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PolyD Verbs

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  • Jeffrey Jones
    The list is not very active, so .... The possible components of a fully inflected trivalent verb and the order they appear is:
    Message 1 of 3 , Apr 6 2:54 PM
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      The list is not very active, so ....

      The possible components of a fully inflected trivalent verb and the
      order they appear is:

      LA-Align-A3-PA/RT-SA-Root-Deriv-Mood-HA-Voice

      where

      HA = Higher Argument - the person higher on the person hierarchy
      LA = Lower Argument - the person lower on the person hierarchy
      A3 = Argument 3 - the 3rd argument
      Align = Alignment - direct, inverse, or reciprocal
      Voice = Voice - active, passive, or reflexive
      Deriv = Derivationals
      Mood = Mood
      PA/RT = Primary Aspect/Relative Tense
      SA = Secondary Aspect

      The derivationals (what's the correct term?) are optional infixes
      (except that they sometimes appear as suffixes) which modify the
      root and are lexical but productive. The causative and perceptive
      add arguments to the verb, so they can only be used to provide a
      "missing" argument. The reflexocausative changes the semantics of
      the higher argument.

      The moods are indicative, imperative, hypothetical, and
      contrafactual; mood is the only component (besides the root) which
      is both required and has no zero realizations.

      The primary aspects are perfective, imperfective, retrospective,
      and prospective. The relative tenses are present, past, and future.
      The absolute tenses are not part of the verb. Perfective aspect is
      not marked and applies only to P-Class verbs. Imperfective aspect
      is not marked on I-Class verbs. Relative present tense isn't
      marked; these forms may also be used for relative past tense when
      the context is absolute present.

      The secondary aspects are habitual, iterative, continuative, and
      the process phases: inceptive, pausative, resumptive, and
      cessative. Some combinations are possible.

      Persons are 1st (singular, exclusive plural, and inclusive plural),
      2nd (singular and plural), 3rd (singular and plural), and
      unspecified; there are also actants which coreference argument of
      the main verb and some which make the verb into a syntactical
      adjective.

      The person hierarchy is

      2nd person > 1st person > 3rd person

      When the alignment is direct, the higher argument acts like a
      subject, the lower argument like an indirect (or primary) object,
      and the 3rd argument like a direct (or secondary) object. That is,
      the higher argument has the most agent-like role. Inverse alignment
      swaps the roles of the higher and lower arguments, so that the
      lower argument has the most agent-like role.

      Passive or reflexive voice preempts lower argument and alignment.
      Active voice is unmarked.

      Examples:

      kuhlamemi
      [ku'K:a:.mE.mi]
      k- u- h-lam -e -mi
      1S-Inv-3S-give-Ind-2P
      "I gave you (plur) it."

      koresumasten
      [kO.XE.su'mas.tEn]
      k-ore- su-mat-s -u -n
      1S-Rcp-Ret-see-RC-Ctf-2S
      "We would have looked at each other"

      Inv Inverse
      Ind Indicative
      Rcp Reciprocal
      RC Reflexocausative
      Ctf Contrafactual

      I'm not completely satisfied with this. For one thing, I'm not sure
      about how to justify the morpheme order "historically".

      Comments or questions?

      Jeff
    • David J. Peterson
      Jeff wrote:
      Message 2 of 3 , Apr 6 3:33 PM
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        Jeff wrote:
        <<
        HA = Higher Argument - the person higher on the person hierarchy
        LA = Lower Argument - the person lower on the person hierarchy
        A3 = Argument 3 - the 3rd argument
        Align = Alignment - direct, inverse, or reciprocal
        Voice = Voice - active, passive, or reflexive
        Deriv = Derivationals
        Mood = Mood
        PA/RT = Primary Aspect/Relative Tense
        SA = Secondary Aspect
        >>

        So...focusing on the alignment and voice sections...you have an
        inverse system in addition to passive morphology? So let's say
        you have a 1st person argument and a 3rd person argument
        with a...hmm. Okay, let's stick with that.

        Direct + Active: I affect him.
        Inverse + Active: He affects me.
        Reciprocal + Active: I affect him and he affects me. (We affect each
        other.)

