This discussion has been interesting but I believe the original point
was concerning a Jewish presence in the Galilee. In pursuit of this
there seems to be some problems with definitions. There seems to
be an opinion that there was such a thing as "Judean Judaism." If there
was such a thing (which I do not accept), what was the differences
with "Galilean Judaism." The Dead Sea Scrolls should teach us that
Judaism in 1st century Palestine was a very fluid concept.
I intitiated the synagogue issue simply because "what's more 'Jewish'
than a synagogue?" Admittedly there are disagreements over just what
a "synagogue" was in the 1st century with the usual anachronistic prisms
of later rabbinic synagogues. Perhaps "Beth Sefer" and "Beth Teffilah"
would suffice. I cannot help but be influenced by the "very Jewish"
synagogue at Gamla and can see no reason why Gamla would have a
significant Jewish presence while the Galilee (historically a center of
Jewish nationalism and a revolt or two) would not.
However interpreted, we are left with an issue of cross-cultural
anthropology regarding the "Jewishness" of Galileans against the
"Jewishness" of Judeans. Religious observation is another issue
when we are discussing a rural-agrarian population with an Hellenistic
Roman urban "overlay."
My construction on this issue has been influenced by Meyers
(Galilean Regionalism BASOR 270/271, 1975,76), Strange
(SBL 1994 Seminar Papers) and their combined work
(Meyers & Strange, 1981, Archaeology, the Rabbis, and Early
Christianity) as well as Safrai (Jewish People in the 1st Century)
who I believe disagrees with Horsley.
How can there not be a significant Jewish presence in the Galilee?