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The Faith of our Founding Fathers........

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  • James
    The Faith of Our Fathers Gregory Koukl Was the faith of the Founding Fathers deism or Christianity? What does the answer mean for us today? Both the
    Message 1 of 2 , Jul 2 10:10 PM
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      The Faith of Our Fathers


      Gregory Koukl

      Was the faith of the Founding Fathers deism or Christianity? What
      does the answer mean for us today? Both the secularists and the
      Christians have missed the mark.



      There's been a lot of rustle in the press lately--and in many
      Christian publications--about the faith of the Founding Fathers and
      the status of the United States as a "Christian nation." Home
      schooling texts abound with references to our religious heritage, and
      entire organizations are dedicated to returning America to its
      spiritual roots. On the other side, secularists cry "foul" and parade
      their own list of notables among our country's patriarchs. They rally
      around the cry of "separation of church and state." Which side is
      right? Oddly both, after a fashion.
      Who Were the Founding Fathers?
      Historical proof-texts can be raised on both sides. Certainly there
      were godless men among the early leadership of our nation, though some
      of those cited as examples of Founding Fathers turn out to be
      insignificant players. For example, Thomas Paine and Ethan Allen may
      have been hostile to evangelical Christianity, but they were
      firebrands of the Revolution, not intellectual architects of the
      Constitution. Paine didn't arrive in this country until 1774 and only
      stayed a short time.

      As for others--George Washington, Samuel Adams, James Madison, John
      Witherspoon, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, John Adams, Patrick Henry,
      and even Thomas Jefferson--their personal correspondence, biographies,
      and public statements are replete with quotations showing that these
      thinkers had political philosophies deeply influenced by Christianity.

      The Constitutional Convention

      It's not necessary to dig through the diaries, however, to determine
      which faith was the Founder's guiding light. There's an easier way to
      settle the issue.

      The phrase "Founding Fathers" is a proper noun. It refers to a
      specific group of men, the 55 delegates to the Constitutional
      Convention. There were other important players not in attendance, like
      Jefferson, whose thinking deeply influenced the shaping of our nation.
      These 55 Founding Fathers, though, made up the core.

      The denominational affiliations of these men were a matter of public
      record. Among the delegates were 28 Episcopalians, 8 Presbyterians, 7
      Congregationalists, 2 Lutherans, 2 Dutch Reformed, 2 Methodists, 2
      Roman Catholics, 1 unknown, and only 3 deists--Williamson, Wilson, and
      Franklin--this at a time when church membership entailed a sworn
      public confession of biblical faith.[1]

      This is a revealing tally. It shows that the members of the
      Constitutional Convention, the most influential group of men shaping
      the political foundations of our nation, were almost all Christians,
      51 of 55--a full 93%. Indeed, 70% were Calvinists (the Episcopalians,
      Presbyterians, and the Dutch Reformed), considered by some to be the
      most extreme and dogmatic form of Christianity.

      Benjamin Franklin

      Even Franklin the deist is equivocal. He was raised in a Puritan
      family and later adopted then abandoned deism. Though not an orthodox
      Christian, it was 81-year-old Franklin's emotional call to humble
      prayer on June 28, 1787, that was the turning point for a hopelessly
      stalled Convention. James Madison recorded the event in his collection
      of notes and debates from the Federal Convention. Franklin's appeal
      contained no less than four direct references to Scripture.

      And have we forgotten that powerful Friend? Or do we imagine that
      we no longer need His assistance? I have lived, sir, a long time and
      the longer I live the more convincing proofs I see of this truth: that
      God governs in the affairs of men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to the
      ground without his notice, is it probable that an empire can rise
      without His aid? We have been assured, sir, in the sacred writings
      that 'except the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that build
      it.' I firmly believe this and I also believe that without His
      concurring aid, we shall succeed in this political building no better
      than the builders of Babel.[2]

      Three of the four cornerstones of the Constitution--Franklin,
      Washington, and Madison--were firmly rooted in Christianity. But what
      about Thomas Jefferson? His signature cannot be found at the end of
      the Constitution, but his voice permeates the entire document.

      Thomas Jefferson

      Though deeply committed to a belief in natural rights, including the
      self-evident truth that all men are created equal, Jefferson was
      individualistic when it came to religion; he sifted through the New
      Testament to find the facts that pleased him.

      Sometimes he sounded like a staunch churchman. The Declaration of
      Independence contains at least four references to God. In his Second
      Inaugural Address he asked for prayers to Israel's God on his behalf.
      Other times Jefferson seemed to go out of his way to be irreverent and
      disrespectful of organized Christianity, especially Calvinism.

