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Re: vowels: five to three?

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  • Alex Fink
    ... Fair point, but both of these are languages which are relatively brimful with vowel qualities to start with. It s much easier to get pure vowels to break,
    Message 1 of 22 , Jan 31, 2013
      On Thu, 31 Jan 2013 11:07:03 -0200, Njenfalgar <njenfalgar@...> wrote:

      >2013/1/29 Patrick Dunn <pwdunn@...>
      >
      >> I know that three-vowel systems sometimes become five vowel systems, but
      >> are there attestations of five-vowel systems collapsing into a three-vowel
      >> system? I'm toying with /ɑ/, /e/, /i/, /o/, /u/ in a protolanguage
      >> collapsing into /ɑ/ , /i/, /u/, with length distinctions, in the daughter
      >> language. Perhaps via:
      >>
      >> /ɑ/ < /ɑ/
      >> /i/ < /i/
      >> /u/ < /u/
      >> /ɑu/ < /o/
      >> /ɑi/ < /e/
      >>
      >
      >2013/1/29 Alex Fink <000024@...>
      >
      >> As for the diphthongisation, I don't think I've seen it per se (though I
      >> think some posit its like for pre-PIE). But it reminds me of these funny
      >> central-only vowel systems (e.g. Ubykh and its areamates; Marshallese)
      >> which have dramatic collapses of the phonemic vowel inventory after
      >> consonants get coloured by surrounding vowels. [i 1 u] > [_j1 1 _w1] and
      >> whatnot. So I could see e.g. [i E a O u] > /_ji _ja a _wa _wu/ [_ji _jE a
      >> _wO _wu] with the colouring later breaking again to /i ja a wa u/ [i jE a
      >> wO u] > [i ja a wa u].
      >>
      >
      >There's plenty of languages where /o/ > /ow/ and /e/ > /ej/ (like many
      >Dutch 'lects, many Vietnamese ones, etc.), and > /aw/ and /aj/ resp. is
      >only a small step from there.

      Fair point, but both of these are languages which are relatively brimful with vowel qualities to start with. It's much easier to get pure vowels to break, for increased distinctiveness, if there are lots of other pure vowels crowding them in.

      Also, at least in the Vietnamese case, the change is most significant in open syllables. That might be a fun thing to do here too (though I don't know how it would interact with Patrick's plans for length) -- [e o] > [aj aw] in (stressed) open syllables, [i u] or [a a] in closed ones.

      Alex
    • Jörg Rhiemeier
      Hallo conlangers! ... That would be a lostlang idea. A romlang with only three vowel qualities! -- ... brought to you by the Weeping Elf
      Message 2 of 22 , Jan 31, 2013
        Hallo conlangers!

        On Wednesday 30 January 2013 18:35:00 BPJ wrote:

        > Sicilian comes close with
        >
        > ī ĭ ē > i
        > ū ŭ ō > u
        > ā ă > a
        >
        > Had only ĕ ŏ merged with a it would have been a done deal.

        That would be a lostlang idea. A romlang with only three vowel
        qualities!

        --
        ... brought to you by the Weeping Elf
        http://www.joerg-rhiemeier.de/Conlang/index.html
        "Bêsel asa Éam, a Éam atha cvanthal a cvanth atha Éamal." - SiM 1:1
      • BPJ
        Now don t you go and give me any crazy ideas, you hear me! ;-)
        Message 3 of 22 , Feb 1, 2013
          Now don't you go and give me any crazy ideas, you hear me! ;-)

          Den torsdagen den 31:e januari 2013 skrev Jörg Rhiemeier:

          > Hallo conlangers!
          >
          > On Wednesday 30 January 2013 18:35:00 BPJ wrote:
          >
          > > Sicilian comes close with
          > >
          > > ī ĭ ē > i
          > > ū ŭ ō > u
          > > ā ă > a
          > >
          > > Had only ĕ ŏ merged with a it would have been a done deal.
          >
          > That would be a lostlang idea. A romlang with only three vowel
          > qualities!
          >
          > --
          > ... brought to you by the Weeping Elf
          > http://www.joerg-rhiemeier.de/Conlang/index.html
          > "Bêsel asa Éam, a Éam atha cvanthal a cvanth atha Éamal." - SiM 1:1
          >
        • Iuhan Culmærija
          2013/1/31 Jörg Rhiemeier ... Syrunian is half-way there with four vowels: i, e, u and a, and [i] and [e~ɛ] are in the process of
          Message 4 of 22 , Feb 2, 2013
            2013/1/31 Jörg Rhiemeier <joerg_rhiemeier@...>

