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RE: [cosmacelf] Re: Common Subroutine Idiom

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  • John Chris Wren
    I was hunting around for source archives last night, and didn t run across any. Is there a good 1802 central software repository? I often start projects I
    Message 1 of 29 , Apr 26, 2002
      I was hunting around for source archives last night, and didn't run across
      any. Is there a good 1802 central software repository?

      I often start projects I never get around to finishing, but I was actually
      thinking about seeing what it would take to port GCC to the 1802.

      --John
      -----Original Message-----
      From: herc_fun [mailto:no_reply@yahoogroups.com]
      Sent: Friday, April 26, 2002 9:35 AM
      To: cosmacelf@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: [cosmacelf] Re: Common Subroutine Idiom



      > -----Original Message-----
      > From: John Chris Wren [mailto:jcwren@j...]
      .....
      > What's the most common idiom for implementing subroutine type
      > functionality on a 1802?
      The 3-register approach is what I always used (see the Space Invaders
      source for implementation)

      > Finally, can anyone recommend a good Linux based 1802
      assembler? And if
      > not Linux, then DOS?

      If anyone is interested, I have an 1802 cross-assembler written in
      COBOL (of all things). If that's not weird enough, I have a dis-
      assembler written in PL/I. If there's any interest, post a note and
      I'll be willing to share.

      Charlie


      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • Lee Hart
      ... RCA s SCRT (Standard Call and Return Technique) is the most common. Briefly, it uses R4 as the dedicated call program counter, and R5 as the dedicated
      Message 2 of 29 , Apr 26, 2002
        John Chris Wren wrote:
        > What's the most common idiom for implementing subroutine type
        > functionality on a 1802? I see the 1805/06 has an actual call
        > instruction, which would be nice.

        RCA's SCRT (Standard Call and Return Technique) is the most common.
        Briefly, it uses R4 as the dedicated "call" program counter, and R5 as
        the dedicated "return" program counter. Your main program looks like
        this:

        opcode
        opcode
        SEP R4 ;this is the "call" instruction
        dw subroutine ;the address of the subroutine you are calling
        opcode
        opcode

        Assume R3 is the program counter. The "call" program at R4 pushes R3
        onto the stack, loads R3 with the address of the subroutine, and makes
        R3 the program counter. In effect, you jumped to the subroutine and
        saved the return address. The subroutine code looks like this:

        subroutine:
        opcode ;code to do whatever the subroutine does
        opcode
        SEP R5 ;this is the "return" instruction

        The program at R5 pops the old program counter off the stack, restores
        it to R3, and makes R3 the program counter again, thus returning to the
        original program.

        SCRT imitates what programmers think are "normal" microcomputer calls
        and returns. However, it is rather slow.

        > And do people tend to mess around with actually changing the register
        > used for the PC, or stick to R0?

        Normally, yes. Once you figure out how the 1802 works, it is faster and
        takes less code to do it the "1802 way". Basically, you assign a program
        counter to each layer or task; R0 for DMA, R1 for interrupts, R2 for
        stack, R3 for top-level program, R4 for 1st level subroutines, R5 for
        2nd level subroutines, etc.

        For example, you may want to call the "charout" (output a character)
        routine a lot. So, you dedicate R4 as its dedicated program counter.
        Then to output a character in D, all it takes is a 1-byte SEP R4
        instruction. The charout subroutine at R4 returns with a simple SEP R3.

        If you have more subroutines than registers, you can pass a single byte
        to the subroutine to tell it which of 256 tasks to perform. Calls take 2
        bytes and are slower than the 1-byte call, but you still use less memory
        and time than a generalized 3-byte call.

        It is this ability to design highly optimized calls and returns that
        makes the 1802 unusually powerful. Tom Pittman once said (and I have
        found no evidence to disprove it) that the 1802 takes fewer bytes and
        fewer machine cycles to do a given job than any other microcomputer.

        > Finally, can anyone recommend a good Linux based 1802 assembler?
        > And if not Linux, then DOS?