      It's clear that Thomas Jefferson was no evangelical, but neither was
      he an Enlightenment deist. He was more Unitarian than either deist or
      Christian.[3]

      This analysis, though, misses the point. The most important factor
      regarding the faith of Thomas Jefferson--or any of our Founding
      Fathers--isn't whether or not he had a saving knowledge of Jesus
      Christ. The debate over the religious heritage of this country is not
      about who is ultimately going to heaven, but rather about what the
      dominant convictions were that dictated the structure of this nation.

      Even today there are legions of born-again Christians who have
      absolutely no skill at integrating their beliefs about Christ with the
      details of their daily life, especially their views of government.
      They may be "saved," but they are completely ineffectual as salt and
      light.

      By contrast, some of the Fathers may not have been believers in the
      narrowest sense of the term, yet in the broader sense--the sense that
      influences culture--their thinking was thoroughly Christian. Unlike
      many evangelicals who live lives of practical atheism, these men had
      political ideals that were deeply informed by a robust Christian world
      view. They didn't always believe biblically, having a faith leading to
      salvation, but almost all thought biblically, resulting in a
      particular type of government.

      Thomas Jefferson was this kind of man. In Defending the Declaration,
      legal historian Gary Amos observes, "Jefferson is a notable example of
      how a man can be influenced by biblical ideas and Christian principles
      even though he never confessed Jesus Christ as Lord in the evangelical
      sense."[4]
      What Did the Founding Fathers Believe and Value?
      When you study the documents of the Revolutionary period, a precise
      picture comes into focus. Here it is:

      * Virtually all those involved in the founding enterprise were
      God-fearing men in the Christian sense; most were Calvinistic Protestants.
      * The Founders were deeply influenced by a biblical view of man
      and government. With a sober understanding of the fallenness of man,
      they devised a system of limited authority and checks and balances.
      * The Founders understood that fear of God, moral leadership, and
      a righteous citizenry were necessary for their great experiment to
      succeed.
      * Therefore, they structured a political climate that was
      encouraging to Christianity and accommodating to religion, rather than
      hostile to it.
      * Protestant Christianity was the prevailing religious view for
      the first 150 years of our history.

      However...

      * The Fathers sought to set up a just society, not a Christian
      theocracy.
      * They specifically prohibited the establishment of
      Christianity--or any other faith--as the religion of our nation.

      A Two-Sided Coin

      We can safely draw two conclusions from these facts, which serve to
      inform our understanding of the relationship between religion and
      government in the United States.

      First, Christianity was the prevailing moral and intellectual
      influence shaping the nation from its outset. The Christian influence
      pervaded all aspects of life, from education to politics. Therefore,
      the present concept of a rigid wall of separation hardly seems
      historically justified.

      Virtually every one of the Founders saw a vital link between civil
      religion and civil government. George Washington's admonitions in his
      Farewell Speech, September 19, 1796, were characteristic of the
      general sentiment:

      Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political
      prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports....And
      let us indulge with caution the supposition that morality can be
      maintained without religion. Reason and experience both forbid us to
      expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious
      principles.[5]

      Second, the Founders stopped short of giving their Christian religion
      a position of legal privilege. In the tradition of the early church,
      believers were to be salt and light. The First Amendment insured the
      liberty needed for Christianity to be a preserving influence and a
      moral beacon, but it also insured Christianity would never be the law
      of the land.

      This ought to call into serious question a common tactic of the
      so-called Religious Right. "We were here first," their apologists
      proclaim. "Our country was stolen from us, and we demand it back."
      Author John Seel calls this "priority as entitlement."

      The sad fact of the matter is that cultural authority was not stolen
      from us; we surrendered it through neglect. Os Guinness pointed out
      that Christians have not been out-thought. Rather, they have not been
      around when the thinking was being done.

      Choosing cultural monasticism rather than hard-thinking advocacy,
      Christians abandoned the public square to the secularists. When the
      disciples of Jesus Christ retreated, the disciples of Dewey, Marx,
      Darwin, Freud, Nietzsche, Skinner, and a host of others replaced them.

      Seel warns of the liability of an "appeal to history as a basis of
      Christian grounds to authority."[6] Playing the victim will not
      restore our influence, nor will political strong-arm tactics.
      Shouldn't our appeal rather be on the basis of truth rather than on
      the patterns of the past?

