postulated kernel gospel, then, if the postulated
            Proto-Thomas is a real document, the expectation is
            that it contains a higher percentage of the units
            wholly in the postulated kernel gospel than of the
            units partially present in the postulated kernel
            gospel and that, in turn, it contains a higher
            percentage of the units partially present in the
            postulated kernel gospel than of the units completely
            absent from the postulated kernel gospel.

            Indeed, this is the case: with the postulated
            Proto-Thomas containing 34/60 (57%) of the units
            wholly present in the postulated kernel gospel, 5/16
            (31%) of the units partially present in the postulated
            kernel gospel, and 4/38 (11%) of the units completely
            absent from the postulated kernel gospel.

            Again, this is an indication that, on the average, the
            sayings attributed to Jesus in the proposed
            Proto-Thomas are of significantly earlier origin than
            the sayings attributed to Jesus in the proposed later
            additions to this Proto-Thomas--just as one would
            expect if Proto-Thomas was a real document.

            (Note: While I find the evidence for the postulated
            kernel gospel to be weak, I think it likely that there
            was at least one intermediate document between the
            proposed Proto-Thomas and GTh. Further, it is
            possible that such an intermediary document might have
            consisted of the proposed Proto-Thomas plus many of
            the kernel sayings not to be found in the proposed
            Proto-Thomas.)

            CONCLUDING REMARKS

            It can be hypothesised that there was a Proto-Thomas
            document consisting of GTh 2-10, 31-48, 61-65, and
            89-99. There are two basic reasons for thinking that
            this hypothesis is likely to be true. First, the
            postulated Proto-Thomas appears to have an internal
            structure to it. Second, the units assigned to
            Proto-Thomas appear to be, on average, of earlier
            origin than
            the units assigned to the later additions to
            Proto-Thomas.

            This is the first part of a two part posting. The
            second part will regard a possible sitz em leben for
            the writing of Proto-Thomas. It also will include the
            text of Proto-Thomas.

            Any suggestions or comments?

            Regards,

            Frank McCoy
            1809 N. English Apt. 17
            Maplewood, MN USA 55109






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          • Frank McCoy
            INTRODUCTION This is the second part of a two part posting on Proto-Thomas--a proposed early version of GTh which consists of GTh 2-10, 31-48, 61-65, and
            Message 5 of 10 , Jul 16, 2002
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              INTRODUCTION

              This is the second part of a two part posting on
              Proto-Thomas--a proposed early version of GTh which
              consists of GTh 2-10, 31-48, 61-65, and 89-99.

              In this second part, it is suggested that Proto-Thomas
              was written at Tyre in the late fifties. Also, text
              of Proto-Thomas is given.

              THE SITZ EM LEBEN FOR PROTO-THOMAS

              For determining the sitz em leben for Proto-Thomas, I
              think that unit 61 is a good place to start, "Jesus
              said, 'Two will rest on a bed: the one will die and
              the other will live.' Salome said, 'Who are You, man,
              that You, as though from the One, have come up on my
              couch and eaten from my table?' Jesus said to her, 'I
              am He who exists from the Undivided. I was given some
              of the things of my Father.' 'I am your disciple.'"

              Salome is a very important person to the Proto-Thomas
              community, for she is, except for Jesus himself, the
              only person given a name in Proto-Thomas. Indeed,
              such a unique status indicates, to me, that she
              is the founder of the Proto-Thomas community.

              I suggest that she is the Syro-Phoenician woman, from
              the area around Tyre, mentioned in Mark 7:24-30.

              For one thing, this woman had a daughter lying on a
              bed. Is it a coincidence that lying on a bed/couch
              plays an important role in 61a? I think not.

              For another thing, the Syro-Phoenician woman tells
              Jesus, "Lord, even the doggies under the table eat
              from the crumbs of the children." Is it a
              coincidence that eating at a table plays an important
              role in 61a? I think not.