        I am using the Avocet XASM18 1802 cross-assemblers for DOS and CP/M.
        --
        Lee A. Hart Ring the bells that still can ring
        814 8th Ave. N. Forget your perfect offering
        Sartell, MN 56377 USA There is a crack in everything
        leeahart_at_earthlink.net That's how the light gets in - Leonard Cohen
      • John Chris Wren
        Saw these at GoldMine Electronics (www.goldmine-elec.com, however, these items are not in the web catalog). 1-800-445-0697, Scottsdale AZ 85261 MSI/88e
        Message 3 of 29 , Apr 26, 2002
          Saw these at GoldMine Electronics (www.goldmine-elec.com, however, these
          items are not in the web catalog). 1-800-445-0697, Scottsdale AZ 85261

          MSI/88e Portable Barcode Computer Terminal -- The cases show signs of wear
          including sctratches, cracks and dirty keyboards. We are selling them "as
          is" for the circuit boards with components inside. The unit we opened had 5
          circuit boards, a keyboard with 27 keyswitches, a display board with a 16
          character alphanumeric LED display and 9 ICs including CMOS and display
          drivers, a 16K data RAM board with 1K x 4K chips including 16 MWS5114E ICs,
          2 more RAM boards with 24 TC5514P-1 ICs 8K-24K on each board and one CPU
          board with a CPU IC type CDP1802ACE, a 26043IC, a 26045 IC and various other
          ICs. Another unit we opened used Japan 8050 24560-00-00A RAM ICs on the RAM
          boards, so there is some variance, however, each unit will have 3 RAM
          boards, 1 display board, a keyboard, and a CPU board. Operates from 4 "AA"
          batteries (not included). Size: 7 3/4" x 3 1/2" x 2 1/2". We have absolutely
          no data or info of any kind on these and we are not selling them as working.
          They are being sold "AS IS" only-no returns. G8007 Sale! $3.00 ea.


          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • victor baca
          you wana port thr GCC to 1802 your in for world of hurt. wow your must be a maskist.... vic ps good luck buddy ... [Non-text portions of this message have
          Message 4 of 29 , Apr 28, 2002
            you wana port thr GCC to 1802 your in for world of hurt. wow your
            must be a maskist....
            vic
            ps good luck buddy


            John Chris Wren wrote:

            > I was hunting around for source archives last night, and didn't run
            > across
            > any. Is there a good 1802 central software repository?
            >
            > I often start projects I never get around to finishing, but I was
            > actually
            > thinking about seeing what it would take to port GCC to the 1802.
            >
            > --John
            > -----Original Message-----
            > From: herc_fun [mailto:no_reply@yahoogroups.com]
            > Sent: Friday, April 26, 2002 9:35 AM
            > To: cosmacelf@yahoogroups.com
            > Subject: [cosmacelf] Re: Common Subroutine Idiom
            >
            >
            >
            > > -----Original Message-----
            > > From: John Chris Wren [mailto:jcwren@j...]
            > .....
            > > What's the most common idiom for implementing subroutine type
            > > functionality on a 1802?
            > The 3-register approach is what I always used (see the Space
            > Invaders
            > source for implementation)
            >
            > > Finally, can anyone recommend a good Linux based 1802
            > assembler? And if
            > > not Linux, then DOS?
            >
            > If anyone is interested, I have an 1802 cross-assembler written in
            > COBOL (of all things). If that's not weird enough, I have a dis-
            > assembler written in PL/I. If there's any interest, post a note and
            >
            > I'll be willing to share.
            >
            > Charlie
            >
            >
            > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            >
            >
            > ==================================================
            > Visit the COSMAC ELF website at www.cosmacelf.com.
            >
            > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
            > cosmacelf-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
            >
            >
            >
            > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of Service.


            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • John Chris Wren
            GCC is the GNU C compiler (http://gcc.gnu.org). It s been ported to a great many processors, including Alphas, PPC, AVRs, Sparc, 68K, MSP430, Vax, AMD29K,
            Message 5 of 29 , Apr 29, 2002
              GCC is the GNU C compiler (http://gcc.gnu.org). It's been ported to a
              great many processors, including Alphas, PPC, AVRs, Sparc, 68K, MSP430, Vax,
              AMD29K, etc.