      The faith of our Founding Fathers was Christianity, not deism. In this
      regard, many secularists--and even some Christians--have been wrong in
      their assessment of our history. On the other hand, many Christians
      have also been mistaken in their application of the past to the present.

      Christians have no special privileges simply because Christianity was
      America's first faith. "If America ever was or ever will be a
      'Christian nation,'" Seel observes, "it is not by conscious design or
      written law, but by free conviction."[7]

      Success for the Christian cannot be measured in numbers or political
      muscle, but only in faithfulness. Our most important weapon is not our
      voting power, but the power of the truth freely spoken and freely heard.

      Recommended Reading:

      Let Freedom Ring--A Basic Outline of American History, available
      through the Family Research Council, 700 Thirteenth St., N.W., Suite
      500, Washington D.C. 20005, 1-800-225-4008

      The Light and the Glory, Peter Marshall and David Manuel (Grand
      Rapids: Revell, 1977)

      Christianity and the Constitution--The Faith of Our Founding Fathers,
      John Eidsmoe (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1987)

      Defending the Declaration--How the Bible and Christianity Influenced
      the Writing of the Declaration of Independence, Gary T. Amos
      (Brentwood, TN: Wogelmuth & Hyatt, 1989)

      Positive Neutrality: Letting Religious Freedom Ring, Stephen T.
      Monsma, (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993)
      [1] John Eidsmoe, Christianity and the Constitution, (Grand Rapids:
      Baker, 1987), p. 43.

      [2] Benjamin Franklin, quoted by James Madison in Notes on Debates in
      the Federal Convention of 1787 (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1966,
      1985), p. 209.

      [3] Eidsmoe has a very thorough and even-handed section on Jefferson.

      [4] Gary T. Amos, Defending the Declaration, (Brentwood, TN: Wogelmuth
      & Hyatt, 1989), p. 9.

      [5] The Annals of America, (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica, 1976),
      vol. 3, p. 612.

      [6] John Seel, No God But God--Breaking with the Idols of Our Age, Os
      Guinness and John Seel, eds., (Chicago: Moody Press, 1992), p. 64.

      [7] John Seel, No God But God--Breaking with the Idols of Our Age, Os
      Guinness and John Seel, eds., (Chicago: Moody Press, 1992), p. 69.

      This is a transcript of a commentary from the radio show "Stand to
      Reason," with Gregory Koukl. It is made available to you at no charge
      through the faithful giving of those who support Stand to Reason.
      Reproduction permitted for non-commercial use only. ©2002 Gregory Koukl

      For more information, contact Stand to Reason at 1438 East 33rd St.,
      Signal Hill, CA 90755
      (800) 2-REASON (562) 595-7333 www.str.org
    • Fred blahous
      G day James, If you investigate the standards of True Presbyterian doctrine, you will find that the so-called Presbyterians on the committee where all
      Message 2 of 2 , Jul 3 9:57 PM
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        G'day James,

        If you investigate the standards of True Presbyterian doctrine, you
        will find that the so-called Presbyterians on the committee where
        all malignants and indulged men who followed the principles of the
        Williamite Revolution which disowned the National and Solemn League
        and Covenant by the Acts Rescisory and the Oath of Abjuration which
        where never repealed, but where rather maintained by both sides in
        the war. George III's government had an erastian establishment of
        Prelacy and Presbyterry together combined with a general Toleration
        of all sects and errors, and the atheistic principles of the
        founders established infidelity as the official American religion
        via the 1st Amendment's Establishment Clause. The Presbyterians on
        the committee made an unlawful confederacy with the enemies of
        Presbyterianism, namely Prelatists, Methodists, Baptists, Papists
        and infidels. The British Covenants prohibit any mingling of Zion
        with Baal for purposes of moral or political reform. They require
        the maintaining of "one covenanted Presbyterian Church, Professing
        one Reformed Religion, in one United Kingdom forever". They require
        the executive to "supress all heresies and blasphemies, keep the
        worship of God pure and entire, and ensure that the ordinances are
        duly settled and observed by all". Hence the establishment clause
        prohibits Presbyterianism at the fundamental level, and requires a
        Judeo-Baptist understanding of civil government, ie pluralism. (Both
        the Baptists and the Jews argue that no one can be required to
        follow their religion under the Liberty of Conscience and Noahide
        premises). So, what should a true Christian response be to these
        facts?