            > Hallo conlangers!
            >
            > On Wednesday 30 January 2013 18:35:00 BPJ wrote:
            >
            > > Sicilian comes close with
            > >
            > > ī ĭ ē > i
            > > ū ŭ ō > u
            > > ā ă > a
            > >
            > > Had only ĕ ŏ merged with a it would have been a done deal.
            >
            > That would be a lostlang idea. A romlang with only three vowel
            > qualities!
            >
            >
            Syrunian is half-way there with four vowels: i, e, u and a, and [i] and
            [e~ɛ] are in the process of falling together already.

            Pure [e] only exists in the Construct State (from the Latin genitive) for
            nouns, where it inflects with this pattern: Root_vowel—Ø—e
            Adjectives in the construct state, however, use [i] not [e]: V—Ø—i.
            In unstressed positions, [e~ə] is almost silent (like modern Hebrew's
            shva-vowel), but still triggers spirantisation of plosives.
            Stressed [e~ɛ] exists together with Ayin, as either [eʕ] or [eʔ]. these are
            allophonic to [aʔ].

            I should also note that Syrunian is struggling to survive the spread of
            Arabic in the Near East. Arabic is the main reason for the instability of
            vowels in the language.

            paħm'Ellah tecum,
            Iuhan


            > --
            > ... brought to you by the Weeping Elf
            > http://www.joerg-rhiemeier.de/Conlang/index.html
            > "Bêsel asa Éam, a Éam atha cvanthal a cvanth atha Éamal." - SiM 1:1
            >
          • Anthony Miles
            If you were to do this, might I suggest contact with a group of Arabic or Berber speakers - pre-Norman Sicily is an excellent starting point.
            Message 5 of 22 , Feb 6, 2013
              If you were to do this, might I suggest contact with a group of Arabic or Berber speakers - pre-Norman Sicily is an excellent starting point.
            • Leonardo Castro
              Au, saule miu! Ma n’atu saule cchiù bellu, ai ne’ ’au saule miu sta nfraunte a ti!’ au saule ’au saule miu sta nfraunte a ti, sta nfraunte a ti! ...
              Message 6 of 22 , Feb 7, 2013
                Au, saule miu!

                Ma n’atu saule
                cchiù bellu, ai ne’
                ’au saule miu
                sta nfraunte a ti!’
                au saule
                ’au saule miu
                sta nfraunte a ti,
                sta nfraunte a ti!

                ---

                Mairica-Mairica

                Mairica, Mairica, Mairica,
                caussa saràlu 'sta Mairica?
                Mairica, Mairica, Mairica,
                un bail mazzulinu di fiaur.

                ----

                Até mais!

                Leonardo


                2013/2/1 BPJ <bpj@...>:
                > Now don't you go and give me any crazy ideas, you hear me! ;-)
                >
                > Den torsdagen den 31:e januari 2013 skrev Jörg Rhiemeier:
                >
                >> Hallo conlangers!
                >>
                >> On Wednesday 30 January 2013 18:35:00 BPJ wrote:
                >>
                >> > Sicilian comes close with
                >> >
                >> > ī ĭ ē > i
                >> > ū ŭ ō > u
                >> > ā ă > a
                >> >
                >> > Had only ĕ ŏ merged with a it would have been a done deal.
                >>
                >> That would be a lostlang idea. A romlang with only three vowel
                >> qualities!
                >>
                >> --
                >> ... brought to you by the Weeping Elf
                >> http://www.joerg-rhiemeier.de/Conlang/index.html
                >> "Bêsel asa Éam, a Éam atha cvanthal a cvanth atha Éamal." - SiM 1:1
                >>
              • BPJ
                ... I actually thought of that after Jörg s comment: Sicilian had no diphthongization so that the product of the merger of Latin _ĭ_ and _ē_ into /e/ just
                Message 7 of 22 , Feb 7, 2013
                  On 2013-02-07 12:36, Leonardo Castro wrote:
                  > Au, saule miu!
                  >
                  > Ma n’atu saule
                  > cchiù bellu, ai ne’
                  > ’au saule miu
                  > sta nfraunte a ti!’
                  > au saule
                  > ’au saule miu
                  > sta nfraunte a ti,
                  > sta nfraunte a ti!
                  >
                  > ---
                  >
                  > Mairica-Mairica
                  >
                  > Mairica, Mairica, Mairica,
                  > caussa saràlu 'sta Mairica?
                  > Mairica, Mairica, Mairica,
                  > un bail mazzulinu di fiaur.