              GCC normally doesn't port well to 8 bit processors, but GCC 3.01 has
              made it easier. I would imagine that the 1802 architecture would be easier
              to port than something like the 8051, since there are several 16 bit
              registers (most 8051s have one, and several have two, but require games be
              played to use both. It's an adhoc extension).

              It's not like I have enough uncompleted projects that starting one more
              would be noticed...

              --John
              -----Original Message-----
              From: Lee Hart [mailto:leeahart@...]
              Sent: Monday, April 29, 2002 10:43 AM
              To: cosmacelf@yahoogroups.com
              Subject: Re: [cosmacelf] Re: Common Subroutine Idiom


              victor baca wrote:
              > you wana port thr GCC to 1802 your in for world of hurt. wow your
              > must be a maskist....

              What is GCC? Why would the 1802 be any less capable than any other CPU?
              --
              Lee A. Hart Ring the bells that still can ring
              814 8th Ave. N. Forget your perfect offering
              Sartell, MN 56377 USA There is a crack in everything
              leeahart_at_earthlink.net That's how the light gets in - Leonard Cohen


              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Lee Hart
              ... What is GCC? Why would the 1802 be any less capable than any other CPU? -- Lee A. Hart Ring the bells that still can ring 814 8th Ave. N.
              Message 6 of 29 , Apr 29, 2002
                victor baca wrote:
                > you wana port thr GCC to 1802 your in for world of hurt. wow your
                > must be a maskist....

                What is GCC? Why would the 1802 be any less capable than any other CPU?
                --
                Lee A. Hart Ring the bells that still can ring
                814 8th Ave. N. Forget your perfect offering
                Sartell, MN 56377 USA There is a crack in everything
                leeahart_at_earthlink.net That's how the light gets in - Leonard Cohen
              • Dave Ruske
                There was a C compiler for the 1802? Wow, I had no idea. Does anyone have any literature or additional information on this? Was it a cross compiler? Dave
                Message 7 of 29 , Apr 29, 2002
                  There was a C compiler for the 1802? Wow, I had no idea. Does anyone have
                  any literature or additional information on this? Was it a cross compiler?

                  Dave

                  At 09:27 AM 4/29/2002 -0700, you wrote:
                  >Thank you. Yes, I would imagine that the 1802 would be much easier to
                  >port C to than most small micros. RCA did sell a C compiler (and Pascal,
                  >BASIC, FORTH, and PL/M compilers) for the 1802, so it has been done.
                • Lee Hart
                  ... Thank you. Yes, I would imagine that the 1802 would be much easier to port C to than most small micros. RCA did sell a C compiler (and Pascal, BASIC,
                  Message 8 of 29 , Apr 29, 2002
                    John Chris Wren wrote:
                    > GCC is the GNU C compiler (http://gcc.gnu.org)... I would imagine that
                    > the 1802 architecture would be easier to port than something like the
                    > 8051, since there are several 16 bit registers

                    Thank you. Yes, I would imagine that the 1802 would be much easier to
                    port C to than most small micros. RCA did sell a C compiler (and Pascal,
                    BASIC, FORTH, and PL/M compilers) for the 1802, so it has been done.
                    --
                    Lee A. Hart Ring the bells that still can ring
                    814 8th Ave. N. Forget your perfect offering
                    Sartell, MN 56377 USA There is a crack in everything
                    leeahart_at_earthlink.net That's how the light gets in - Leonard Cohen
                  • stew_m_3
                    ... Hello Lee, Have you run across a copy of that Pascal compiler anywhere? I would love to find it. Stewart
                    Message 9 of 29 , Apr 29, 2002
                      --- In cosmacelf@y..., Lee Hart <leeahart@e...> wrote:
                      > . . . RCA did sell a C compiler (and Pascal,
                      > BASIC, FORTH, and PL/M compilers) for the 1802, so it has been done.

                      Hello Lee,

                      Have you run across a copy of that Pascal compiler anywhere? I
                      would love to find it.

                      Stewart
                    • Lee Hart
                      ... I believe it ran on the RCA development system (which had an 1802 as its CPU). The development system had the resources you d need for a high level
                      Message 10 of 29 , Apr 29, 2002
                        Dave Ruske wrote:
                        > There was a C compiler for the 1802? Wow, I had no idea. Does anyone
                        > have any literature or additional information on this? Was it a cross
                        > compiler?

