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negation

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  • Joseph B.
    I tend to implement negation in my conlangs by using a phoneme (free or affixed) for not and/or one for no, none, zero with an occasional differentiation
    Message 1 of 7 , Jun 13, 2005
      I tend to implement negation in my conlangs by using a phoneme (free or
      affixed) for "not" and/or one for "no, none, zero" with an occasional
      differentiation between "zero" and "no, none" I'm curious if others here
      have implemented negation in other ways in their conlangs.

      Examples:

      In Palu f'Thule
      /s'thule @palathi/
      in-the-manner-of-people not-speaks-he

      /tola hu thula palathi/
      no <mod> person speaks-he

      /nafa @co/
      grain 0


      In Bez Dis's.

      /shès titís bez'dh/
      not I-habitually-speak people-manner

      /rátoh pez satís/
      zero person he-speaks

      In Nenshar, a frown effects negation.

      /V nensharmausa/
      not word-people-mouth-my-active
    • kevinurbanczyk@juno.com
      Negation by any other way? Dunno, inflection maybe, consonant mutation.. What about our local French speakers? numba [yes, I did] - numbe [no, I didn t] numba
      Message 2 of 7 , Jun 13, 2005
        Negation by any other way?

        Dunno, inflection maybe, consonant mutation.. What about our local French speakers?

        numba [yes, I did] -> numbe [no, I didn't]
        numba -> ndumba
      • Elliott Lash
        In Silindion a fully conjugated Negative Verb is used with the infitive to negate a verb: 1) Purón ein nimatma speak-3rds he people-like En
        Message 3 of 7 , Jun 13, 2005
          In Silindion a fully conjugated Negative Verb is used
          with the infitive to negate a verb:


          1) Purón ein nimatma
          speak-3rds he people-like

          En puriello ein nimatma
          not-3rds speak-inf he people-like

          If I remember correctly, the word _enë_ negates a
          nominal

          2) Purón enë nama
          speak-3rds no person

          For _zero_ the word _eneissë_ "non-existant" may be
          used, although other words are available as well. The
          concept of zero is on shaky ground in Silindion

          3) eneissë areili
          zero grain-gen.

          _Elliott Lash_ (hmm, what is that in Silindion I
          wonder? Elliott - 'My God is Lord' or...'My God is
          YAhweh- or 'Close to God' or 'Beloved of God' hmm..

          Only the 3rd and 4th can be names in Silindion, so
          Inileive 'Close to God' Ileinire 'Beloved of God'

          Ileinire Lasi /ile'nire las.i/

          If just copying the sounds it would be: Elyuti Lasi

          --- "Joseph B." <darkmoonman@...> wrote:

          > I tend to implement negation in my conlangs by using
          > a phoneme (free or
          > affixed) for "not" and/or one for "no, none, zero"
          > with an occasional
          > differentiation between "zero" and "no, none" I'm
          > curious if others here
          > have implemented negation in other ways in their
          > conlangs.
          >
          > Examples:
          >
          > In Palu f'Thule
          > /s'thule @palathi/
          > in-the-manner-of-people not-speaks-he
          >
          > /tola hu thula palathi/
          > no <mod> person speaks-he
          >
          > /nafa @co/
          > grain 0
          >
          >
          > In Bez Dis's.
          >
          > /shès titís bez'dh/
          > not I-habitually-speak people-manner
          >
          > /rátoh pez satís/
          > zero person he-speaks
          >
          > In Nenshar, a frown effects negation.
          >
          > /V nensharmausa/
          > not word-people-mouth-my-active
          >


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        • Carsten Becker
          As for Ayeri, negation is done by a negative infix. In the reference grammar, I analyzed it as a mood: -oi- /OI)/ (/w/ in certain environments). Ang
          Message 4 of 7 , Jun 14, 2005
            As for Ayeri, negation is done by a negative infix. In the reference
            grammar, I analyzed it as a mood: -oi- /OI)/ (/w/ in certain environments).

            Ang bihanoiayin eváris. (I don't understand you)
            ------------------------------------------------
            Ang bihan- oi ay in eva-aris
            TRG:AGT understand.NEG.1sg.TRG 2sg.PAT
            ------------------------------------------------
            /AN bi"hAnwAI)in e"va:4Is/

            The opposite (un-...) can be formed using the suffix -(a(r))ya /A4ja/
            resp. /A:ja/ resp. /ja/.