              So, I suggest, Salome is the name of the
              Syro-Phoenician woman of Mark 7:24-30 and she was the
              founder of the Proto-Thomas community.

              If so, then, as she resided in the vicinity of Tyre,
              and as she was a Gentile, and as Jews were a small
              minority in Tyre, the expectation is that the
              Proto-Thomas community was centered at Tyre and
              consisted of Gentiles.

              In this regard, unit 64 is very important.

              64 is a parable which also is found in the Q
              tradition. The Q tradition version of this parable,
              though, lacks this ending to 64, "Businessmen and
              merchants will not enter the Places of My Father."

              I take this to mean that the ending of 64 is not
              original to the parable, but was added to it because
              the Proto-Thomas community lived in an area which was
              a major center for trade and commerce. In this
              regard, it is significant that Tyre was a major center
              for trade and commerce.

              Also important is unit 8: where a man is fishing in
              the sea and takes the large fish and throws the rest
              back. This parable would have been of interest to
              people living on the sea-coast--and Tyre was on the
              sea-coast.

              Also, in view of the extensive over-lap between the
              Proto-Thomas tradition and the Q tradition, and in
              view of both communities focusing on sayings of Jesus
              and down-playing the significance of Jesus' death,
              there is a likelhood that the Proto-Thomas community
              was geographically close to the Q community.

              This is consistent with the Proto-Thomas community
              being located at Tyre--for Tyre was geographically
              close to Galilee: which probably was the location of
              the Q community.

              Further, there are several indications that the
              Proto-Thomas community consisted of Gentiles.

              Particularly important is unit 43b, where Jesus tells
              his disciples, "You do not realize who I am from what
              I say to you, but you have become like the Jews, for
              they (either) love the tree and hate its fruit (or)
              love the fruit and hate the tree."

              To me, this is a clear indication that the
              Proto-Thomas community consisted of Gentiles.

              Also, the lack of any references to Jewish scriptures
              in Proto-Thomas is consistent with the idea that the
              Proto-Thomas community was purely Gentile: being
              founded by a Gentile (i.e., the Syro-Phoenician woman)
              and consisting of Gentiles.

              Finally, the harsh attitude towards the brothers of
              Jesus in unit 99 is consistent with the idea that the
              Proto-Thomas community consisted of Gentiles who were
              hostile towards the Jerusalem Church led by James the
              Just, one of the brothers of Jesus--presumably because
              they were resisting pressure, from the Jerusalem
              Church, to start observing the Law of Moses.

              Relevant to the discussion is Acts 21:3-5 (RSV), "When
              we had come in sight of Cyprus, leaving it on the left
              we sailed to Syria, and landed at Tyre; for there the
              ship was to unload cargo (Which underscores the
              importance of Tyre as a center of trade and commerce).
              And having sought out the disciples, we stayed there
              for seven days. Through the Spirit they told Paul not
              to go on to Jerusalem. And when our days there were
              ended, we departed and went on our journey; and they
              all, with wives and children,
              brought us on our way till we were outside the city;
              and kneeling down on the beach we prayed and bade one
              another farewell."

              Here, we learn, there was a Christian community at
              Tyre in the mid-fifties. It apparently consisted of
              Gentiles--for they treat Paul and his followers
              as allies and warn him about the dangers he faced
              (from Christian Jews zealous for the Law)if he
              insisted on going to Jerusalem. This Christian
              community at Tyre, apparently composed of Gentiles,
              is, I suggest, the Proto-Thomas community.

              In line with this idea, it is noteworthy that, in Acts
              21:3-6, it is emphasised, the Spirit was important to
              the members of the Christian community at Tyre.
              Similarly, the Spirit was important to the members of
              the Proto-Thomas community: see unit 44, "Whoever
              blasphemes against the Father will be forgiven, and
              whoever blasphemes against the Son will be forgiven,
              but whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will
              not be forgiven either on earth or in heaven."