                        I believe it ran on the RCA development system (which had an 1802 as its
                        CPU). The development system had the resources you'd need for a high
                        level language (lots of memory, 8" floppy disks, 80x24 screen, etc.). It
                        compiled programs that were intended to run on a "target" system, i.e.
                        some dedicated product application.

                        If memory serves, this C was produced by some outside company and
                        marketed by RCA (like FORTH). It was more like a "small C", and less
                        capable than RCA's Pascal or PL/M compilers. Thus RCA marketing steered
                        you toward these other products.
                        --
                        Lee A. Hart Ring the bells that still can ring
                        814 8th Ave. N. Forget your perfect offering
                        Sartell, MN 56377 USA There is a crack in everything
                        leeahart_at_earthlink.net That's how the light gets in - Leonard Cohen
                      • Lee Hart
                        ... No; I haven t. I ve only seen it described in the RCA documentation. -- Lee A. Hart Ring the bells that still can ring 814 8th Ave. N.
                        Message 11 of 29 , Apr 29, 2002
                          stew_m_3 wrote:
                          > Have you run across a copy of that Pascal compiler anywhere?
                          > I would love to find it.

                          No; I haven't. I've only seen it described in the RCA documentation.
                          --
                          Lee A. Hart Ring the bells that still can ring
                          814 8th Ave. N. Forget your perfect offering
                          Sartell, MN 56377 USA There is a crack in everything
                          leeahart_at_earthlink.net That's how the light gets in - Leonard Cohen
                        • oopic_developer
                          Cool! I will take 2. How did you find them? -Scott ... be pulls. If ... Priority ... of ... able to
                          Message 12 of 29 , May 6 10:37 AM
                            Cool!
                            I will take 2.

                            How did you find them?

                            -Scott

                            --- In cosmacelf@y..., "John Chris Wren" <jcwren@j...> wrote:
                            > I've got 90 CDP1802ACE that are in tubes, and don't appear to
                            be pulls. If
                            > anyone is interested, $3 USD ea + shipping (cheapest is probably
                            Priority
                            > Mail at $3.50, but I'd have to check to prove that). If anyone is
                            > interested, email me at jcwren@j... Paypal, check, money orders,
                            > gold bullion, and virgins (female, 18-24) are all acceptable forms
                            of
                            > payment.
                            >
                            > If someone has CDP1854's (UART) or CDP1861's (VDC), we may be
                            able to
                            > trade. CDP1851's are also iof interest.
                            >
                            > --John
                          • John Chris Wren
                            Just browsing through the tubes at a local electronics dealer. I know they had been there for at least a year, thinking back on it. Probably longer. I just
                            Message 13 of 29 , May 6 7:22 PM
                              Just browsing through the tubes at a local electronics dealer. I know
                              they had been there for at least a year, thinking back on it. Probably
                              longer. I just never really gave a thought to messing with them back then.

                              --John
                              -----Original Message-----
                              From: oopic_developer [mailto:scott.savage@...]
                              Sent: Monday, May 06, 2002 13:37 PM
                              To: cosmacelf@yahoogroups.com
                              Subject: [cosmacelf] Re: Score! CDP1802ACE



                              Cool!
                              I will take 2.

                              How did you find them?

                              -Scott

                              --- In cosmacelf@y..., "John Chris Wren" <jcwren@j...> wrote:
                              > I've got 90 CDP1802ACE that are in tubes, and don't appear to
                              be pulls. If
                              > anyone is interested, $3 USD ea + shipping (cheapest is probably
                              Priority
                              > Mail at $3.50, but I'd have to check to prove that). If anyone is
                              > interested, email me at jcwren@j... Paypal, check, money orders,
                              > gold bullion, and virgins (female, 18-24) are all acceptable forms
                              of
                              > payment.
                              >
                              > If someone has CDP1854's (UART) or CDP1861's (VDC), we may be
                              able to
                              > trade. CDP1851's are also iof interest.
                              >
                              > --John