            Cheers,
            Carsten
          • Henrik Theiling
            Hi! ... Well, I haven t, but I ve been thinking for a long time about doing negation by word order changes. I sometimes perceived the relation between
            Message 5 of 7 , Jun 14, 2005
              Hi!

              "Joseph B." <darkmoonman@...> writes:
              > I tend to implement negation in my conlangs by using a phoneme (free or
              > affixed) for "not" and/or one for "no, none, zero" with an occasional
              > differentiation between "zero" and "no, none" I'm curious if others here
              > have implemented negation in other ways in their conlangs.

              Well, I haven't, but I've been thinking for a long time about doing
              negation by word order changes. I sometimes perceived the relation
              between positive and negative sentence as an equal relation none of
              which should be easier in structure. This prohibits negational or
              affirmative morphemes for either clause. But word order could be used
              without introducing a bias.

              One language where this was demonstrated was Kalaallisut (=West
              Greenlandic, Inuit-Aleut lang): it lacks the stems for

              'be able to'
              and 'good'.

              Instead it has

              'to not have learnt to',
              'be hindered to do'
              and 'bad' (|ajuq-|, e.g. ajorpoq 'it is bad').

              The word for 'be able to' is either 'not to not have learnt to' or
              'not to be hindered to', and for 'good', the translation is 'not bad'
              (|ajuq+nngi-|, e.g. ajunngilaq 'it is good').

              Anyway -- this at least shows that positive and negative sentence is
              sometimes a matter of which language you're talking.

              OTOH, as there are several types of negation, I've so far always
              implemented negation with additional morphemes in my conlangs, often
              with several ones, since I then thought that the negated sentence
              should clearly be derived from the positive one, so an additional
              morpheme felt justified.

              A question: in what way do you differentiate between 'zero' and 'no,
              none' in your lang(s)? The same way as English, where 'zero' is a
              clear instance of a number word? :-)

              **Henrik

              PS: Yes, the brand name 'Ajungilak' translates as 'it is good' from
              |ajuq-| 'bad'. Today, the word would be written 'ajunngilaq'
              due to a spelling reform in 1972 (IIRC). And before that, the
              last 'k' should be a small caps 'K' to indicate a uvular stop
              and there should be an acute on the 'u' to indicate a long
              consonant following.
            • Remi Villatel
              ... Shaquelingua also has a negation suffix but that s only the second choice. If you want to sound like a Shaquean, you must use the *anumeral quantifier* or
              Message 6 of 7 , Jun 15, 2005
                Joseph B. wrote:

                > I tend to implement negation in my conlangs by using a phoneme (free or
                > affixed) for "not" and/or one for "no, none, zero" with an occasional
                > differentiation between "zero" and "no, none" I'm curious if others here
                > have implemented negation in other ways in their conlangs.

                Shaquelingua also has a negation suffix but that's only the second choice.
                If you want to sound like a Shaquean, you must use the *anumeral quantifier*
                or --in English-- an article which means no(ne)/zero.

                (The diaresis should be a macron not an Umlaut.)

                ske jedä-kityesi tule xij tiyö'dja. [sge: jed3:ki.tHesi tu4e Zij tiwO:'dja]
                **zero conform.to-people expressed self usually'he/she
                **He expesses himself according to no people.

                ske kyö tja ko'rja ! [sge: kwO tja ko:'xja]
                **zero movement away imperative.future'thou !
                = Don't go away!

                ske vure kabir te'kja. [sge: vuxe kabix te:'kja]
                **zero behaving.like project past'I
                = I didn't plan it.

                So the sentences have an affirmative construction but a negative meaning or
                translation.

                > In Nenshar, a frown effects negation.

                > /V nensharmausa/
                > not word-people-mouth-my-active

                Hmmm.. Is Nenshar a language without verb?

                ji kaçtölu soe, [ji: ka.CdO4u so"e] (**one soon until)

                --
                ==================
                Remi Villatel
                maxilys_@_tele2.fr
                ==================
              • Joseph Bridwell
                ... No verbs, just nouns and states.
                Message 7 of 7 , Jun 16, 2005
                  > > /V nensharmausa/
                  > > not word-people-mouth-my-active
                  >
                  > Hmmm.. Is Nenshar a language without verb?

                  No verbs, just nouns and states.
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