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  • creationism@yahoogroups.com
    Official Statements on Evolution by Professional Science Organizations ... The Paleontological Society Position Statement: Evolution
    Message 1 of 41 , Feb 1, 2006
    • 0 Attachment
      Official Statements on Evolution by Professional Science Organizations

      ----------------------------------------------------------------

      The Paleontological Society Position Statement: Evolution
      http://www.paleosoc.org/evolutioncomplete.htm

      Evolution is both a scientific fact and a scientific theory.
      Evolution is a fact in the sense that life has changed through time.
      In nature today, the characteristics of species are changing, and
      new species are arising. The fossil record is the primary factual
      evidence for evolution in times past, and evolution is well
      documented by further evidence from other scientific disciplines,
      including comparative anatomy, biogeography, genetics, molecular
      biology, and studies of viral and bacterial diseases. Evolution is
      also a theory � an explanation for the observed changes in life
      through Earth history that has been tested numerous times and
      repeatedly confirmed. Evolution is an elegant theory that explains
      the history of life through geologic time; the diversity of living
      organisms, including their genetic, molecular, and physical
      similarities and differences; and the geographic distribution of
      organisms. Evolutionary principles are the foundation of all basic
      and applied biology and paleontology, from biodiversity studies to
      studies on the control of emerging diseases.

      Because evolution is fundamental to understanding both living and
      extinct organisms, it must be taught in public school science
      classes. In contrast, creationism is religion rather than science,
      as ruled by the Supreme Court, because it invokes supernatural
      explanations that cannot be tested. Consequently, creationism in any
      form (including "scientific creationism," "creation science,"
      and "intelligent design") must be excluded from public school
      science classes. Because science involves testing hypotheses,
      scientific explanations are restricted to natural causes.

      This difference between science and religion does not mean that the
      two fields are incompatible. Many scientists who study evolution are
      religious, and many religious denominations have issued statements
      supporting evolution. Science and religion address different
      questions and employ different ways of knowing.

      The evolution paradigm has withstood nearly 150 years of scrutiny.
      Although the existence of evolution has been confirmed many times,
      as a science evolutionary theory must continue to be open to
      testing. At this time, however, more fruitful inquiries address the
      tempo and mode of evolution, various processes involved in
      evolution, and driving factors for evolution. Through such inquiry,
      the unifying theory of evolution will become an even more powerful
      explanation for the history of life on Earth.

      ----------------------------------------------------------------

      The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology
      Statement on Evolution (1994)
      http://www.vertpaleo.org/policy/policy_statement_evolution.html

      Excerpt:
      | The fossil record of vertebrates unequivocally supports the
      | hypothesis that vertebrates have evolved through time, from
      | their first records in the early Paleozoic Era about 500
      | million years ago to the great diversity we see in the world
      | today. The hypothesis has been strengthened by so many
      | independent observations of fossil sequences that it has come
      | to be regarded as a confirmed fact, as certain as the drift of
      | continents through time or the lawful operation of gravity.

      ----------------------------------------------------------------

      National Academy of Sciences
      Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of
      Sciences, Second Edition (1999)
      http://www.nap.edu/books/0309064066/html/

      Excerpt:
      | Is evolution a fact or a theory?
      |
      | The theory of evolution explains how life on Earth has
      | changed. In scientific terms, "theory" does not mean "guess"
      | or "hunch" as it does in everyday usage. Scientific theories
      | are explanations of natural phenomena built up logically
      | from testable observations and hypotheses. Biological
      | evolution is the best scientific explanation we have for the
      | enormous range of observations about the living world.
      |
      | Scientists most often use the word "fact" to describe an
      | observation. But scientists can also use fact to mean
      | something that has been tested or observed so many times
      | that there is no longer a compelling reason to keep testing
      | or looking for examples. The occurrence of evolution in this
      | sense is a fact. Scientists no longer question whether
      | descent with modification occurred because the evidence
      | supporting the idea is so strong.