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                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                            • John Chris Wren
                              Another score: http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&item=1728230388 [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                              Message 14 of 29 , May 6 7:24 PM
                                Another score: http://cgi.ebay.com/ws/eBayISAPI.dll?ViewItem&item=1728230388

                                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                              • s_brune2001
                                Hello all: I see you found my site on MSN communities. I have not done much with it because Microsoft changed their policy. You used to be able to post 30Mb of
                                Message 15 of 29 , May 8 9:04 AM
                                  Hello all:

                                  I see you found my site on MSN communities. I have not done much with
                                  it because Microsoft changed their policy. You used to be able to
                                  post 30Mb of information for free. Now they changed it to 3Mb and I'm
                                  not sure I can do anything useful with 3Mb. I would be glad to link
                                  to add links to your sites just let me know at s_brune@...
                                  and I will put them on the site.

                                  The ELF II was the first computer I owned and I have many fond
                                  memories of programming it. I still have a lot of the manuals, parts
                                  and newsletters from then.

                                  I recently bought a vintage RCA Studio II video game on eBay. It also
                                  uses the 1802 to power it. That's why I set aside space on the
                                  website for it.

                                  Steve

                                  --- In cosmacelf@y..., Dave Ruske <dave@r...> wrote:
                                  > Just added a link from cosmacelf.com's "Links" page. Thanks for the
                                  pointer!
                                  >
                                  > That photo labeled "Quest" looks to me like an early ELF II, the
                                  one with the
                                  > pushbuttons instead of toggle switches...
                                  >
                                  > I would've requested a reciprocal link, but when I tried to create
                                  a Passport
                                  > account (with bogus info, of course) it whined about my browser.
                                  Apparently
                                  > Microsoft has something against Mozilla. Go figure. Should I refuse
                                  to link
                                  > to an MSN site on principle? ;)
                                  >
                                  > Dave
                                • Gemeny, Steve
                                  I picked up 4 of these widgets... Not a bad deal. Mine appear to have the following Stuff : Board 1 16K - 22K RAM board (mine s 22K) in 2Kx8 chips (Hitachi
                                  Message 16 of 29 , May 14 9:10 AM
                                    I picked up 4 of these widgets... Not a bad deal.

                                    Mine appear to have the following "Stuff":
                                    Board 1 16K - 22K RAM board (mine's 22K) in 2Kx8 chips (Hitachi 27069 ? !
                                    ?)
                                    Board 2 1802 and some glue logic, Bus drivers, and a 15 pin I/O (scanner
                                    gone)
                                    4013, 4009, 74C174, 74C374, 4024, 4093, 4049, 74C08
                                    a ROM that appears to be 2764 pinout (27884 ? ! ?)
                                    Board 3 10K -12 K RAM board (mine's 10 K) with Toshiba 5517s (2Kx8)
                                    Board 4 seems to be all Keyboard and display logic.
                                    Board 5 is the keyboard

                                    Interesting method of interconnecting the boards via L O N G pin headers
                                    (0.1 inch spaced X 16 pins) that pass through multiple boards, some connect
                                    some just keep going on though the next. 4 such sets of "Vertical Busses"
                                    between all but Board 5... Looks like 2 busses are for memory (Address, Data
                                    & selects), the other pair seems to be I/O related.

                                    Boards have a label of Ditronics MSI/88e Web search seems to find a
                                    DVD/home Cinema company in UK named Ditronics... Doubt if they'll be any
                                    help.

                                    I've removed the ROM and hope to read it (may be some recon to be had
                                    disassembling parts of it) next chance I get at the PROM Burner.

                                    It might be nice to stick some code into a 2764 and see if I can learn
                                    anything about the memory & I/O map... I'll think about that and accept
                                    comments for a while.

                                    As a minimum, it should be possible to usurp the Q and an EFx for Tiny Basic
                                    to use for IO and slam Lee's copy (looks like it's Orged to H0000) and have
                                    Tiny running in a hand held board with a bunch of RAM.

                                    Anyone else get any of these? Anyone else working these issues?

                                    Safety and productivity in numbers...

