Jun11 noun cases
- Here's the Jun11 noun case system. It seems to work but I'm concerned about how naturalistic it is. Also, I wonder if the nominative should be called that given the lack of an accusative.
* Each noun is implicitly animate or inanimate.
* Nouns are inflected for number and case.
* The numbers are singular (unmarked) and plural (-P).
* Mass nouns lack plural forms.
* Count nouns lack the partitive singular (although the partitive plural is made from the singular stem).
* Inanimate nouns lack the vocative, obviative, comitative, and dative.
* identifies addressee(s)
* intransitive subject
* transitive agent or donor, except when instrumental is required
* transitive patient or theme, except when obviative is required
* object of preposition
* complement of identity or definition clause
* animate transitive patient or theme when agent or donor is phrase or omitted
* recipient or beneficiary
* inanimate agent or donor
* original transitive agent or donor of causative verb (causee)
* the whole from which a part is selected
* possessor or other adnominal relationship
The person and number of the subject or transitive agent are marked by enclitic pronouns rather than suffixes, so that the verb is 0-marked when that argument is a noun phrase. It's also 0-marked when the argument is omitted.
gu z^idaffe baxta. "The giraffes ran."
baxtaya. "They ran."
baxta. "Running occurred."
gu elefanta vaanaya. "They saw the elephant."
gu z^idaffe gu elefantane vaana.
gu z^idaff-e gu elefant-ane vaan-a
Def giraffe-PNom the elephant-SObv see-A
"The giraffes saw the elephant."
gu z^idaffaisa baxtatta gu elefanta.
gu z^idaff-aisa baxt-att-a gu elefant-a
Def giraffe-PIns run-Cau-A Def elephant-SNom
"The elephant made the giraffes run."