                  I actually thought of that after Jörg's comment:

                  Sicilian had no diphthongization so that the product of
                  the merger of Latin _ĭ_ and _ē_ into /e/ just merged
                  with /i/ from _ī_, and stressed _ĕ_ just remained /ɛ/,
                  while unstressed _ĕ_ actually became /i/, and the
                  development of the back vowels was parallel. So I
                  imagined a language where stressed _ĕ_ and _ŏ_ also
                  just became /a/ so that you would have:

                  | rēge > ri(g)i
                  | pĕde > pedi > padi
                  | vōtu > vutu
                  | fŏcu > focu > facu

                  Now in a great part of Romance /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ diphthongize
                  either in open syllables or everywhere, or just under
                  certain conditions and in smaller parts /e/ and/or /o/
                  as well diphthongize in open syllables and/or under
                  other conditions so you may get results like

                  | rēge > rei(g)e > rai
                  | > roi > roe > rua
                  | pĕde > pie(d)e > pia(de)
                  | vōtu > voutu > vut / vaut
                  | > voatu > vuatu
                  | fŏcu > fuocu > fue- / fua-

                  I guess _roi_ could also have gone to /rui/ and then
                  on to /ruɛ/ > /rua/ but the fact is that results such
                  as /oi/, /o/, /(o)ɛ/ are attested but /ui/ is
                  attested nowhere.

                  So one would have to decide *when* and *where* this
                  language arose and get different *how*s depending. You
                  would also have to decide when this happened relative
                  to palatalization, and if one also adopted the (quite
                  unrealistic) idea that unstressed _ĕ, ŏ_ became /a/
                  before stressed vowels, relative to loss of final /u/
                  and /e/ if that occurred. You could get several
                  interesting languages on the proposition of "a Romlang
                  with only three vowel qualities"!

                  /bpj

                  >
                  > 2013/2/1 BPJ <bpj@...>:
                  >> Now don't you go and give me any crazy ideas, you hear me! ;-)
                  >>
                  >> Den torsdagen den 31:e januari 2013 skrev Jörg Rhiemeier:
                  >>
                  >>> Hallo conlangers!
                  >>>
                  >>> On Wednesday 30 January 2013 18:35:00 BPJ wrote:
                  >>>
                  >>>> Sicilian comes close with
                  >>>>
                  >>>> ī ĭ ē > i
                  >>>> ū ŭ ō > u
                  >>>> ā ă > a
                  >>>>
                  >>>> Had only ĕ ŏ merged with a it would have been a done deal.
                  >>>
                  >>> That would be a lostlang idea. A romlang with only three vowel
                  >>> qualities!
                  >>>
                  >>> --
                  >>> ... brought to you by the Weeping Elf
                  >>> http://www.joerg-rhiemeier.de/Conlang/index.html
                  >>> "Bêsel asa Éam, a Éam atha cvanthal a cvanth atha Éamal." - SiM 1:1
                  >>>
                  >
                • Jörg Rhiemeier
                  Hallo conlangers! ... Yes. The original idea of yours (and mine). ... Sure. There are many ways of getting a plausible romlang with only three vowel
                  Message 8 of 22 , Feb 7, 2013
                    Hallo conlangers!

                    On Thursday 07 February 2013 15:22:17 BPJ wrote:

                    > [...]
                    > I actually thought of that after Jörg's comment:
                    >
                    > Sicilian had no diphthongization so that the product of
                    > the merger of Latin _ĭ_ and _ē_ into /e/ just merged
                    > with /i/ from _ī_, and stressed _ĕ_ just remained /ɛ/,
                    > while unstressed _ĕ_ actually became /i/, and the
                    > development of the back vowels was parallel. So I
                    > imagined a language where stressed _ĕ_ and _ŏ_ also
                    > just became /a/ so that you would have:
                    > | rēge > ri(g)i
                    > | pĕde > pedi > padi
                    > | vōtu > vutu
                    > | fŏcu > focu > facu

                    Yes. The original idea of yours (and mine).