      ----------------------------------------------------------------

      American Geological Institute
      Position on Teaching Evolution
      http://www.agiweb.org/gapac/evolution_statement.html

      Excerpt:
      | Scientific evidence indicates beyond any doubt that life has
      | existed on Earth for billions of years. This life has evolved
      | through time producing vast numbers of species of plants and
      | animals, most of which are extinct. Although scientists debate
      | the mechanism that produced this change, the evidence for the
      | change is undeniable.

      ----------------------------------------------------------------

      Geological Society of America
      Position Statement on Evolution (2001)
      http://rock.geosociety.org/docs/aboutus/position1.htm

      Excerpt:
      | The Geological Society of America recognizes that the
      | evolution of life stands as one of the central concepts of
      | modern science. Research in numerous fields of science during
      | the past two centuries has produced an increasingly detailed
      | picture of how life has evolved on Earth.

      ----------------------------------------------------------------

      Botanical Society of America
      Statement on Evolution
      http://www.botany.org/newsite/announcements/evolution.php

      | Evolution represents one of the broadest, most inclusive
      | theories used in pursuit of and in teaching this knowledge,
      | but it is by no means the only theory involved. Scientific
      | theories are used in two ways: to explain what we know, and to
      | pursue new knowledge. Evolution explains observations of
      | shared characteristics (the result of common ancestry and
      | descent with modification) and adaptations (the result of
      | natural selection acting to maximize reproductive success), as
      | well as explaining pollen:ovule ratios, weeds, deceptive
      | pollination strategies, differences in sexual expression,
      | dioecy, and a myriad of other biological phenomena. Far from
      | being merely a speculative notion, as implied when someone
      | says, "evolution is just a theory," the core concepts of
      | evolution are well documented and well confirmed. Natural
      | selection has been repeatedly demonstrated in both field and
      | laboratory, and descent with modification is so well
      | documented that scientists are justified in saying that
      | evolution is true.

      ----------------------------------------------------------------

      American Association of Physics Teachers
      Statement on the Teaching of Evolution and Cosmology
      http://www.aapt.org/Policy/evolutandcosmo.cfm

      Excerpt:
      | Evolution and cosmology represent two of the unifying concepts
      | of modern science. There are few scientific theories more
      | firmly supported by observations than these: Biological
      | evolution has occurred and new species have arisen over time,
      | life on Earth originated more than a billion years ago, and
      | most stars are at least several billion years old.
      | Overwhelming evidence comes from diverse sources - the
      | structure and function of DNA, geological analysis of rocks,
      | paleontological studies of fossils, telescopic observations of
      | distant stars and galaxies - and no serious scientist
      | questions these claims.

      ----------------------------------------------------------------

      The Society of Systematic Biologists
      Support for the Teaching of Evolution and Scope of Systematic Biology (2001)
      http://systbiol.org/teachevolution.html

      Ecological Society of America
      Position Statement on Evolution (1999)
      http://www.esa.org/pao/esaPositions/Statements/Evolution.php

      Genetics Society of America
      Statement on Evolution and Creationism (2003)
      http://genetics.faseb.org/genetics/g-gsa/statement_on_evolution.shtml

      Society for the Study of Evolution
      Statement on Evolution
      http://www.evolutionsociety.org/statements.html

      American Institute of Biological Sciences
      AIBS Endorsed Statement on Evolution, Science, and Society:
      Evolutionary Biology and the National Research Agenda (1998)
      http://www.aibs.org/position-statements/980602_aibs_endorsed_st.html
      http://evonet.sdsc.edu/evoscisociety/

      American Anthropological Association
      Statement on Evolution and Creationism (2000)
      http://www.aaanet.org/stmts/evolution.htm

      American Society of Naturalists
      Statement on Evolution and Education
      http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ASN/evo.html

      American Geophysical Union
      Earth History and the Evolution of Life Must Be Taught: Creationism Is Not Science
      http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/positions/evolution.shtml

      American Physical Society
      Statement On The Kansas State Board Of Education Decision (1999)
      http://www.aps.org/statements/99_5.cfm

