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10498Re: [XTalk] Excavating GThomas

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  • Frank McCoy
    Jul 7 6:35 PM
      I propose the hypothesis that there are two written
      sources for GTh. The first solely consists of
      free-standing sayings of
      Jesus: making it of the same genre as the Nag Hammadi
      text, The Sentences of
      Sextus. The other consists of dialogues between Jesus
      and others: making it
      of the same genre as the Nag Hammadi texts, The
      Apocryphon of James and The
      Dialogue of the Savior.

      I further propose that this is what comes from the
      sayings document: Introduction,
      1-5, 7-11, 15-17. 19, 23, 25-36, 38-42, 44-50, 54-59,
      61a, 62-71, 73-78,
      80-90, 92-98, 101-103, and 105-112; and that this is
      what comes from the
      dialogue document: 6, 12-14, 18, 20-22, 24, 37, 43,
      51-53, 60, 61b, 72, 79,
      91, 99-100, 104, and 113-114.

      In "The Rhetoric of Marginality: Apocalypticism,
      Gnosticism, and Sayings Gospels" (Harvard Theological
      Review, 88:4, 1995), Bill Arnal postulates the
      existence of two stratum in GTh. The earlier (see p.
      478) is "the sapiential stratum" and it includes GTh
      3.
      5. 6. 9. 14. 16. 20. 26. 31, 32, 34-36, 42, 45, 47,
      54, 55, 57, 63-65, 71, 74, 76, 89, 95-98, 107, 109,
      and 110. The later (see p.479) is "the
      gnostic-leaning stratum" and it includes Gth 11, 13,
      15, 18, 21-22, 27-28, 49-50, 51, 60, 61, 83, 84, 101,
      105, 108, 11, and 114. This is thirty-three logia for
      the sapiential stratum and twenty logia for the
      gnostic-leaning stratum--a ratio of 3.3/2.

      There is a marked difference in the ratios between
      the postulated sayings document (to be referred to as
      the Thomas Saying Document or TSD) and the postulated
      dialogue document (to be referred to as the Thomas
      Dialogue Document or TDD).

      In the postulated TSD, there are thirty logia which
      come from
      the postulated sapiential stratum (3, 5, 9, 16, 26,
      31-32, 34-36, 42, 45,
      47, 54-55, 57, 63-65, 71, 74, 76, 86, 89, 95-98, 107,
      and 109-110) and
      twelve logia which come from the postulated
      gnostic-leaning stratum (11, 15,
      27-28, 49-50, 83-84, 101, 105, 108, and 111). This is
      a ratio of 3/1.2.

      In the postulated TDD, there are three logia which
      come from
      the postulated sapiential stratum (6, 14, and 20) and
      eight logia which come
      from the postulated gnostic-leaning stratum (13, 18,
      21-22, 51, 60, 61b, and
      114). This is a ratio of 3/8.

      The two ratios are radically different: with (1) the
      postulated sayings
      document have almost three times as many logia in the
      postulated sapiential
      stratum as in the postulated gnostic-leaning stratum,
      but with (2) the
      postulated dialogue document having almost three times
      as many logia in the
      postulated gnostic-leaning stratum as in the
      postulated sapiential stratum.

      These radically different ratios lend support to the
      hypothesis that there
      are two written sources for GTh: a sayings document
      (TSD) and a dialogue
      document (TDD).

      Also, since the postulated TSD has a much higher
      percentage of
      material from the postulated earlier sapiential
      stratum than does the
      postulated TDD, this evidence is consistent with the
      hypothesis that the postulated TSD was written earlier
      than was
      the postulated TDD.

      Next, I propose the hypothesis that the postulated
      TSD, which might be the earliest written source for
      GTh, is divisible into two layers: an early layer and
      a later layer. Further, the later layer was added to
      the original document by block insertion of material,
      so that the TSD consists of alternating blocks
      of early and late material.

      The hypothesised early version of the TSD, consisting
      solely of the postulated early layer, will be referred
      to as the Early Thomas Saying Document or ETSD.

