- So now I'm looking at tonogenesis. I'm thinking perhaps that stops will
raise the tone of the preceding vowel, while fricatives will lower it,
which appears to be an attested stage in the development of Sino-Tibetan
languages (yes?). I'm toying with the notion that perhaps there will be
two forms of words, one free-standing with a final consonant, and one with
a tone that combines in compounds, so, just as an example:
sak -- person
taf -- make a sound
sátaf -- language; to speak
Other ideas in re: tonogenesis, or comments on the plausibility of such a
Second Person, a chapbook of poetry by Patrick Dunn, is now available for
order from Finishing Line
- My understanding of tonogenesis is that is depends on vd/vl initial stops. Vl --> high tone, voiced --> low tone ( often with devoicing, either via a breathy voice stage (Khmer I think), or maybe pre-glottalization). The Chamic langs. have been influenced by both Khmer and Vietnamese. James Matisoff is THE expert, I don't know how much of his work is online; he did write a paper on Tonogenesis and has theorized extensively about it.
Quite possibly medial/final consonants also play a role, maybe esp. in the development of rising/falling or other complex tones.....
In Gwr (my tonal conlang) even the vowels/diphthongs can have an effect, /i, u/ being 'high', /a/ being low. It depended too on whether the *form was CVCV or CVCVC.
--- On Sun, 3/3/13, Eric Christopherson <rakko@...> wrote:
From: Eric Christopherson <rakko@...>
Subject: Re: Tonogenesis
Date: Sunday, March 3, 2013, 9:05 PM
On Mar 2, 2013, at 12:19 PM, Njenfalgar wrote:
> 2013/3/2 Patrick Dunn <pwdunn@...>
>> So I could have a general lenition rule for final consonants. Stops are
>> weakened to [?] and fricatives to [h] before another consonant, which
>> triggers creaky and breathy voicing respectively, which gets reinterpreted
>> as tone.
>> Does nasalization also trigger tonogenesis in any languages?
>> Hmm, this'll lead to a high degree of homophony, but since this only occurs
>> in compounds, it might be easier to disambiguate.
>> Oooh, especially if this occurs in an earlier agglunative phase of the
>> language, which then becomes more analytic.
>> How confusing. :)
> I don't think nasalisation will trigger tonogenesis. Usually tones arise
> from glottal stuff, as explained by others. There's an interesting paper
> about it which has already been mentioned on this list before:
I was about to suggest Thurgood's work. It talks about how prevocalic stop voicing can cause or contribute to tone. It's been a while since I read it, but ISTR that it's uncommon for prevocalic stop voicing to lead to tones in the absence of other things, e.g. postvocalic laryngeal distinctions; but Cham, which Thurgood writes extensively about, does seem to show such a development.