                                    Later,
                                    Steve
                                    aka aa3nm{at}amsat.org





                                    -----Original Message-----
                                    From: John Chris Wren [mailto:jcwren@...]
                                    Sent: Friday, April 26, 2002 5:05 PM
                                    To: cosmacelf@yahoogroups.com
                                    Subject: [cosmacelf] Cheap widget with CDP1802ACE inside


                                    Saw these at GoldMine Electronics (www.goldmine-elec.com, however, these
                                    items are not in the web catalog). 1-800-445-0697, Scottsdale AZ 85261

                                    MSI/88e Portable Barcode Computer Terminal -- The cases show signs of wear
                                    including sctratches, cracks and dirty keyboards. We are selling them "as
                                    is" for the circuit boards with components inside. The unit we opened had 5
                                    circuit boards, a keyboard with 27 keyswitches, a display board with a 16
                                    character alphanumeric LED display and 9 ICs including CMOS and display
                                    drivers, a 16K data RAM board with 1K x 4K chips including 16 MWS5114E ICs,
                                    2 more RAM boards with 24 TC5514P-1 ICs 8K-24K on each board and one CPU
                                    board with a CPU IC type CDP1802ACE, a 26043IC, a 26045 IC and various other
                                    ICs. Another unit we opened used Japan 8050 24560-00-00A RAM ICs on the RAM
                                    boards, so there is some variance, however, each unit will have 3 RAM
                                    boards, 1 display board, a keyboard, and a CPU board. Operates from 4 "AA"
                                    batteries (not included). Size: 7 3/4" x 3 1/2" x 2 1/2". We have absolutely
                                    no data or info of any kind on these and we are not selling them as working.
                                    They are being sold "AS IS" only-no returns. G8007 Sale! $3.00 ea.


                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



                                    ==================================================
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                                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                  • victor baca
                                    Another common probllem would be the comar I dont see that the 1802 has one? how does the rca book or some say how to do this . Does it involve subtraction.
                                    Message 17 of 29 , May 18 5:17 PM
                                      Another common probllem would be the comar I dont see that the 1802
                                      has one? how does the rca book or some say how to do this . Does it
                                      involve subtraction.
                                      thanx vic

                                      dave@... wrote:

                                      > I don't know about "most used"; there were several techniques one
                                      > could
                                      > implement depending on how they wanted to trade off speed, register
                                      > dedication, and ease of use. The Standard Call and Return Technique
                                      > enjoyed quite a bit of popularity because it was very general-purpose,
                                      >
                                      > but it also tied up R4, R5, and R6, and was relatively slow and
                                      > complex.
                                      >
                                      > In programs with one or two subroutines, it was more efficient (and
                                      > very
                                      > fast!) to dedicate a register to the call, then invoke with SEP when
                                      > needed.
                                      > To return, the subroutine would usually jump back to just before its
                                      > first
                                      > instruction and SEP back to the main PC; this would leave the
                                      > subroutine's
                                      > PC register set up for the next call. Note that this doesn't even use
                                      > a stack
                                      > because the return address is in a register, but it presumes that the
                                      > subroutine knows the PC of its caller, which doesn't lend the
                                      > technique to
                                      > nesting. But how many CPUs of the day could call a subroutine in just
                                      > two
                                      > machine cycles, and return with two more?
                                      >
                                      > Several other techniques were detailed in RCA's manual, falling
                                      > between
                                      > these two in complexity and speed, but I forget what they were. I
                                      > think
                                      > the two techniques mentioned above were probably the most common.
                                      >
                                      > Dave
                                      >
                                      > > What's the most common idiom for implementing subroutine type
                                      > > functionality on a 1802? I see the 1805/06 has an actuall call
                                      > instruction,
                                      > > which would be nice.
                                      > >
                                      > > And do people tend to mess around with actually changing the
                                      > register
                                      > > used for the PC, or stick to R0?
                                      >
                                      >
                                      > Yahoo! Groups Sponsor
                                      ADVERTISEMENT


                                      >
                                      > ==================================================
                                      > Visit the COSMAC ELF website at www.cosmacelf.com.
                                      >
                                      > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
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                                      >
                                      >
                                      >
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                                      --
                                      Registered Linux user #270618
                                      Stand up and be counted.

