Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

9404[Covenanted Reformation] Re: Covenanting and Germany

Expand Messages
  • Dan Fraas
    Dec 8, 2003
    • 0 Attachment
      Thank you Volker. I must have been mistaken. I assumed that the
      Three Forms had been subscribed by the Reformed churches in Germany
      since the only German heritage Reformed church of which I'm familiar
      in the U. S. (the RCUS) subscribes to the three forms. In any case
      my question could apply to the Heidelberg Catechism alone, or any
      other standard.

      --- In covenantedreformationclub@yahoogroups.com, Volker-Jordan@t...
      > Dear Dan, dear Jerry,
      > I do not think that your example is that well-chosen or at least
      > unpracticable, since the Reformed churches in Germany never adopted
      as a
      > whole the Three Forms of Unity. This was, to be sure, the case in
      > Netherlands, and even (for a short time) in the Reformed church of
      > Rhineland, when that establishment was not yet independent from the
      > church in the Netherlands. It still is the case with the
      Evangelical Old
      > Reformed Church in Lower Saxony (although they themselves have
      > liberal in our day). But taken as a whole, only the Heidelberg
      > obtained a universally accepted and subscribed to confessional
      > throughout the German Reformed churches. In many instances, the
      Canons of
      > Dordt or the Belgic Confession were/are not even known in those
      > ecclesiastical bodies.
      > Regarding the Schmalkaldic League and the Schmalkaldic Articles, I
      > copied and pasted the relevant articles from the Encyclopaedia
      > here for our easy reference. Certainly, the Schmalkaldic League was
      > political defensive alliance against emperor Charles V. with good
      fruits for
      > Reformation in the participating states, but is thus in no way
      comparable to
      > the Solemn League & Covenant and its obligations. Besides, only
      part of the
      > German Protestant territories, and mainly Lutheran ones, joined it.
      > thus cannot be considered a covenanted nation at all.
      > Schmalkaldic League
      > German Schmalkaldischer Bund, during the German Reformation, a
      > alliance formed by Protestant states of the Holy Roman Empire to
      defend the
      > newly formed Lutheran churches from attack by the Roman Catholic
      > Charles V. Established in 1531 at Schmalkalden, Ger., the league
      was led by
      > Philip the Magnanimous of Hesse and John Frederick I of Saxony.
      Among its
      > other original member states were Brunswick, Anhalt, Mansfeld,
      > Bremen, Strassburg, and Ulm.
      > Fearing that the league would ally itself with his enemy, Francis I
      > France, Charles was forced to grant it de facto recognition until
      1544, when
      > he made peace with Francis. He then began military operations
      against its
      > leaders and effectively destroyed it by 1547.
      > Source: Encyclopædia Britannica, from Encyclopædia Britannica
      > Reference Suite 2004 DVD. Copyright © 1994-2003 Encyclopædia
      > Inc. May 30, 2003.
      > Because of a certain link to the Schmalkaldic Articles, I am also
      > here the EB entry about the Schmalkaldic Articles:
      > Schmalkaldic Articles
      > one of the confessions of faith of Lutheranism, written by Martin
      Luther in
      > 1536. The articles were prepared as the result of a bull issued by
      Pope Paul
      > III calling for a general council of the Roman Catholic Church to
      deal with
      > the Reformation movement. (The council was actually postponed
      several times
      > until it met in Trent in 1545.) John Frederick I, Lutheran elector
      > Saxony, wished to determine what issues could be negotiated with
      the Roman
      > Catholics and what could not be compromised. He asked Luther to
      > earlier statements of faith by the Reformers to determine what was
      > absolutely essential to the faith. After Luther had prepared the
      > he invited several Reformers to Wittenberg to discuss them, and
      after some
      > minor changes eight theologians signed them. They were then sent to
      > Elector in January 1537.
      > In February 1537 the Protestant secular heads of state who were
      members of
      > the Schmalkaldic League met with several theologians at
      Schmalkalden to
      > decide how to deal with a council of the Roman Catholic Church.
      > became ill and could not attend, but John Frederick I presented
      > articles to the gathering. Because of Luther's somewhat
      > doctrine of the Lord's Supper, Melanchthon urged that the Augsburg
      > Confession and its Apology, previously presented to Emperor Charles
      > adequately presented the Reformer's faith and that additional
      > should not be added. This decision was adopted and the Schmalkaldic
      > were not officially accepted. They were, however, circulated and
      read, and
      > 44 theologians signed them as an expression of their personal faith.
      > Subsequently, they were included in the Book of Concord (1580).
      > The Schmalkaldic Articles are divided into three sections. The first
      > discusses the unity of God, the Trinity, the Incarnation, and
      Christ, and on
      > these subjects Luther believed there was no real controversy
      between Roman
      > Catholics and Protestants. The second section dealt with Christ and
      > justification by faith. According to Luther, "On this article rests
      all that
      > we teach and practiceagainst the pope, the devil, and the world."
      > section also discusses the mass, monastic orders, and the papacy.
      The third
      > section discusses 15 articles that could be considered by Roman
      > and Protestants. It includes such subjects as sin, the Law,
      repentance, the
      > sacraments, confession, the ministry, and a definition of the
      > Source: Encyclopædia Britannica, from Encyclopædia Britannica
      > Reference Suite 2004 DVD. Copyright © 1994-2003 Encyclopædia
      > Inc. May 30, 2003.
      > BTW, Schmalkalden still is a very nice little city with a
      historical old
      > town centre, situated at the foot of the Thuringian Forest. For
      those of you
      > which would be interested in visiting the old monuments of the
      > Reformation, it would certainly be quite useful to see. I have been
      > several times, and you see there much more pertaining to the
      > than for example in Heidelberg, where, at least in many cases, not
      even the
      > Heidelberg Catechism is known to the population.
      > Warm regards in Christ,
      > Volker Jordan
      > Volker-Jordan@t...
      > (31, freelance translator for Reformed publishing houses, from
    • Show all 15 messages in this topic