      Society of Physics Students
      Statement on Evolution and Science Education (2003)
      http://www.spsnational.org/info/2003_sps_statement.htm

      American Chemical Society
      Statement on Teaching of Evolutionary Theory
      http://www.chemistry.org/portal/a/c/s/1/feature_pol.html?id=c373e904891eddda8f6a17245d830100
      [link may be line-wrapped]

      American Astronomical Society
      Statement on the Teaching of Evolution
      http://www.aas.org/governance/council/resolutions.html#teach

      American Association for the Advancement of Science
      AAAS Board Resolution on Intelligent Design Theory
      http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2002/1106id2.shtml

      National Association of Biology Teachers
      Statement on Teaching Evolution
      http://nabt.org/sub/position_statements/evolution.asp

      National Science Teachers Association
      Position Statement on the Teaching of Evolution
      http://www.nsta.org/positionstatement&psid=10

      ----------------------------------------------------------------

      American Society of Agronomy
      Crop Science Society of America
      Soil Science Society of America
      Position Statement by ASA, CSSA, and SSSA Executive Committees in Support of Teaching Evolution (8/11/2005)
      http://www.asa-cssa-sssa.org/pdf/intdesign_050815.pdf

      | Intelligent design is not a scientific discipline and should
      | not be taught as part of the K-12 science curriculum.
      | Intelligent design has neither the substantial research base,
      | nor the testable hypotheses as a scientific discipline. There
      | are at least 70 resolutions from a broad array of scientific
      | societies and institutions that are united on this matter. As
      | early as 2002, the Board of Directors of the American
      | Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) unanimously
      | passed a resolution critical of teaching intelligent design in
      | public schools.
      |
      | The intelligent design/creationist movement has adopted the
      | lamentable strategy of asking our science teachers to "teach
      | the controversy" in science curriculums, as if there were a
      | significant debate among biologists about whether evolution
      | underpins the abundant complexity of the biological world. We
      | believe there is no such controversy.
      |
      | The fundamental tenet of evolution � descent with modification
      | � is accepted by the vast majority of biologists. The current
      | debates within the research community deal with the patterns
      | and processes of evolution, not whether the evolutionary
      | principles presented by Darwin in 1859 hold true. These
      | debates are similar to those surrounding the relativistic
      | nature of gravitational waves. No one doubts the existence of
      | gravity just because we are still learning how it works;
      | evolution is on an equally strong footing.
      |
      | The discussion of life�s spirituality is most appropriate for
      | philosophy or religion classes. It is a mistake to conclude
      | that reluctance to incorporate spiritual questions in science
      | classes runs counter to the cherished principle that vigorous
      | challenge is vital to the scientific method.
      |
      | In all scientific fields, including evolutionary biology,
      | challenge has always been essential and welcomed. Scientific
      | challenge succeeds if it is methodical and findings are
      | verified to the satisfaction of the scientific community. This
      | has not happened with creationism either with or without its
      | new label �intelligent design.� President Bush, by suggesting
      | that we use intelligent design as a scientific counterpoint to
      | the teaching of evolutionary biology, is unwittingly
      | undermining the scientific method at its core. This is most
      | unfortunate in an era when U.S. students are already lagging
      | behind their international peers in science education.

      ================================================================

      The Imminent Demise of Evolution: The Longest Running Falsehood in Creationism (2002)
      by Glenn R. Morton
      http://home.entouch.net/dmd/moreandmore.htm

      Understanding Evolution
      http://evolution.berkeley.edu/

      Counterbalance Meta Library (views on science, ethics, philosophy, and religion)
      Evolution Section
      http://www.counterbalance.org/evolution/

      Evolution, Science, and Society
      http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~ecolevol/fulldoc.pdf

      Synthetic Theory of Evolution: An Introduction to Modern Evolutionary Concepts and Theories
      http://anthro.palomar.edu/synthetic/
    • creationism@yahoogroups.com
      Official Statements on Evolution by Professional Science Organizations ... The Paleontological Society Position Statement: Evolution
      Message 41 of 41 , Aug 1 1:18 AM
      • 0 Attachment
        Official Statements on Evolution by Professional Science Organizations