                    > Now in a great part of Romance /ɛ/ and /ɔ/ diphthongize
                    > either in open syllables or everywhere, or just under
                    > certain conditions and in smaller parts /e/ and/or /o/
                    > as well diphthongize in open syllables and/or under
                    > other conditions so you may get results like
                    >
                    > | rēge > rei(g)e > rai
                    > |
                    > | > roi > roe > rua
                    > |
                    > | pĕde > pie(d)e > pia(de)
                    > | vōtu > voutu > vut / vaut
                    > |
                    > | > voatu > vuatu
                    > |
                    > | fŏcu > fuocu > fue- / fua-
                    >
                    > I guess _roi_ could also have gone to /rui/ and then
                    > on to /ruɛ/ > /rua/ but the fact is that results such
                    > as /oi/, /o/, /(o)ɛ/ are attested but /ui/ is
                    > attested nowhere.
                    >
                    > So one would have to decide *when* and *where* this
                    > language arose and get different *how*s depending. You
                    > would also have to decide when this happened relative
                    > to palatalization, and if one also adopted the (quite
                    > unrealistic) idea that unstressed _ĕ, ŏ_ became /a/
                    > before stressed vowels, relative to loss of final /u/
                    > and /e/ if that occurred. You could get several
                    > interesting languages on the proposition of "a Romlang
                    > with only three vowel qualities"!

                    Sure. There are many ways of getting a plausible romlang
                    with only three vowel qualities. Alas, I currently do not
                    feel like starting a romlang. I still have enough to do with
                    Old Albic, Proto-Alpianic (a protolang for the League of Lost
                    Languages) and even with Roman Germanech which is pretty much
                    "done" but no complete grammar sketch or dictionary currently
                    online! Also, I have other, non-conlang projects such as
                    writing a book about progressive rock music and writing and
                    rehearsing songs for a band I hope to start later this year,
                    and a few other things.

                    --
                    ... brought to you by the Weeping Elf
                    http://www.joerg-rhiemeier.de/Conlang/index.html
                    "Bêsel asa Éam, a Éam atha cvanthal a cvanth atha Éamal." - SiM 1:1
                  • BPJ
                    Bábilstuarn Allir jarðarbúar tiuluðu siumu tungu ug nútuðu siumu úrð. Svau bár viað ír hair fluttust að uistan að hair fundu laugsliattu í
                    Message 9 of 22 , Feb 7, 2013
                      Bábilstuarn

                      Allir jarðarbúar tiuluðu siumu tungu ug nútuðu siumu
                      úrð. Svau bár viað ír hair fluttust að uistan að hair
                      fundu laugsliattu í Síníarlandi ug sittust hár að. Hau
                      sugðu hair wír viað annan: "Kumum nú ug búum tial
                      tígulstaina ug brinnum hau í ildi." Hair nútuðu
                      tígulstaina í stáð grjuats ug biak í stáð stainlíms. Og
                      hair sugðu: "Kumum nú, biggjum ukkr burg ug tuarn sim
                      naui tial hiamins. Hár míð virðum viað frágir in
                      tvístrumst ikki um alla jurðina." Hau staig Druttinn
                      niaðr tial hiss að sjau burgina ug tuarninn sim minnirnir
                      huvðu biggt. Og Druttinn ságði: "Nú íru hair ain hjuað
                      ug tála siumu tungu. Hitta ír aðains uppháf hiss sim
                      hair muanu táka siar fiarir hindr. Hiar iftir muan ikkirt
                      virða haim um mign sim hair átla siar. Stígum nú niaðr
                      ug ruglum tungumaul hairra svau að inginn skilji annars
                      maul." Og Druttinn tvístraði haim háðan um alla
                      jurðina ug hair háttu viað að biggja burgina. Av haim
                      siukum haitir hún Bábil að hár ruglaði Druttinn
                      tungumaul allrar jarðarinnar ug háðan tvístraði hann
                      haim um alla jurðina.

                      -----------------------------------------------------------

                      A collection of the more extreme developments observed
                      in outlying Scandinavian dialects applied to create a
                      trivocalic language. Can anyone with a knowledge of
                      Scandinavian/Norse spot the twists? There are no
                      grammatical changes For convenience I started from a
                      modern Icelandic text with the most glaring
                      innovations removed.

