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Re: Jan19: Vowels, Ablaut, Stem Formation

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  • Roger Mills
    ... Jan19 derives stems from roots using ablaut. The roots are mostly CVCVC with some CVC and maybe a few irregular ones. Historically, there are 3 vowels: *i,
    Message 1 of 7 , Jan 26, 2013
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      --- On Sat, 1/26/13, neo gu <qiihoskeh@...> wrote:
      Jan19 derives stems from roots using ablaut. The roots are mostly CVCVC with some CVC and maybe a few irregular ones. Historically, there are 3 vowels: *i, *a, and *u. They can appear as the following vowels:

      Letter  Short   Long
      i       [i]     [i:]
      e       [e]     [e:]
      æ       [E]
      a       [a]     [a:]
      o       [o]     [O:]
      u       [u]     [u:]

      The grades determine which vowel appears for a given historical vowel at a given place in the paradigms.

      Grade   *i      *a      *u
      1       [i]     [a]     [u]
      2       [i:]    [O:]    [u:]
      3       [E]     [i]     [o]
      4       [a:]    [e:]    [O:]
      0       0/[e]   0/[e]   0/[e]

      -===================================================

      What about æ? -- occurs a couple time in exs. below but not listed here...........
    • neo gu
      ... Hi Roger, Thanks for taking a look. æ is orthographic for [E] which appears as grade 3 of *i. (But when I quote your msg, it appears as a box in one place
      Message 2 of 7 , Jan 26, 2013
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        On Sat, 26 Jan 2013 07:11:01 -0800, Roger Mills <romiltz@...> wrote:

        >--- On Sat, 1/26/13, neo gu <qiihoskeh@...> wrote:
        >Jan19 derives stems from roots using ablaut. The roots are mostly CVCVC with some CVC and maybe a few irregular ones. Historically, there are 3 vowels: *i, *a, and *u. They can appear as the following vowels:
        >
        >Letter? Short???Long
        >i? ? ???[i]? ???[i:]
        >e? ? ???[e]? ???[e:]
        >栠? ???[E]
        >a? ? ???[a]? ???[a:]
        >o? ? ???[o]? ???[O:]
        >u? ? ???[u]? ???[u:]
        >
        >The grades determine which vowel appears for a given historical vowel at a given place in the paradigms.
        >
        >Grade???*i? ? ? *a? ? ? *u
        >1? ? ???[i]? ???[a]? ???[u]
        >2? ? ???[i:]? ? [O:]? ? [u:]
        >3? ? ???[E]? ???[i]? ???[o]
        >4? ? ???[a:]? ? [e:]? ? [O:]
        >0? ? ???0/[e]???0/[e]???0/[e]
        >
        >-===================================================
        >
        >What about 濠-- occurs a couple time in exs. below but not listed here...........

        Hi Roger,
        Thanks for taking a look. æ is orthographic for [E] which appears as grade 3 of *i. (But when I quote your msg, it appears as a box in one place and as a chinese character in another!)

        --
        Jeff
      • neo gu
        I ve greatly revised the section on nouns (after dashed line; the top part is included for reference). Let s hope the LISTSERVE interface doesn t garble it.
        Message 3 of 7 , Jan 28, 2013
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          I've greatly revised the section on nouns (after dashed line; the top part is included for reference). Let's hope the LISTSERVE interface doesn't garble it.

          Jan19 derives stems from roots using ablaut. The roots are mostly CVCVC with some CVC and maybe a few irregular ones. Historically, there are 3 vowels: *i, *a, and *u. They can appear as the following vowels:

          Letter Short Long
          i [i] [i:]
          e [e] [e:]
          æ [E]
          a [a] [a:]
          o [o] [O:]
          u [u] [u:]

          The grades determine which vowel appears for a given historical vowel at a given place in the paradigms.

          Grade *i *a *u
          1 [i] [a] [u]
          2 [i:] [O:] [u:]
          3 [E] [i] [o]
          4 [a:] [e:] [O:]
          0 0/[e] 0/[e] 0/[e]

          Grade 0 = 0 or [e] depending on the rules for initial and medial clusters.

          The stem paradigms are made up of C's, which tell where the consonants go, and grade numbers, which tell which vowel grade can appear. An |e| in a paradigm refers to [e].


          Verb Stems

          A verb can have up to 5 ablaut stems. For CVCVC roots they are:

          (A) C3C0C tæmk- most active forms use this
          (B) C0C4C tmok- most passive forms use this
          (C) C2C3C timok used for the active infinitive
          (D) C0C1C tmuk used for the passive infinitive
          (E) C0C3C tmok used as a base for affix-extended stems

          For CVC roots they are:

          (A) C2C xil-
          (B) C4C xal-
          (C) C3C xæl
          (D) C1C xil
          (E) C3C xæl

          Tense or aspect may be prefixed; suffixes on the (A) and (B) stems determine the clause type as well as person and number of the subject (where the clause type permits). The affix-extended stems may include thematic and reflexive inversions. Stems (A), (B), and (E) are also used for derived nouns.

          --------------------------------------------------------------------------
          Noun Stems

          Jan19 nouns are inflected only for number, although historically, there was also case-marking. There are 3 kinds of nouns: root nouns, suffixing nouns, and compound nouns.