        ----------------------------------------------------------------

        The Paleontological Society Position Statement: Evolution
        http://www.paleosoc.org/evolutioncomplete.htm

        Evolution is both a scientific fact and a scientific theory.
        Evolution is a fact in the sense that life has changed through time.
        In nature today, the characteristics of species are changing, and
        new species are arising. The fossil record is the primary factual
        evidence for evolution in times past, and evolution is well
        documented by further evidence from other scientific disciplines,
        including comparative anatomy, biogeography, genetics, molecular
        biology, and studies of viral and bacterial diseases. Evolution is
        also a theory � an explanation for the observed changes in life
        through Earth history that has been tested numerous times and
        repeatedly confirmed. Evolution is an elegant theory that explains
        the history of life through geologic time; the diversity of living
        organisms, including their genetic, molecular, and physical
        similarities and differences; and the geographic distribution of
        organisms. Evolutionary principles are the foundation of all basic
        and applied biology and paleontology, from biodiversity studies to
        studies on the control of emerging diseases.

        Because evolution is fundamental to understanding both living and
        extinct organisms, it must be taught in public school science
        classes. In contrast, creationism is religion rather than science,
        as ruled by the Supreme Court, because it invokes supernatural
        explanations that cannot be tested. Consequently, creationism in any
        form (including "scientific creationism," "creation science,"
        and "intelligent design") must be excluded from public school
        science classes. Because science involves testing hypotheses,
        scientific explanations are restricted to natural causes.

        This difference between science and religion does not mean that the
        two fields are incompatible. Many scientists who study evolution are
        religious, and many religious denominations have issued statements
        supporting evolution. Science and religion address different
        questions and employ different ways of knowing.

        The evolution paradigm has withstood nearly 150 years of scrutiny.
        Although the existence of evolution has been confirmed many times,
        as a science evolutionary theory must continue to be open to
        testing. At this time, however, more fruitful inquiries address the
        tempo and mode of evolution, various processes involved in
        evolution, and driving factors for evolution. Through such inquiry,
        the unifying theory of evolution will become an even more powerful
        explanation for the history of life on Earth.

        ----------------------------------------------------------------

        The Society of Vertebrate Paleontology
        Statement on Evolution (1994)
        http://www.vertpaleo.org/policy/policy_statement_evolution.html

        Excerpt:
        | The fossil record of vertebrates unequivocally supports the
        | hypothesis that vertebrates have evolved through time, from
        | their first records in the early Paleozoic Era about 500
        | million years ago to the great diversity we see in the world
        | today. The hypothesis has been strengthened by so many
        | independent observations of fossil sequences that it has come
        | to be regarded as a confirmed fact, as certain as the drift of
        | continents through time or the lawful operation of gravity.

        ----------------------------------------------------------------

        National Academy of Sciences
        Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of
        Sciences, Second Edition (1999)
        http://www.nap.edu/books/0309064066/html/

        Excerpt:
        | Is evolution a fact or a theory?
        |
        | The theory of evolution explains how life on Earth has
        | changed. In scientific terms, "theory" does not mean "guess"
        | or "hunch" as it does in everyday usage. Scientific theories
        | are explanations of natural phenomena built up logically
        | from testable observations and hypotheses. Biological
        | evolution is the best scientific explanation we have for the
        | enormous range of observations about the living world.
        |
        | Scientists most often use the word "fact" to describe an
        | observation. But scientists can also use fact to mean
        | something that has been tested or observed so many times
        | that there is no longer a compelling reason to keep testing
        | or looking for examples. The occurrence of evolution in this
        | sense is a fact. Scientists no longer question whether
        | descent with modification occurred because the evidence
        | supporting the idea is so strong.