        The correct response is to disown, testify against, and reject any
        government within the pale of the British people that does not renew
        our covenants. This is done by refusing to act as electors, refusing
        to hold any public regiment, and refusing any jury service on
        conscienteous grounds. We must also disown all ecclesiastical
        establishments that are descendents from the Revolution Church or
        disown the Covenants, or disown the original terms of the Reformed
        Presbyterian Church. We are not to attend upon their ordinances, but
        rather, if we have no access to a congregation, we should worship at
        home. If your church is not a covie church (most likely not), then
        you should seek God's wisdom in this matter and pray about it.
        Perhaps you will need to seek transfer to the RP church from your
        current one. Speak to the elders and to your elders about these
        issues. (I am still trying to work through them myself. I live in
        Australia and am in a PCA church, but would like to transfer my
        membership into the Presbyterry as a general member if such things
        are possible). I love my minister and church, and there is a lot of
        good there, but if the terms are theonomic Revolution thinking, I
        will have to make the change.

        God Bless and All the best,
        Fred.

        --- In covenantedreformationclub@yahoogroups.com, "James"
        <jim043@...> wrote:
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > The Faith of Our Fathers
        >
        >
        > Gregory Koukl
        >
        > Was the faith of the Founding Fathers deism or Christianity?
        What
        > does the answer mean for us today? Both the secularists and the
        > Christians have missed the mark.
        >
        >
        >
        > There's been a lot of rustle in the press lately--and in many
        > Christian publications--about the faith of the Founding Fathers and
        > the status of the United States as a "Christian nation." Home
        > schooling texts abound with references to our religious heritage,
        and
        > entire organizations are dedicated to returning America to its
        > spiritual roots. On the other side, secularists cry "foul" and
        parade
        > their own list of notables among our country's patriarchs. They
        rally
        > around the cry of "separation of church and state." Which side is
        > right? Oddly both, after a fashion.
        > Who Were the Founding Fathers?
        > Historical proof-texts can be raised on both sides. Certainly there
        > were godless men among the early leadership of our nation, though
        some
        > of those cited as examples of Founding Fathers turn out to be
        > insignificant players. For example, Thomas Paine and Ethan Allen
        may
        > have been hostile to evangelical Christianity, but they were
        > firebrands of the Revolution, not intellectual architects of the
        > Constitution. Paine didn't arrive in this country until 1774 and
        only
        > stayed a short time.
        >
        > As for others--George Washington, Samuel Adams, James Madison, John
        > Witherspoon, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, John Adams, Patrick
        Henry,
        > and even Thomas Jefferson--their personal correspondence,
        biographies,
        > and public statements are replete with quotations showing that
        these
        > thinkers had political philosophies deeply influenced by
        Christianity.
        >
        > The Constitutional Convention
        >
        > It's not necessary to dig through the diaries, however, to
        determine
        > which faith was the Founder's guiding light. There's an easier way
        to
        > settle the issue.
        >
        > The phrase "Founding Fathers" is a proper noun. It refers to a
        > specific group of men, the 55 delegates to the Constitutional
        > Convention. There were other important players not in attendance,
        like
        > Jefferson, whose thinking deeply influenced the shaping of our
        nation.
        > These 55 Founding Fathers, though, made up the core.
        >
        > The denominational affiliations of these men were a matter of
        public
        > record. Among the delegates were 28 Episcopalians, 8
        Presbyterians, 7
        > Congregationalists, 2 Lutherans, 2 Dutch Reformed, 2 Methodists, 2
        > Roman Catholics, 1 unknown, and only 3 deists--Williamson, Wilson,
        and
        > Franklin--this at a time when church membership entailed a sworn
        > public confession of biblical faith.[1]
        >
        > This is a revealing tally. It shows that the members of the
        > Constitutional Convention, the most influential group of men
        shaping
        > the political foundations of our nation, were almost all
        Christians,
        > 51 of 55--a full 93%. Indeed, 70% were Calvinists (the
        Episcopalians,
        > Presbyterians, and the Dutch Reformed), considered by some to be
        the
        > most extreme and dogmatic form of Christianity.
        >
        > Benjamin Franklin
        >
        > Even Franklin the deist is equivocal. He was raised in a Puritan
        > family and later adopted then abandoned deism. Though not an
        orthodox
        > Christian, it was 81-year-old Franklin's emotional call to humble
        > prayer on June 28, 1787, that was the turning point for a
        hopelessly
        > stalled Convention. James Madison recorded the event in his
        collection