          The root nouns form their plurals through either ablaut or suppletion:

          Singular Plural
          C2C3C tobis C1C0Ce tabse
          C3C gis C1C gas
          --- gû --- bî

          The suffixing nouns have subgroups. They all form their plurals by adding |a| if the noun is animate or |u| is the noun is inanimate. The final |e|, if any, is deleted. The 1st group have noun roots, with minimal suffixes (historically w, y, h, or 0 with the case-marking vowel):

          Singular Plural
          C3C0C-e mæfte C3C0C-1 mæfta (0)
          C0C4C-e smare C0C4C-1 smaru (h)
          C0C1C smir C0C2C-1 smira (w/y)
          C1C nix C2C-1 nixu (w/y)

          The 2nd group are derived from verb roots:

          Singular Plural
          C0C1C-3C tmukix C0C1C-eC1 tmukxu (w/y)
          C0C4C-3C tmokom C0C4C-eC1 tmokemu (h)
          C3C0C-3C tæmkæs C3C0C-eC1 tæmkesa (0)
          C4C-3C xelæn C4C-eC1 xelena (h)
          C2C-3C xolit C1C-0C1 xaltu (0)

          The 3rd group include words derived from nouns:

          Singular Plural
          C0C2C-VC smirik C0C1C-0C1 smirka (w/y)

          The compound nouns may or may not have suppletive bases (which are generally forms of suppletive nouns). The compound structure is:

          BaseNoun-ConnectingVowel-ModifierVerb

          The modifier verb is (C0)C3C in the singular and (C0)C1C in the plural. The connecting vowel indicates the gender of the compound, with |i| for animate and |o| for inanimate. The base noun uses the plural stem minus any final vowel, except that suppletive bases use the singular stem for the singular compound.

          Singular Plural
          ræxt-o-flin ræxt-o-flan
          tabs-o-flin tabs-o-flan
          tmoket-o-flin tmoket-o-flan
          go-flin bæ-flan

          The hyphens are shown here only for clarity.

          Here are some derivational suffixes with both singular and plural forms shown, along with the historical form, the stem type, and the usage.

          Hist. Stem Sing. Plur. Usage
          *wik (D) -ik -(e)ka diminutive, animate
          *wik (D) -ik -(e)ku diminutive, inanimate
          *yax (D) -ix -(e)xu nominal, action
          *is (A) -æs -esa nominal, agent
          *hin (B) -æn -ena nominal, patient 1
          *huf (B) -of -efu nominal, patient 2
          *at (A) -it -etu nominal, instrument
          *hum (B) -om -emu nominal, product
          *hal (B) -il -elu nominal, location
        • neo gu
          Argh. I ve already found another type of compound noun, ModifierVerb-BaseNoun. For example, flinræxte (or fleræxte) instead of ræxtoflin. The noun-last type
          Message 4 of 7 , Jan 28, 2013
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            Argh. I've already found another type of compound noun, ModifierVerb-BaseNoun. For example, flinræxte (or fleræxte) instead of ræxtoflin. The noun-last type must be the older type of compound with the noun-first type appearing by influence of another language or maybe the VO/HM syntax.

            Why are some conlangs so difficult to figure out while others (like Jan12) seem to construct themselves?
          • neo gu
            I have a specific question about citation forms in the vocabulary. In Jan19, transitive and ditransitive verbs have active and passive forms. For these verbs,
            Message 5 of 7 , Jan 29, 2013
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              I have a specific question about citation forms in the vocabulary.

              In Jan19, transitive and ditransitive verbs have active and passive forms. For these verbs, the active infinitive has all the information needed to construct the other forms, except for irregular verbs, and is thus used as the citation form. For univalent and relational verbs, the basic form corresponds to the passive. The passive infinitive might be used as the citation form for these since it has the information needed to construct all the passive forms. However, the active forms are regularly used as causatives and need the active infinitive.

              So, should I use the active infinitive for all but a few verbs? If so, should I gloss the univalent and relational verbs as causatives rather than glossing the basic meaning? e.g. "whiten" vs "white".
            • Christophe Grandsire-Koevoets
              ... Mmm... citation forms are rarely chosen on the basis of the ability to construct all the other forms from them. That s what principal parts are for. In
              Message 6 of 7 , Jan 29, 2013
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                On 29 January 2013 20:26, neo gu <qiihoskeh@...> wrote:

                > I have a specific question about citation forms in the vocabulary.
                >
                > In Jan19, transitive and ditransitive verbs have active and passive forms.
                > For these verbs, the active infinitive has all the information needed to
                > construct the other forms, except for irregular verbs, and is thus used as
                > the citation form.


                Mmm... citation forms are rarely chosen on the basis of the ability to
                construct all the other forms from them. That's what principal parts are
                for. In general, citation forms only give a general idea of the forms the
                word will take, if that.


                > For univalent and relational verbs, the basic form corresponds to the
                > passive. The passive infinitive might be used as the citation form for
                > these since it has the information needed to construct all the passive
                > forms. However, the active forms are regularly used as causatives and need
                > the active infinitive.
                >
                > So, should I use the active infinitive for all but a few verbs?


                Difficult to say. Usually citation forms are the same for all words
                belonging to the same part of speech. When a word uses a different citation
                form than other words of the same part of speech, it's usually because they
                lack the usual form (for instance, in Modern Greek the citation form of
                verbs is the 1st person singular active indicative present. But it's the
                3rd person for impersonal verbs that lack the 1st person, and it's the
                passive form for deponent verbs that don't have an active voice). So your
                case is not quite the same. I'm not quite sure what to make of it.


                > If so, should I gloss the univalent and relational verbs as causatives
                > rather than glossing the basic meaning? e.g. "whiten" vs "white".
                >

                Why not gloss either depending on the usage? In Moten, adjectives don't
                exist as such: they are abstract nouns, and adjectival use is indicated by
                word order. So a noun like _sezgo_ means literally "high speed" but is most
                often used adjectivally to mean "quick, fast". In my Moten dictionary, I
                list both cases, and in glosses I usually use the gloss that fits best the
                context, unless I want to make a specific point.
                --
                Christophe Grandsire-Koevoets.

                http://christophoronomicon.blogspot.com/
                http://www.christophoronomicon.nl/
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