        ----------------------------------------------------------------

        American Geological Institute
        Position on Teaching Evolution
        http://www.agiweb.org/gapac/evolution_statement.html

        Excerpt:
        | Scientific evidence indicates beyond any doubt that life has
        | existed on Earth for billions of years. This life has evolved
        | through time producing vast numbers of species of plants and
        | animals, most of which are extinct. Although scientists debate
        | the mechanism that produced this change, the evidence for the
        | change is undeniable.

        ----------------------------------------------------------------

        Geological Society of America
        Position Statement on Evolution (2001)
        http://rock.geosociety.org/docs/aboutus/position1.htm

        Excerpt:
        | The Geological Society of America recognizes that the
        | evolution of life stands as one of the central concepts of
        | modern science. Research in numerous fields of science during
        | the past two centuries has produced an increasingly detailed
        | picture of how life has evolved on Earth.

        ----------------------------------------------------------------

        Botanical Society of America
        Statement on Evolution
        http://www.botany.org/newsite/announcements/evolution.php

        | Evolution represents one of the broadest, most inclusive
        | theories used in pursuit of and in teaching this knowledge,
        | but it is by no means the only theory involved. Scientific
        | theories are used in two ways: to explain what we know, and to
        | pursue new knowledge. Evolution explains observations of
        | shared characteristics (the result of common ancestry and
        | descent with modification) and adaptations (the result of
        | natural selection acting to maximize reproductive success), as
        | well as explaining pollen:ovule ratios, weeds, deceptive
        | pollination strategies, differences in sexual expression,
        | dioecy, and a myriad of other biological phenomena. Far from
        | being merely a speculative notion, as implied when someone
        | says, "evolution is just a theory," the core concepts of
        | evolution are well documented and well confirmed. Natural
        | selection has been repeatedly demonstrated in both field and
        | laboratory, and descent with modification is so well
        | documented that scientists are justified in saying that
        | evolution is true.

        ----------------------------------------------------------------

        American Association of Physics Teachers
        Statement on the Teaching of Evolution and Cosmology
        http://www.aapt.org/Policy/evolutandcosmo.cfm

        Excerpt:
        | Evolution and cosmology represent two of the unifying concepts
        | of modern science. There are few scientific theories more
        | firmly supported by observations than these: Biological
        | evolution has occurred and new species have arisen over time,
        | life on Earth originated more than a billion years ago, and
        | most stars are at least several billion years old.
        | Overwhelming evidence comes from diverse sources - the
        | structure and function of DNA, geological analysis of rocks,
        | paleontological studies of fossils, telescopic observations of
        | distant stars and galaxies - and no serious scientist
        | questions these claims.

        ----------------------------------------------------------------

        The Society of Systematic Biologists
        Support for the Teaching of Evolution and Scope of Systematic Biology (2001)
        http://systbiol.org/teachevolution.html

        Ecological Society of America
        Position Statement on Evolution (1999)
        http://www.esa.org/pao/esaPositions/Statements/Evolution.php

        Genetics Society of America
        Statement on Evolution and Creationism (2003)
        http://genetics.faseb.org/genetics/g-gsa/statement_on_evolution.shtml

        Society for the Study of Evolution
        Statement on Evolution
        http://www.evolutionsociety.org/statements.html

        American Institute of Biological Sciences
        AIBS Endorsed Statement on Evolution, Science, and Society:
        Evolutionary Biology and the National Research Agenda (1998)
        http://www.aibs.org/position-statements/980602_aibs_endorsed_st.html
        http://evonet.sdsc.edu/evoscisociety/

        American Anthropological Association
        Statement on Evolution and Creationism (2000)
        http://www.aaanet.org/stmts/evolution.htm

        American Society of Naturalists
        Statement on Evolution and Education
        http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/ASN/evo.html

        American Geophysical Union
        Earth History and the Evolution of Life Must Be Taught: Creationism Is Not Science
        http://www.agu.org/sci_soc/policy/positions/evolution.shtml

        American Physical Society
        Statement On The Kansas State Board Of Education Decision (1999)
        http://www.aps.org/statements/99_5.cfm