                      /bpj

                      On 2013-02-07 12:36, Leonardo Castro wrote:
                      > Au, saule miu!
                      >
                      > Ma n’atu saule
                      > cchiù bellu, ai ne’
                      > ’au saule miu
                      > sta nfraunte a ti!’
                      > au saule
                      > ’au saule miu
                      > sta nfraunte a ti,
                      > sta nfraunte a ti!
                      >
                      > ---
                      >
                      > Mairica-Mairica
                      >
                      > Mairica, Mairica, Mairica,
                      > caussa saràlu 'sta Mairica?
                      > Mairica, Mairica, Mairica,
                      > un bail mazzulinu di fiaur.
                      >
                      > ----
                      >
                      > Até mais!
                      >
                      > Leonardo
                      >
                      >
                      > 2013/2/1 BPJ <bpj@...>:
                      >> Now don't you go and give me any crazy ideas, you hear me! ;-)
                      >>
                      >> Den torsdagen den 31:e januari 2013 skrev Jörg Rhiemeier:
                      >>
                      >>> Hallo conlangers!
                      >>>
                      >>> On Wednesday 30 January 2013 18:35:00 BPJ wrote:
                      >>>
                      >>>> Sicilian comes close with
                      >>>>
                      >>>> ī ĭ ē > i
                      >>>> ū ŭ ō > u
                      >>>> ā ă > a
                      >>>>
                      >>>> Had only ĕ ŏ merged with a it would have been a done deal.
                      >>>
                      >>> That would be a lostlang idea. A romlang with only three vowel
                      >>> qualities!
                      >>>
                      >>> --
                      >>> ... brought to you by the Weeping Elf
                      >>> http://www.joerg-rhiemeier.de/Conlang/index.html
                      >>> "Bêsel asa Éam, a Éam atha cvanthal a cvanth atha Éamal." - SiM 1:1
                      >>>
                      >
                    • Jörg Rhiemeier
                      Hallo conlangers! ... Wow! A plausible-looking North Germanic language with just three vowel qualities! This could be a nice lostlang, perhaps spoken
                      Message 10 of 22 , Feb 8, 2013
                        Hallo conlangers!

                        On Thursday 07 February 2013 17:33:11 BPJ wrote:

                        > Bábilstuarn
                        >
                        > Allir jarðarbúar tiuluðu siumu tungu ug nútuðu siumu
                        > úrð. Svau bár viað ír hair fluttust að uistan að hair
                        > fundu laugsliattu í Síníarlandi ug sittust hár að. Hau
                        > sugðu hair wír viað annan: "Kumum nú ug búum tial
                        > tígulstaina ug brinnum hau í ildi." Hair nútuðu
                        > tígulstaina í stáð grjuats ug biak í stáð stainlíms. Og
                        > hair sugðu: "Kumum nú, biggjum ukkr burg ug tuarn sim
                        > naui tial hiamins. Hár míð virðum viað frágir in
                        > tvístrumst ikki um alla jurðina." Hau staig Druttinn
                        > niaðr tial hiss að sjau burgina ug tuarninn sim minnirnir
                        > huvðu biggt. Og Druttinn ságði: "Nú íru hair ain hjuað
                        > ug tála siumu tungu. Hitta ír aðains uppháf hiss sim
                        > hair muanu táka siar fiarir hindr. Hiar iftir muan ikkirt
                        > virða haim um mign sim hair átla siar. Stígum nú niaðr
                        > ug ruglum tungumaul hairra svau að inginn skilji annars
                        > maul." Og Druttinn tvístraði haim háðan um alla
                        > jurðina ug hair háttu viað að biggja burgina. Av haim
                        > siukum haitir hún Bábil að hár ruglaði Druttinn
                        > tungumaul allrar jarðarinnar ug háðan tvístraði hann
                        > haim um alla jurðina.
                        >
                        > -----------------------------------------------------------
                        >
                        > A collection of the more extreme developments observed
                        > in outlying Scandinavian dialects applied to create a
                        > trivocalic language. Can anyone with a knowledge of
                        > Scandinavian/Norse spot the twists? There are no
                        > grammatical changes For convenience I started from a
                        > modern Icelandic text with the most glaring
                        > innovations removed.

