Jesus' sayings in Justin
> > And, so far, while Justin has beenMark wrote:
> > occasionally mentioned before today, nobody has given any instances
> > we can work with.
> The best discussion I am aware of is in Koester, _Ancient ChristianI must remember to bring that home from the office.
> Gospels_, pp. 360-402. He doesn't have a convenient list for us to
> do the equivalent of our Thomas-Q project, but there are lots of
> important examples there.
Sigh. Have to do it all myself, I guess. Here's a fair chunk of the
stuff from Apology 1. There's a lot less in 2 and Trypho.
Chapter XV.-What Christ Himself Taught.
Concerning chastity, He uttered such sentiments as these:18 "Whosoever looketh upon a woman to lust after her, hath
committed adultery with her already in his heart before God." And, "If thy right eye offend thee, cut it out; for it is better for thee
to enter into the kingdom of heaven with one eye, than, having two eyes, to be cast into everlasting fire." And, "Whosoever shall
marry her that is divorced from another husband, committeth adultery."19 And, "There are some who have been made eunuchs
of men, and some who were born eunuchs, and some who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake;
but all cannot receive this saying."20 So that all who, by human law, are twice married,21 are in the eye of our Master sinners,
and those who look upon a woman to lust after her. For not only he who in act commits adultery is rejected by Him, but also he
who desires to commit adultery: since not only our works, but also our thoughts, are open before God. And many, both men
and women, who have been Christ's disciples from childhood, remain pure at the age of sixty or seventy years; and I boast that
I could produce such from every race of men. For what shall I say, too, of the countless multitude of those who have reformed
intemperate habits, and learned these things? For Christ called not the just nor the chaste to repentance, but the ungodly, and
the licentious, and the unjust; His words being, "I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance."22 For the heavenly
Father desires rather the repentance than the punishment of the sinner. And of our love to all, He taught thus: "If ye love them
that love you, what new thing do ye? for even fornicators do this. But I say unto you, Pray for your enemies, and love them that
hate you, and bless them that curse you, and pray for them that despitefully use you."23 And that we should communicate to the
needy, and do nothing for glory, He said, "Give to him that asketh, and from him that would borrow turn not away; for if ye lend
to them of whom ye hope to receive, what new thing do ye? even the publicans do this. Lay not up for yourselves treasure upon
earth, where moth and rust doth corrupt, and where robbers break through; but lay up for yourselves treasure in heaven, where
neither moth nor rust doth corrupt. For what is a man profited, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul? or what
shall a man give in exchange for it? Lay up treasure, therefore, in heaven, where neither moth nor rust doth corrupt."24 And, "Be
ye kind and merciful, as your Father also is kind and merciful, and maketh His sun to rise on sinners, and the righteous, and the
wicked. Take no thought what ye shall eat, or what ye shall put on: are ye not better than the birds and the beasts? And God
feedeth them. Take no thought, therefore, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall put on; for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye
have need of these things. But seek ye the kingdom of heaven, and all these things shall be added unto you. For where his
treasure is, there also is the mind of a man."25 And, "Do not these things to be seen of men; otherwise ye have no reward from
your Father which is in heaven."26
Chapter XVI.-Concerning Patience and Swearing.
And concerning our being patient of injuries, and ready to serve all, and free from anger, this is what He said: "To him that
smiteth thee on the one cheek, offer also the other; and him that taketh away thy cloak or coat, forbid not. And whosoever shall
be angry, is in danger of the fire. And every one that compelleth thee to go with him a mile, follow him two. And let your good
works shine before men, that they, seeing them, may glorify your Father which is in heaven."27 For we ought not to strive;
neither has He desired us to be imitators of wicked men, but He has exhorted us to lead all men, by patience and gentleness,
from shame and the love of evil. And this indeed is proved in the case of many who once were of your way of thinking, but have
changed their violent and tyrannical disposition, being overcome either by the constancy which they have witnessed in their
neighbours' lives,28 or by the extraordinary forbearance they have observed in their fellow-travellers when defrauded, or by the
honesty of those with whom they have transacted business.
And with regard to our not swearing at all, and always speaking the truth, He enjoined as follows: "Swear not at all; but let your
yea be yea, and your nay, nay; for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil."29 And that we ought to worship God alone,
He thus persuaded us: "The greatest commandment is, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shall thou serve,
with all thy heart, and with all thy strength, the Lord God that made thee."30 And when a certain man came to Him and said,
"Good Master," He answered and said, "There is none good but God only, who made all things."31 And let those who are not
found living as He taught, be understood to be no Christians, even though they profess with the lip the precepts of Christ; for not
those who make profession, but those who do the works, shall be saved, according to His word: "Not every one who saith to
Me, Lord, Lord, shall enter into the kingdom of heaven, but he that doeth the will of My Father which is in heaven. For
whosoever heareth Me, and doeth My sayings, heareth Him that sent Me. And many will say unto Me, Lord, Lord, have we
not eaten and drunk in Thy name, and done wonders? And then will I say unto them, Depart from Me, ye workers of iniquity.
Then shall there be wailing and gnashing of teeth, when the righteous shall shine as the sun, and the wicked are sent into
everlasting fire. For many shall come in My name, clothed outwardly in sheep's clothing, but inwardly being ravening wolves. By
their works ye shall know them. And every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewn down and cast into the fire."32 And as
to those who are not living pursuant to these His teachings, and are Christians only in name, we demand that all such be
punished by you.
>From this morning's perusal of Justin's sayings material I think Ican say for certain that any sort of "Justin is an example of what
the author of Thomas is doing" has absolutely no merit. Basically,
Justin quotes from Matthew and (according to the footnotes)
occasionally Luke, very rarely from other tradition.
Justin is prone on occasion to conclude what he's quoting with a phrase
of his own and one does gather that he's quoting more from memory
than from a text in front of him... i.e. he "remembers" what the
point of a saying is and includes that at the end.
For any theory that Thomas is quoting from memory the gospels with
which he is familiar, Justin provides a nice refutation.