              As for the dating of Proto-Thomas, I think that it was
              most likely written after the Proto-Thomas community
              made contact with Paul and/or one or more of his
              followers (for, I suspect, some of the units in it,
              particularly 7, have been influenced by Pauline
              thought), but while James the Just was still
              presiding over the Jerusalem Church (for I suspect
              that the harsh criticism of the brothers of Jesus in
              unit 99 is aimed at him). If the Proto-Thomas
              community be the Christian community at Tyre, with
              which Paul first made contact in the mid-fifties, this
              makes the most likely date for the writing of
              Proto-Thomas to be sometime in the late 50s--after
              Paul made contact with the Proto-Thomas community in
              the mid fifties, but before the death of James the
              Just in the early 60s.

              So, to conclude, it is suggested that the Sitz em
              Leben for Proto-Thomas was Tyre in the late fifties.
              In this case, the Proto-Thomas community was founded
              even while Jesus was still alive by a Syro-Phoenician
              woman named Salome and it consisted of Gentiles. It
              had contacts with both the Q community and the
              Jerusalem Church. As respects the Jerusalem Church
              and
              its leader, James the Just, it appears to have had a
              cool to hostile attitude. In this case, it came into
              contact with Paul in the mid-fifties and he was
              accepted by its members as an ally.

              In this case, the Proto-Thomas community differed in
              some major respects from the GTh community--which took
              Thomas to be its founder and thought that James the
              Just was the cat's meow. This indicates that there was
              a major passage of time between the writing of
              Proto-Thomas and GTh and/or that GTh was written at a
              far different location than Proto-Thomas.

              THE TEXT OF PROTO-THOMAS

              Section 1

              2.Jesus said, "Let him who seeks continue seeking
              until he finds. When he finds he will become
              troubled. When he becomes troubled, he will be
              astonished, and he will rule over the All."
              3. Jesus said, "If those who lead you say to you,
              'See, the Kingdom is in the sky,' then the birds of
              the sky will precede you. If they say to you,
              'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you.
              Rather the Kingdom is inside of you, and it is outside
              of you. When you come to know yourselves, then you
              will become known, and you will realize that is is you
              who are the sons of the living Father. But if you
              will not know yourselves, you dwell in poverty and it
              is you who are that poverty."
              4.Jesus said, "The man old in days will not hesitate
              to ask a small child seven days old about the place of
              life, and he will live. For many who are first will
              become last, and they will become one and the same."
              5.Jesus said, "Recognize what is in your sight, and
              that which is hidden from you will become plain to
              you. For there is nothing hidden which will not
              become manifest."
              6. His disciples questioned Him and said to Him, "Do
              You want us to fast? How shall we pray? Shall we give
              alms? What diet shall we observe?" Jesus said, "Do not
              tell lies, and do not do what you hate, for all things
              are plain in the sight of heaven. For nothing hidden
              will not become manifest, and nothing covered will
              remain without being uncovered."
              7.Jesus said, "Blessed is the lion which becomes man
              when consumed by man; and cursed is the man whom the
              lion consumes, and the lion becomes man."
              8. And he said, "The man is like a wise fisherman who
              cast his net into the sea and drew it up from the sea
              full of small fish. Among them the wise fisherman
              found a fine large fish. He threw all the small fish
              back into the sea and chose the large fish without
              difficulty. Whoever has ears to hear, let him hear."
              9. Jesus said, "Now the sower went out, took a handful
              (of seeds), and scattered them. Some fell on the road;
              the birds came and gathered them up. Others fell on
              rock, did not take root in the soil, and did not
              produce ears. And others fell on thorns; they choked
              the seed(s) and worms ate them. And others fell on
              the good soil and produced good fruit: it bore sixty
              per measure and a hundred and twenty per measure."
              10. Jesus said, "I have cast fire upon the world, and
              see, I am guarding it until it blazes."