                        Wow! A plausible-looking North Germanic language with just three
                        vowel qualities! This could be a nice lostlang, perhaps spoken
                        somewhere on the coast of northeastern North America as a survival
                        of Vinlandic.

                        --
                        ... brought to you by the Weeping Elf
                        http://www.joerg-rhiemeier.de/Conlang/index.html
                        "Bêsel asa Éam, a Éam atha cvanthal a cvanth atha Éamal." - SiM 1:1
                      • Douglas Koller
                        ... Sung to the tune of Tsa na u niva ? Kou
                        Message 11 of 22 , Feb 12, 2013
                          > Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2013 09:36:04 -0200
                          > From: leolucas1980@...
                          > Subject: Re: vowels: five to three?
                          > To: CONLANG@...

                          > Au, saule miu!

                          > Ma n’atu saule
                          > cchiù bellu, ai ne’
                          > ’au saule miu
                          > sta nfraunte a ti!’
                          > au saule
                          > ’au saule miu
                          > sta nfraunte a ti,
                          > sta nfraunte a ti!

                          Sung to the tune of "Tsa na u niva"?

                          Kou
                        • Leonardo Castro
                          ... I didn t get it. It s just the refrain of O sole mio! with some adaptations.
                          Message 12 of 22 , Feb 12, 2013
                            2013/2/12 Douglas Koller <douglaskoller@...>:
                            >> Date: Thu, 7 Feb 2013 09:36:04 -0200
                            >> From: leolucas1980@...
                            >> Subject: Re: vowels: five to three?
                            >> To: CONLANG@...
                            >
                            >> Au, saule miu!
                            >
                            >> Ma n’atu saule
                            >> cchiù bellu, ai ne’
                            >> ’au saule miu
                            >> sta nfraunte a ti!’
                            >> au saule
                            >> ’au saule miu
                            >> sta nfraunte a ti,
                            >> sta nfraunte a ti!
                            >
                            > Sung to the tune of "Tsa na u niva"?
                            >
                            > Kou

                            I didn't get it. It's just the refrain of "O sole mio!" with some adaptations.
                          • Douglas Koller
                            ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/It s_Now_or_Never_(song) Kou
                            Message 13 of 22 , Feb 12, 2013
                              > Date: Tue, 12 Feb 2013 23:41:00 -0200
                              > From: leolucas1980@...
                              > Subject: Re: vowels: five to three?
                              > To: CONLANG@...

                              > 2013/2/12 Douglas Koller douglaskoller@...:

                              > >> Au, saule miu!
                              > >
                              > >> Ma n’atu saule
                              > >> cchiù bellu, ai ne’
                              > >> ’au saule miu
                              > >> sta nfraunte a ti!’
                              > >> au saule
                              > >> ’au saule miu
                              > >> sta nfraunte a ti,
                              > >> sta nfraunte a ti!

                              > > Sung to the tune of "Tsa na u niva"?

                              > I didn't get it. It's just the refrain of "O sole mio!" with some adaptations.

                              http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/It's_Now_or_Never_(song)

                              Kou
                            • Leonardo Castro
                              ... Ah! Naturally! How couldn t I get that?
                              Message 14 of 22 , Feb 13, 2013
                                2013/2/13 Douglas Koller <douglaskoller@...>:
                                >> Date: Tue, 12 Feb 2013 23:41:00 -0200
                                >> From: leolucas1980@...
                                >> Subject: Re: vowels: five to three?
                                >> To: CONLANG@...
                                >
                                >> 2013/2/12 Douglas Koller douglaskoller@...:
                                >
                                >> >> Au, saule miu!
                                >> >
                                >> >> Ma n’atu saule
                                >> >> cchiù bellu, ai ne’
                                >> >> ’au saule miu
                                >> >> sta nfraunte a ti!’
                                >> >> au saule
                                >> >> ’au saule miu
                                >> >> sta nfraunte a ti,
                                >> >> sta nfraunte a ti!
                                >
                                >> > Sung to the tune of "Tsa na u niva"?
                                >
                                >> I didn't get it. It's just the refrain of "O sole mio!" with some adaptations.
                                >
                                > http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/It's_Now_or_Never_(song)
                                >
                                > Kou

                                Ah! Naturally! How couldn't I get that?
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