        > of notes and debates from the Federal Convention. Franklin's appeal
        > contained no less than four direct references to Scripture.
        >
        > And have we forgotten that powerful Friend? Or do we imagine
        that
        > we no longer need His assistance? I have lived, sir, a long time
        and
        > the longer I live the more convincing proofs I see of this truth:
        that
        > God governs in the affairs of men. And if a sparrow cannot fall to
        the
        > ground without his notice, is it probable that an empire can rise
        > without His aid? We have been assured, sir, in the sacred writings
        > that 'except the Lord build the house, they labor in vain that
        build
        > it.' I firmly believe this and I also believe that without His
        > concurring aid, we shall succeed in this political building no
        better
        > than the builders of Babel.[2]
        >
        > Three of the four cornerstones of the Constitution--Franklin,
        > Washington, and Madison--were firmly rooted in Christianity. But
        what
        > about Thomas Jefferson? His signature cannot be found at the end of
        > the Constitution, but his voice permeates the entire document.
        >
        > Thomas Jefferson
        >
        > Though deeply committed to a belief in natural rights, including
        the
        > self-evident truth that all men are created equal, Jefferson was
        > individualistic when it came to religion; he sifted through the New
        > Testament to find the facts that pleased him.
        >
        > Sometimes he sounded like a staunch churchman. The Declaration of
        > Independence contains at least four references to God. In his
        Second
        > Inaugural Address he asked for prayers to Israel's God on his
        behalf.
        > Other times Jefferson seemed to go out of his way to be irreverent
        and
        > disrespectful of organized Christianity, especially Calvinism.
        >
        > It's clear that Thomas Jefferson was no evangelical, but neither
        was
        > he an Enlightenment deist. He was more Unitarian than either deist
        or
        > Christian.[3]
        >
        > This analysis, though, misses the point. The most important factor
        > regarding the faith of Thomas Jefferson--or any of our Founding
        > Fathers--isn't whether or not he had a saving knowledge of Jesus
        > Christ. The debate over the religious heritage of this country is
        not
        > about who is ultimately going to heaven, but rather about what the
        > dominant convictions were that dictated the structure of this
        nation.
        >
        > Even today there are legions of born-again Christians who have
        > absolutely no skill at integrating their beliefs about Christ with
        the
        > details of their daily life, especially their views of government.
        > They may be "saved," but they are completely ineffectual as salt
        and
        > light.
        >
        > By contrast, some of the Fathers may not have been believers in the
        > narrowest sense of the term, yet in the broader sense--the sense
        that
        > influences culture--their thinking was thoroughly Christian. Unlike
        > many evangelicals who live lives of practical atheism, these men
        had
        > political ideals that were deeply informed by a robust Christian
        world
        > view. They didn't always believe biblically, having a faith
        leading to
        > salvation, but almost all thought biblically, resulting in a
        > particular type of government.
        >
        > Thomas Jefferson was this kind of man. In Defending the
        Declaration,
        > legal historian Gary Amos observes, "Jefferson is a notable
        example of
        > how a man can be influenced by biblical ideas and Christian
        principles
        > even though he never confessed Jesus Christ as Lord in the
        evangelical
        > sense."[4]
        > What Did the Founding Fathers Believe and Value?
        > When you study the documents of the Revolutionary period, a precise
        > picture comes into focus. Here it is:
        >
        > * Virtually all those involved in the founding enterprise were
        > God-fearing men in the Christian sense; most were Calvinistic
        Protestants.
        > * The Founders were deeply influenced by a biblical view of man
        > and government. With a sober understanding of the fallenness of
        man,
        > they devised a system of limited authority and checks and balances.
        > * The Founders understood that fear of God, moral leadership,
        and
        > a righteous citizenry were necessary for their great experiment to
        > succeed.
        > * Therefore, they structured a political climate that was
        > encouraging to Christianity and accommodating to religion, rather
        than
        > hostile to it.
        > * Protestant Christianity was the prevailing religious view for
        > the first 150 years of our history.
        >
        > However...
        >
        > * The Fathers sought to set up a just society, not a Christian
        > theocracy.
        > * They specifically prohibited the establishment of
        > Christianity--or any other faith--as the religion of our nation.
        >
        > A Two-Sided Coin
        >
        > We can safely draw two conclusions from these facts, which serve to
        > inform our understanding of the relationship between religion and
        > government in the United States.
        >
        > First, Christianity was the prevailing moral and intellectual