              Section 2

              31.Jesus said, "No prophet is accepted in his own
              village; no physician heals those who know him."
              32. Jesus said, "A city built on a high mountain and
              fortified cannot fall, nor can it be hidden."
              33. Jesus said, "Preach from your housetops that which
              you hear hear in your ear (and) in the other ear. For
              no one lights a lamp and upts it under a bushel, nor
              does he put it in a hidden place, but rather he sets
              it on a lampstand so that everyone who enters and
              leaves will see its light."
              34.Jesus said, "If a blind man leads a blind man, they
              will both fall into a pit."
              35.Jesus said, "It is not possible for any one to
              enter the house of a strong man and take it by force
              unless he binds his hands; then he will (be) able to
              ransack his house."
              36. Jesus said, "Do not be concerned from morning
              until evening and from evening until morning about
              what you will wear."
              37. His disciples said, "When will you become revealed
              to us and when shall we see You?" Jesus said, "When
              you disrobe without being ashamed and take up your
              garments and place them under your feet like little
              children and tread on them, then [will you see] the
              Son of the Living One and you will not be afraid."
              38.Jesus said, "Many times have you desired to hear
              these words which I am saying to you, and you have no
              one else to hear them from. There will be days when
              you will look for Me and will not find Me."
              39. Jesus said, "The Pharisees and the scribes have
              taken the keys of Knowledge and hidden them. They
              themselves have not entered, nor have they allowed to
              enter those who wish to. You, however, be as wise as
              serpents and as innocent as doves."
              40. Jesus said, "A grapevine has been planted outside
              of the Father, but being unsound, it will be pulled up
              by its roots and destroyed."
              41. Jesus said, "Whoever has something in his hand
              will receive more, and whoever has nothing will be
              deprived of even the little he has."
              42. Jesus said, "Become passers-by."
              43. His disciples said to him, "Who are You, that You
              should say these things to us?" "You do not realize
              who I am from what I say to you, but you have become
              like the Jews, for they (either) love the tree and
              hate its fruit (or) love the fruit and hate the tree."
              44.Jesus said, "Whoever blasphemes against the Father
              will be forgiven, and whoever blasphemes against the
              Son will be forgiven, but whoever blasphemes against
              the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven either on earth
              or in heaven."
              45. Jesus said, "Grapes are not harvested from thorns,
              nor are figs gathered from thistles, for they do not
              produce fruit. A good man brings forth good from his
              storehouse; and evil man brings forth evil things from
              his evil storehouse, which is in his heart, and says
              evil things. For out of the abundance of the heart he
              brings forth evil things."
              46. Jesus said, "Among those born of women, from Adam
              until John the Baptist, there is no one so superior to
              John the Baptist that his eyes should not be lowered
              (before) him. Yet I have said, whichever one of you
              comes to be a child, will be acquainted with the
              Kingdom and will become superior to John."
              47. Jesus said, "It is impossible for a man to mount
              two horses or to stretch two bows. And it is
              impossible for a servant to serve two masters;
              otherwise he will honor the one and treat the other
              contemptuously. No man drinks old wine and
              immediately desires to drink new wine. And new wine
              is
              not put into old wineskins, lest they burst; nor is
              old wine put into a new wineskin, let it spoil it. An
              old patch is not sewn into a new garment, because a
              tear would result."
              48. Jesus said, "If two make peace with each other in
              this one house, they will say to the mountain, 'Move
              away,' and it will move away."
              61. Jesus said, "Two will rest on a bed: the one will
              die and the other will live." Salome said, "Who are
              You, man, that You, as though from the One,have come
              up on my couch and eaten from my table?" Jesus said
              to her, "I am He who exists from the Undivided. I was
              given some of the things of my Father." "I am your
              disciple." "Therefore I say, if he is <undivided>, he
              will be filled with light, but if he is divided, he
              will be filled with darkness."
              62.Jesus said, "It is those [who are worthy of My]
              mysteries that I tell my mysteries. Do not let your
              left hand know what your right hand is doing."
              63. Jesus said, "There was a rich man who had much
              money. He said, "I shall put my money to use so that
              I may sow, reap, plant, and fill my storehouse with
              produce, with the result that I shall lack nothing.'
              Such were his intentions, but that same night he died.
              Let him who has ears hear."
              64. Jesus said, "A man had received visitors. And
              when he had prepared the dinner, he sent his servant
              to invite the guests. He went to the first one and
              said to him, 'My master invites you.' He said, 'I
              have claims against some merchants. They are coming
              to me this evening. I must go and give them my
              orders. I ask to be excused from the dinner.' He
              went to another and said to him, 'My master has
              invited you.' He said to him, 'My friend is going to
              get married, and I am to prepare the banquet. I shall
              not be able to come. I ask to be excused from the
              dinner.' He went to another and said ato him, 'My
              master invites you.' He said to him, 'I have just
              bought a farm, and I am on my way to collect the rent.
              I shall not be able to come. I ask to be excused.'
              The servant returned and said to his master, 'Those
              whom you invited to the dinner have asked to be
              excused.' The master said to his servant, 'Go outside
              to the streets and bring back those whom you happen to
              meet, so that they may dine.' Businessmen and
              merchants will not enter
              the Places of My Father.'"
              65. He said, "There was a good man who owned a
              vineyard. He leased it to tenant farmers so that they
              might work it and he might collect the produce from
              them. He sent his servant so that the tenants might
              give him the produce of the vineyard. They seized his
              servant and beat him, all but killing him. The
              servant went back and told his master. The master
              said, 'Perhaps <they> did not recognize <him>.' He
              sent another servant. The tenants beat this one as
              well. Then the owner sent his son and said, 'Perhaps
              they will show respect to my son.' Because the
              tenants knew that it was he who was the heir to the
              vineyard, they seized him and killed him. Let him who
              has ears hear."
              89.Jesus said, "Why do you wash the outside of the
              cup? Do you not realize that he who made the inside
              is the same one who made the outside?"
              90. Jesus said, "Come unto me, for My yoke is easy and
              My lordship is mild, and you will find repose for
              yourselves."