        Society of Physics Students
        Statement on Evolution and Science Education (2003)
        http://www.spsnational.org/info/2003_sps_statement.htm

        American Chemical Society
        Statement on Teaching of Evolutionary Theory
        http://www.chemistry.org/portal/a/c/s/1/feature_pol.html?id=c373e904891eddda8f6a17245d830100
        [link may be line-wrapped]

        American Astronomical Society
        Statement on the Teaching of Evolution
        http://www.aas.org/governance/council/resolutions.html#teach

        American Association for the Advancement of Science
        AAAS Board Resolution on Intelligent Design Theory
        http://www.aaas.org/news/releases/2002/1106id2.shtml

        National Association of Biology Teachers
        Statement on Teaching Evolution
        http://nabt.org/sub/position_statements/evolution.asp

        National Science Teachers Association
        Position Statement on the Teaching of Evolution
        http://www.nsta.org/positionstatement&psid=10

        ----------------------------------------------------------------

        American Society of Agronomy
        Crop Science Society of America
        Soil Science Society of America
        Position Statement by ASA, CSSA, and SSSA Executive Committees in Support of Teaching Evolution (8/11/2005)
        http://www.asa-cssa-sssa.org/pdf/intdesign_050815.pdf

        | Intelligent design is not a scientific discipline and should
        | not be taught as part of the K-12 science curriculum.
        | Intelligent design has neither the substantial research base,
        | nor the testable hypotheses as a scientific discipline. There
        | are at least 70 resolutions from a broad array of scientific
        | societies and institutions that are united on this matter. As
        | early as 2002, the Board of Directors of the American
        | Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) unanimously
        | passed a resolution critical of teaching intelligent design in
        | public schools.
        |
        | The intelligent design/creationist movement has adopted the
        | lamentable strategy of asking our science teachers to "teach
        | the controversy" in science curriculums, as if there were a
        | significant debate among biologists about whether evolution
        | underpins the abundant complexity of the biological world. We
        | believe there is no such controversy.
        |
        | The fundamental tenet of evolution � descent with modification
        | � is accepted by the vast majority of biologists. The current
        | debates within the research community deal with the patterns
        | and processes of evolution, not whether the evolutionary
        | principles presented by Darwin in 1859 hold true. These
        | debates are similar to those surrounding the relativistic
        | nature of gravitational waves. No one doubts the existence of
        | gravity just because we are still learning how it works;
        | evolution is on an equally strong footing.
        |
        | The discussion of life�s spirituality is most appropriate for
        | philosophy or religion classes. It is a mistake to conclude
        | that reluctance to incorporate spiritual questions in science
        | classes runs counter to the cherished principle that vigorous
        | challenge is vital to the scientific method.
        |
        | In all scientific fields, including evolutionary biology,
        | challenge has always been essential and welcomed. Scientific
        | challenge succeeds if it is methodical and findings are
        | verified to the satisfaction of the scientific community. This
        | has not happened with creationism either with or without its
        | new label �intelligent design.� President Bush, by suggesting
        | that we use intelligent design as a scientific counterpoint to
        | the teaching of evolutionary biology, is unwittingly
        | undermining the scientific method at its core. This is most
        | unfortunate in an era when U.S. students are already lagging
        | behind their international peers in science education.

        ================================================================

        The Imminent Demise of Evolution: The Longest Running Falsehood in Creationism (2002)
        by Glenn R. Morton
        http://home.entouch.net/dmd/moreandmore.htm

        Understanding Evolution
        http://evolution.berkeley.edu/

        Counterbalance Meta Library (views on science, ethics, philosophy, and religion)
        Evolution Section
        http://www.counterbalance.org/evolution/

        Evolution, Science, and Society
        http://www.rci.rutgers.edu/~ecolevol/fulldoc.pdf

        Synthetic Theory of Evolution: An Introduction to Modern Evolutionary Concepts and Theories
        http://anthro.palomar.edu/synthetic/
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