      For detecting possible blocks of early and late
      material in the postulated
      TSD, two methods of detection are used.

      The first regards sayings from Arnal's postulated
      sapiential layer of
      tradition (to be referred to as S sayings) and sayings
      from his postulated
      gnostic-leaning layer of tradition (to be referred to
      as G sayings).

      It will be assumed that S sayings will tend to be
      found in the early layer
      blocks, while G sayings will tend to be found in the
      late layer blocks.

      The second regards the Jesus Seminar's grading of the
      sayings in GTh as
      recorded in their The Five Gospels.

      It will be assumed that sayings they designate as
      wholly black (to be
      referred to as B sayings) will tend to be found in the
      late layer blocks,
      while sayings they designate wholly or in part either
      pink or red (to be
      referred to as P sayings) will tend to be found in the
      early layer blocks.

      When the postulated TSD is analyzed this way, it can
      be divided
      into postulated early and late blocks of material as
      follows:

      1. A late block of material: The Introduction and
      saying 1. One B saying
      (1) and no S, G, or P sayings..

      2. An early block of material: Sayings 2-10. One B
      saying (7) and four P
      sayings (2.5.9.10), three S sayings (3.5.9) and no G
      sayings.

      3. A late block of material: Sayings 11-30. One P
      sayings (26), ten B
      sayings (11.15.16.17.19.23.27.28.29.30), two S sayings
      (16 and 26), and four
      G sayings (11,15.27.28).

      4. An early block of material: Sayings 31-48. Nine P
      sayings
      (31,32,33,35,36,39,41,45,47), two B sayings (38, 44),
      seven S sayings
      (31,32,34.36.42.45,47), and no G sayings.

      5. A late block of material: Sayings 49-59. One P
      saying (54), five B
      sayings (49,50,56,58,59), three S sayings (54,55,57),
      and two G sayings
      (49,50).

      6. An early block of material: Sayings 61-65. Four P
      sayings (62,63,64,65),
      no B sayings, three S sayings (63,64,65), and no G
      sayings.

      7. A late block of material: Sayings 66-88. Four P
      sayings (69,76,78,86), 14
      B sayings (66,67,70,71,73,74,75,77,80,83,84,85,87,88),
      four S sayings
      (71,74,76,86), and two G sayings (83,84).

      8. An early block of material: Sayings 89-98. Seven P
      sayings
      (89,92,94,95,96,97,98), one B saying (90), five S
      sayings (89,95,96,97,98),
      and no G sayings.

      9. A late block of material: Sayings 101-112. One P
      saying (109), seven B
      sayings (101,102,105,108,110,111,112), and four G
      sayings (101,105,108,111).

      The net tallies for the postulated early blocks of
      material are: 24 P
      sayings, four B sayings, 18 S sayings, and no G
      sayings.

      The net tallies for the postulated late blocks of
      material are: 7 P sayings,
      37 B sayings, 12 S sayings, and 12 G sayings.

      In any event, here is the text of the hypothesised
      Early Thomas Saying
      Document (ETSD), consisting of the postulated early
      layer of the postulated
      TSD--which hypothesised ETSD is my current best guess
      as to what constitutes
      the earliest material in GTh:

      2. Jesus said, "Let him who seeks continue seeking
      until he finds. When he
      finds he will become troubled. When he becomes
      troubled, he will be
      astonished, and he will rule over the All."
      3. Jesus said, "If those who lead you say to you,
      'See, the Kingdom is in
      the sky,' then the birds of the sky will precede you.
      If they say to you,
      'It is in the sea,' then the fish will precede you.
      Rather the Kingdom is
      inside of you, and it is outside of you. When you
      come to know yourselves,
      then you will become known, and you will realize that
      is is you who are the
      sons of the living Father. But if you will not know
      yourselves, you dwell
      in poverty and it is you who are that poverty."
      4.Jesus said, "The man old in days will not hesitate
      to ask a small child
      seven days old about the place of life, and he will
      live. For many who are
      first will become last, and they will become one and
      the same."
      5.Jesus said, "Recognize what is in your sight, and
      that which is hidden
      from you will become plain to you. For there is
      nothing hidden which will
      not become manifest."
      7.Jesus said, "Blessed is the lion which becomes man
      when consumed by man;
      and cursed is the man whom the lion consumes, and the
      lion becomes man."
      8. And he said, "The man is like a wise fisherman who
      cast his net into the
      sea and drew it up from the sea full of small fish.
      Among them the wise
      fisherman found a fine large fish. He threw all the
      small fish back into the
      sea and chose the large fish without difficulty.
      Whoever has ears to hear,
      let him hear."
      9. Jesus said, "Now the sower went out, took a handful
      (of seeds), and
      scattered them. Some fell on the road; the birds came
      and gathered them up.
      Others fell on rock, did not take root in the soil,
      and did not produce
      ears. And others fell on thorns; they choked the
      seed(s) and worms ate
      them. And others fell on the good soil and produced
      good fruit: it bore
      sixty per measure and a hundred and twenty per
      measure."
      10. Jesus said, "I have cast fire upon the world, and
      see, I am guarding it
      until it blazes."
      31. Jesus said, "No prophet is accepted in his own
      village; no physician
      heals those who know him."
      32. Jesus said, "A city built on a high mountain and
      fortified cannot fall,
      nor can it be hidden."
      33. Jesus said, "Preach from your housetops that which
      you hear hear in your
      ear (and) in the other ear. For no one lights a lamp
      and puts it under a
      bushel, nor does he put it in a hidden place, but
      rather he sets it on a
      lampstand so that everyone who enters and leaves will
      see its light."
      34. Jesus said, "If a blind man leads a blind man,
      they will both fall into
      a pit."
      35. Jesus said, "It is not possible for anyone to
      enter the house of a
      strong man and take it by force unless he binds his
      hands; then he will (be)
      able to ransack his house."
      36. Jesus said, "Do not be concerned from morning
      until evening and from
      evening until morning about what you will wear."
      38.Jesus said, "Many times have you desired to hear
      these words which I am
      saying to you, and you have no one else to hear them
      from. There will be
      days when you will look for Me and will not find Me."
      39. Jesus said, "The Pharisees and the scribes have
      taken the keys of
      Knowledge and hidden them. They themselves have not
      entered, nor have they
      allowed to enter those who wish to. You, however, be
      as wise as serpents
      and as innocent as doves."
      40. Jesus said, "A grapevine has been planted outside
      of the Father, but
      being unsound, it will be pulled up by its roots and
      destroyed."
      41. Jesus said, "Whoever has something in his hand
      will receive more, and
      whoever has nothing will be dprived of even the little
      he has."
      42. Jesus said, "Become passers-by."
      44.Jesus said, "Whoever blasphemes against the Father
      will be forgiven, and
      whoever blasphemes against the Son will be forgiven,
      but whoever blasphemes
      against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven either on
      earth or in heaven."
      45. Jesus said, "Grapes are not harvested from thorns,
      nor are figs gathered
      from thistles, for they do not produce fruit. A good
      man brings forth good
      from his storehouse; and evil man brings forth evil
      things from his evil
      storehouse, which is in his heart, and says evil
      things. For out of the
      abundance of the heart he brings forth evil things."
      46. Jesus said, "Among those born of women, from Adam
      until John the
      Baptist, there is no one so superior to John the
      Baptist that his eyes
      should not be lowered (before) him. Yet I have said,
      whichever one of you
      comes to be a child, will be acquainted with the
      Kingdom and will become
      superior to John."