        This is pretty standard. The next six are what confuse me a bit.
        Assuming that the second argument is left in in a passive verb
        (otherwise the alignment morphology wouldn't play any role
        at all)...

        Direct + Passive: I'm affected by him.
        Inverse + Passive: He's affected by me.
        Reciprocal + Passive: I'm affected by him and he's affected by me.
        (We're affected by each other.)

        And then...

        Direct + Reflexive: I affect myself (and he...?).
        Inverse + Reflexive: He affects himself (and I...?).
        Reciprocal + Reflexive: I affect myself and he affects himself (and
        we...?).

        Assuming that for the last six you only have one argument, what
        would the inverse and reciprocals mean?

        Also, how does the contrafactual /u/ become an [E]?

        Looks cool so far!

        -David
        *******************************************************************
        "A male love inevivi i'ala'i oku i ue pokulu'ume o heki a."
        "No eternal reward will forgive us now for wasting the dawn."

        -Jim Morrison

        http://dedalvs.free.fr/
      • Jeffrey Jones
        On Fri, 6 Apr 2007 15:33:04 -0700, David J. Peterson ... I didn t explain this very well; the second argument _isn t_ left in the passive
        Message 3 of 3 , Apr 6 8:20 PM
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          On Fri, 6 Apr 2007 15:33:04 -0700, David J. Peterson <dedalvs@...>
          wrote:

          >Jeff wrote:
          ><<
          >HA = Higher Argument - the person higher on the person hierarchy
          >LA = Lower Argument - the person lower on the person hierarchy
          >A3 = Argument 3 - the 3rd argument
          >Align = Alignment - direct, inverse, or reciprocal
          >Voice = Voice - active, passive, or reflexive
          >Deriv = Derivationals
          >Mood = Mood
          >PA/RT = Primary Aspect/Relative Tense
          >SA = Secondary Aspect
          > >>
          >
          >So...focusing on the alignment and voice sections...you have an
          >inverse system in addition to passive morphology? So let's say
          >you have a 1st person argument and a 3rd person argument
          >with a...hmm. Okay, let's stick with that.
          >
          >Direct + Active: I affect him.
          >Inverse + Active: He affects me.
          >Reciprocal + Active: I affect him and he affects me. (We affect each
          >other.)
          >
          >This is pretty standard. The next six are what confuse me a bit.
          >Assuming that the second argument is left in in a passive verb
          >(otherwise the alignment morphology wouldn't play any role
          >at all)...

          I didn't explain this very well; the second argument _isn't_ left in the passive
          or reflexive verb and neither is the alignment. I probably should have broken it
          down as
          LA-Align-A3-PA/RT-SA-Root-Deriv-Mood-HA
          and
          A3-PA/RT-SA-Root-Deriv-Mood-HA/LA-Voice

          with the former for active and the latter for passive and reflexive. (I'm not
          sure if the suffixed person counts as the higher argument or the lower one;
          probably the lower)

          >Direct + Passive: I'm affected by him.
          >Inverse + Passive: He's affected by me.
          >Reciprocal + Passive: I'm affected by him and he's affected by me.
          >(We're affected by each other.)
          >
          >And then...
          >
          >Direct + Reflexive: I affect myself (and he...?).
          >Inverse + Reflexive: He affects himself (and I...?).
          >Reciprocal + Reflexive: I affect myself and he affects himself (and
          >we...?).

          This reciprocal + reflexive actually looks useful.

          >Assuming that for the last six you only have one argument, what
          >would the inverse and reciprocals mean?

          If I were using inverse + passive it could be antipassive, but I didn't need that.

          >Also, how does the contrafactual /u/ become an [E]?

          By means of a typo! It should look like

          koresumastun
          [kO.XE.su'mas.tun]
          k-ore- su-mat-s -u -n
          1S-Rcp-Ret-see-RC-Ctf-2S
          "We would have looked at each other"

          >
          >Looks cool so far!

          Thanks!

          >
          >-David
          >**********************************************************
          *********
          >"A male love inevivi i'ala'i oku i ue pokulu'ume o heki a."
          >"No eternal reward will forgive us now for wasting the dawn."
          >
          >-Jim Morrison
          >
          >http://dedalvs.free.fr/
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