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204132Instrumental Participle

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  • J S Jones
    Jul 25, 2014
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      Jul21 is an offshoot of Jul13. It lacks the Phoenician-derived alphabet but has other things. In addition to active and passive participles, it has instrumental and locative participles. For example,

      pai bunapeq forki xup tinko.
      pai 0-bun-a-0-pe-q forki 0-xup-0-0 tinko
      pie 3-eat-Dur-3-Ins-Tmp fork 3-drop-Aor-3 child
      "While eating the pie with it, the child dropped the fork."

      -Tmp is an adverbial clause suffix
      -Dur is durative aspect and -Aor is aoristic
      -Ins makes the verb an instrumental participle.

      There's no corresponding instrumental case; a verb is used. I'm not completely sure if -Tmp is needed in this example.

      nee forki-tmaq pai bun tinko
      nee forki tm-a-0-0-q pai 0-bun-0-0 tinko
      Ind fork use-Dur-3-Act-Tmp pie 3-eat-Aor-3 child
      "The child ate the pie with a fork."

      Here's an attributive use of the participle:

      pai bunape forki xup tinko.
      pai 0-bun-a-0-pe forki 0-xup-0-0 tinko
      pie 3-eat-Dur-3-Ins fork 3-drop-Aor-3 child
      "The child dropped the fork she was eating the pie with."

      And finally,

      forkix timee luukee!
      forki-x 0-tIm-I-a luuke-i
      fork-P 3-use-Aor-Imp Luke-Voc
      "Use the forks, Luke!"
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