        > influence shaping the nation from its outset. The Christian
        influence
        > pervaded all aspects of life, from education to politics.
        Therefore,
        > the present concept of a rigid wall of separation hardly seems
        > historically justified.
        >
        > Virtually every one of the Founders saw a vital link between civil
        > religion and civil government. George Washington's admonitions in
        his
        > Farewell Speech, September 19, 1796, were characteristic of the
        > general sentiment:
        >
        > Of all the dispositions and habits which lead to political
        > prosperity, religion and morality are indispensable supports....And
        > let us indulge with caution the supposition that morality can be
        > maintained without religion. Reason and experience both forbid us
        to
        > expect that national morality can prevail in exclusion of religious
        > principles.[5]
        >
        > Second, the Founders stopped short of giving their Christian
        religion
        > a position of legal privilege. In the tradition of the early
        church,
        > believers were to be salt and light. The First Amendment insured
        the
        > liberty needed for Christianity to be a preserving influence and a
        > moral beacon, but it also insured Christianity would never be the
        law
        > of the land.
        >
        > This ought to call into serious question a common tactic of the
        > so-called Religious Right. "We were here first," their apologists
        > proclaim. "Our country was stolen from us, and we demand it back."
        > Author John Seel calls this "priority as entitlement."
        >
        > The sad fact of the matter is that cultural authority was not
        stolen
        > from us; we surrendered it through neglect. Os Guinness pointed out
        > that Christians have not been out-thought. Rather, they have not
        been
        > around when the thinking was being done.
        >
        > Choosing cultural monasticism rather than hard-thinking advocacy,
        > Christians abandoned the public square to the secularists. When the
        > disciples of Jesus Christ retreated, the disciples of Dewey, Marx,
        > Darwin, Freud, Nietzsche, Skinner, and a host of others replaced
        them.
        >
        > Seel warns of the liability of an "appeal to history as a basis of
        > Christian grounds to authority."[6] Playing the victim will not
        > restore our influence, nor will political strong-arm tactics.
        > Shouldn't our appeal rather be on the basis of truth rather than on
        > the patterns of the past?
        >
        > The faith of our Founding Fathers was Christianity, not deism. In
        this
        > regard, many secularists--and even some Christians--have been
        wrong in
        > their assessment of our history. On the other hand, many Christians
        > have also been mistaken in their application of the past to the
        present.
        >
        > Christians have no special privileges simply because Christianity
        was
        > America's first faith. "If America ever was or ever will be a
        > 'Christian nation,'" Seel observes, "it is not by conscious design
        or
        > written law, but by free conviction."[7]
        >
        > Success for the Christian cannot be measured in numbers or
        political
        > muscle, but only in faithfulness. Our most important weapon is not
        our
        > voting power, but the power of the truth freely spoken and freely
        heard.
        >
        > Recommended Reading:
        >
        > Let Freedom Ring--A Basic Outline of American History, available
        > through the Family Research Council, 700 Thirteenth St., N.W.,
        Suite
        > 500, Washington D.C. 20005, 1-800-225-4008
        >
        > The Light and the Glory, Peter Marshall and David Manuel (Grand
        > Rapids: Revell, 1977)
        >
        > Christianity and the Constitution--The Faith of Our Founding
        Fathers,
        > John Eidsmoe (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1987)
        >
        > Defending the Declaration--How the Bible and Christianity
        Influenced
        > the Writing of the Declaration of Independence, Gary T. Amos
        > (Brentwood, TN: Wogelmuth & Hyatt, 1989)
        >
        > Positive Neutrality: Letting Religious Freedom Ring, Stephen T.
        > Monsma, (Grand Rapids: Baker, 1993)
        > [1] John Eidsmoe, Christianity and the Constitution, (Grand Rapids:
        > Baker, 1987), p. 43.
        >
        > [2] Benjamin Franklin, quoted by James Madison in Notes on Debates
        in
        > the Federal Convention of 1787 (Athens: Ohio University Press,
        1966,
        > 1985), p. 209.
        >
        > [3] Eidsmoe has a very thorough and even-handed section on
        Jefferson.
        >
        > [4] Gary T. Amos, Defending the Declaration, (Brentwood, TN:
        Wogelmuth
        > & Hyatt, 1989), p. 9.
        >
        > [5] The Annals of America, (Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica,
        1976),
        > vol. 3, p. 612.
        >
        > [6] John Seel, No God But God--Breaking with the Idols of Our Age,
        Os
        > Guinness and John Seel, eds., (Chicago: Moody Press, 1992), p. 64.
        >
        > [7] John Seel, No God But God--Breaking with the Idols of Our Age,
        Os
        > Guinness and John Seel, eds., (Chicago: Moody Press, 1992), p. 69.
        >
        > This is a transcript of a commentary from the radio show "Stand to
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