      47. Jesus said, "It is impossible for a man to mount
      two horses or to
      stretch two bows. And it is impossible for a servant
      to serve two masters;
      otherwise he will honor the one and treat the other
      contemptuously. No man
      drinks old wine and immediately desires to drink new
      wine. And new wine is
      not put into old wineskins, lest they burst; nor is
      old wine put into a new
      wineskin, let it spoil it. An old patch is not sewn
      into a new garment,
      because a tear would result."
      48. Jesus said, "If two make peace with each other in
      this one house, they
      will say to the mountain, 'Move away,' and it will
      move away."
      61a. Jesus said, "Two will rest on a bed: the one will
      die and the other
      will live."
      62.Jesus said, "It is those [who are worthy of My]
      mysteries that I tell my
      mysteries. Do not let your left hand know what your
      right hand is doing."
      63. Jesus said, "There was a rich man who had much
      money. He said, "I shall
      put my money to use so that I may sow, reap, plant,
      and fill my storehouse
      with produce, with the result that I shall lack
      nothing.' Such were his
      intentions, but that same night he died. Let him who
      has ears hear."
      64. Jesus said, "A man had received visitors. And
      when he had prepared the
      dinner, he sent his servant to invite the guests. He
      went to the first one
      and said to him, 'My master invites you.' He said, 'I
      have claims against
      some merchants. They are coming to me this evening.
      I must go and give
      them my orders. I ask to be excused from the dinner.'
      He went to another
      and said to him, 'My master has invited you.' He said
      to him, 'My friend is
      going to get married, and I am to prepare the banquet.
      I shall not be able
      to come. I ask to be excused from the dinner.' He
      went to another and said
      to him, 'My master invites you.' He said to him, 'I
      have just bought a
      farm, and I am on my way to collect the rent. I shall
      not be able to come.
      I ask to be excused.' The servant returned and said
      to his master, 'Those
      whom you invited to the dinner have asked to be
      excused.' The master said to
      his servant, 'Go outside to the streets and bring back
      those whom you happen
      to meet, so that they may dine.' Businessmen and
      merchants will not enter
      the Places of My Father.'"
      65. He said, "There was a good man who owned a
      vineyard. He leased it to
      tenant farmers so that they might work it and he might
      collect the produce
      from them. He sent his servant so that the tenants
      might give him the
      produce of the vineyard. They seized his servant and
      beat him, all but
      killing him. The servant went back and told his
      master. The master said,
      'Perhaps <they> did not recognize <him>.' He sent
      another servant. The
      tenants beat this one as well. Then the owner sent
      his son and said,
      'Perhaps they will show respect to my son.' Because
      the tenants knew that
      it was he who was the heir to the vineyard, they
      seized him and killed him.
      Let him who has ears hear."
      89. Jesus said, "Why do you wash the outside of the
      cup? Do you not realize
      that he who made the inside is the same one who made
      the outside?"
      90. Jesus said, "Come unto me, for My yoke is easy and
      My lordship is mild,
      and you will find repose for yourselves."
      92.Jesus said, "Seek and you will find. Yet, what you
      asked Me about in
      former times and which I did not tell you then, now I
      do desire to tell, but
      you do not inquire after it. 93. Do not give what is
      holy to dogs, lest
      they throw them on the dung-heap. Do not throw the
      pearls to swine, lest
      they grind it [to bits]."
      94. Jesus [said], "He who seeks will find, and [he who
      knocks] will be let
      in."
      95. [Jesus said,], "If you have money, do not lend it
      at interest, but give
      [it] to one from whom you will not get it back."
      96. Jesus [said], "The Kingdom of the Father is like a
      certain woman. She
      took a little leaven, [concealed] it in some dough,
      and made it into large
      loaves. Let him who has ears hear."
      97. Jesus said, "The kingdom of the [Father] is like a
      certain woman who was
      carrying a jar full of meal. While she was walking
      [on] a road, still some
      distance from home, the handle of the jar broke and
      the meal emptied out
      behind her on the road. She did not ralize it; she
      had noticed no accident.
      When she reached her house, she set the jar down and
      found it empty,"
      98. Jesus said, "The Kingdom of the Father is like a
      certain man who wanted
      to kill a powerful man. In his own house he drew his
      sword and stuck it
      into the wall in order to find out whether his hand
      could carry through.
      Then he slew the powerful man."

      Frank McCoy
      1809 N. English Apt. 17
      Maplewood, MN USA 55109





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