                                      HTTP://counter.li.org



                                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                    • druske
                                      I don t think the 1802 has a comar, either! :) (Um, at the risk of looking foolish, what *is* a comar , anyway?) Dave
                                      Message 18 of 29 , May 20 1:46 PM
                                        I don't think the 1802 has a comar, either! :)

                                        (Um, at the risk of looking foolish, what *is* a "comar", anyway?)

                                        Dave

                                        --- In cosmacelf@y..., victor baca <vbaca@e...> wrote:
                                        > Another common probllem would be the comar I dont see that the 1802
                                        > has one? how does the rca book or some say how to do this . Does it
                                        > involve subtraction.
                                        > thanx vic
                                      • victor baca
                                        OK OK OK OK a compair sorry ... ADVERTISEMENT ... -- Registered Linux user #270618 Stand up and be counted. HTTP://counter.li.org [Non-text portions of this
                                        Message 19 of 29 , May 20 3:45 PM
                                          OK OK OK OK

                                          a compair
                                          sorry


                                          druske wrote:

                                          > I don't think the 1802 has a comar, either! :)
                                          >
                                          > (Um, at the risk of looking foolish, what *is* a "comar", anyway?)
                                          >
                                          > Dave
                                          >
                                          > --- In cosmacelf@y..., victor baca <vbaca@e...> wrote:
                                          > > Another common probllem would be the comar I dont see that the
                                          > 1802
                                          > > has one? how does the rca book or some say how to do this . Does it
                                          > > involve subtraction.
                                          > > thanx vic
                                          >
                                          >
                                          >
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                                        • J.C. Wren
                                          compare , maybe? --John ... From: victor baca [mailto:vbaca@enter.net] Sent: Monday, May 20, 2002 18:45 To: cosmacelf@yahoogroups.com Subject: Re: [cosmacelf]
                                          Message 20 of 29 , May 20 3:53 PM
                                            "compare", maybe?

                                            --John
                                            -----Original Message-----
                                            From: victor baca [mailto:vbaca@...]
                                            Sent: Monday, May 20, 2002 18:45
                                            To: cosmacelf@yahoogroups.com
                                            Subject: Re: [cosmacelf] Re: Common Subroutine Idiom


                                            OK OK OK OK

                                            a compair
                                            sorry


                                            druske wrote:

                                            > I don't think the 1802 has a comar, either! :)
                                            >
                                            > (Um, at the risk of looking foolish, what *is* a "comar", anyway?)
                                            >
                                            > Dave
                                            >
                                            > --- In cosmacelf@y..., victor baca <vbaca@e...> wrote:
                                            > > Another common probllem would be the comar I dont see that the
                                            > 1802
                                            > > has one? how does the rca book or some say how to do this . Does it
                                            > > involve subtraction.
                                            > > thanx vic
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
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                                            ADVERTISEMENT


                                            >
                                            > ========================================================
                                            > Visit the COSMAC ELF website at http://www.cosmacelf.com
                                            >
                                            > To unsubscribe from this group, send an email to:
                                            > cosmacelf-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                                            >
                                            >
                                            >
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                                            --
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                                            Stand up and be counted.

                                            HTTP://counter.li.org



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                                            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                                          • Dave Ruske
                                            Sorry, Victor, I should ve guessed compare by the reference to subtraction in your message. Some days my brain needs a little extra help! Yes, you re right,
                                            Message 21 of 29 , May 20 8:11 PM
                                              Sorry, Victor, I should've guessed "compare" by the reference to subtraction
                                              in your message. Some days my brain needs a little extra help!

                                              Yes, you're right, there's no compare instruction as such. Subtraction would
                                              be the closest thing. Not really a huge deal, though, because with the 1802
                                              the result always ends up in D and you're usually loading D up with something
                                              new anyway. Or if you're doing a series of comparisons (say, against 2, then
                                              5, then 7) you could write it instead as a series of subtractions (subtract
                                              2, then 3 more, then 2 more).

                                              Dave

                                              On Monday 20 May 2002 05:45 pm, you wrote:
                                              > OK OK OK OK
                                              >
                                              > a compair
                                              > sorry
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