- Jul 25, 2014Jul21 is an offshoot of Jul13. It lacks the Phoenician-derived alphabet but has other things. In addition to active and passive participles, it has instrumental and locative participles. For example,
pai bunapeq forki xup tinko.
pai 0-bun-a-0-pe-q forki 0-xup-0-0 tinko
pie 3-eat-Dur-3-Ins-Tmp fork 3-drop-Aor-3 child
"While eating the pie with it, the child dropped the fork."
-Tmp is an adverbial clause suffix
-Dur is durative aspect and -Aor is aoristic
-Ins makes the verb an instrumental participle.
There's no corresponding instrumental case; a verb is used. I'm not completely sure if -Tmp is needed in this example.
nee forki-tmaq pai bun tinko
nee forki tm-a-0-0-q pai 0-bun-0-0 tinko
Ind fork use-Dur-3-Act-Tmp pie 3-eat-Aor-3 child
"The child ate the pie with a fork."
Here's an attributive use of the participle:
pai bunape forki xup tinko.
pai 0-bun-a-0-pe forki 0-xup-0-0 tinko
pie 3-eat-Dur-3-Ins fork 3-drop-Aor-3 child
"The child dropped the fork she was eating the pie with."
forkix timee luukee!
forki-x 0-tIm-I-a luuke-i
fork-P 3-use-Aor-Imp Luke-Voc
"Use the forks, Luke!"
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