              Section 3

              91. They said to Him, "Tell us who You are so that we
              may believe in You." He said to them, "You read the
              face of the sky and of the earth, but you have not
              recognized the one who (or: that which) is before you,
              and you do not know how to read this moment."
              92.Jesus said, "Seek and you will find. Yet, what you
              asked Me about in former times and which I did not
              tell you then, now I do desire to tell, but you do not
              inquire after it."
              93. <Jesus said,> "Do not give what is holy to dogs,
              lest they throw them on the dung-heap. Do not throw
              the pearls to swine, lest they grind it [to bits]."
              94. Jesus [said], "He who seeks will find, and [he who
              knocks] will be let in."
              95. [Jesus said,], "If you have money, do not lend it
              at interest, but give [it] to one from whom you will
              not get it back."
              96. Jesus [said], "The Kingdom of the Father is like a
              certain woman. She took a little leaven, [concealed]
              it in some dough, and made it into large loaves. Let
              him who has ears hear."
              97. Jesus said, "The kingdom of the [Father] is like a
              certain woman who was carrying a jar full of meal.
              While she was walking [on] a road, still some
              distance from home, the handle of the jar broke and
              the meal emptied out behind her on the road. She did
              not ralize it; she had noticed no accident. When she
              reached her house, she set the jar down and found it
              empty,"
              98. Jesus said, "The Kingdom of the Father is like a
              certain man who wanted to kill a powerful man. In his
              own house he drew his sword and stuck it into the wall
              in order to find out whether his hand could carry
              through. Then he slew the powerful man."
              99. The disciples said to Him, "Your brothers and Your
              mother are standing outside." He said to them,
              "Those here who do the will of My Father are My
              brothers and My mother. It is they who will enter the
              Kingdom of My Father."

              Comments and suggestions are welcomed.

              Frank McCoy
              1809 N. English
              Maplewood, MN USA 55109






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