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132380Re: Alborgian

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  • Ingmar Roerdinkholder
    Jul 1, 2005
      I forgot a few things:

      Like (some) Judeo-Moroccan, Alborgian has 1] t < emphatic d, 2]k < q,
      3]loss of h, and 4]the merger of 'ayn and ghayn:

      tarab-i [ta"rabi] - he/she hit me; MorArab: Dr@bni
      tahek [ta"hEk] - he laughed; MorArab: D-Häk
      y kum [i"kum] - stand; MorArab: yqum = stand up
      kambra ["kambra] - moon; MorArab q@mra
      oa/ia ["owa]/["ija] - he is/she is; MorArab: howwa = he, heyya = she
      xar [Sar] - month; MorArab: shahr
      dêb [deb] - gold; MorArab: d-häb
      loa ["lowa] - language, tongue; MorArab: lugha
      zaïr [za"ir] - small; MorArab: sghir
      and [and] - with; MorArab: '@nd

      Alborgian gave up emphatic consonants all together, but they still live on
      in the vowels preceding or following:

      emph. cons.(incl. r, q, kh, and sometimes 'ayn, ghayn)
      +Class.Arab long a: > Alb. a [a]
      +Class.Arab long i: > Alb. i [i]
      +Class.Arab long u: > Alb. u [u]
      +Class.Arab ay (>ey)> Alb. ê [e]
      +Class.Arab aw (>ow)> Alb. ô [o]
      'ayn/ghayn+ long i: > Alb. ei[Ei]
      'ayn/ghayn+ long u: > Alb. au[Ou]
      'ayn/ghayn+ ay (>ey)> Alb. ei[Ei]
      'ayn/ghayn+ aw (>ow)> Alb. au[Ou]

      non-emphatic consonants
      +Cl.Arab long a: > Alb. ê [e]
      +Cl.Arab long i: > Alb. i [i]
      +Cl.Arab long u: > Alb. û [y] !!!
      +Cl.Arab ay (>ey)> Alb. ie[jE]
      +Cl.Arab aw (>ow)> Alb. eu[2] !!!

      With <û> [y] and <eu> [2] Alborgian is quite unique amongst the Arab
      (derived) dialects. This may seem odd, but it is a way to compensate the
      loss of emphatic consonants. We find <ö> in Jewish Moroccan dialects as
      well as I wrote before, and in several Moroccan Arabic dialects there is a
      tendency to pronounce <u> as [uO], "barred u" like Swedish/Norw. u in
      <hus>, i.e. somewhere between [u] and [y]. Add to that the pronunciation
      [y] for <u> in Southern Portuguese dialects of the Algarve, not far from
      Alborgia, which were a major source of influence on the language.

      The fact that Alborgian has so many features in common with Judeo-Arabic
      is because of after the reconquesta just before 1500 AD, most Muslim
      Alborgians left, but the Christians and most Jews were allowed to stay,
      although the latter often pseudo-converted to Roman Catholicism, together
      with a few Moors; both being minorities under Moorish rule, the Christian
      and Jewish dialects showed many resemblance to each other.


      On Thu, 30 Jun 2005 19:11:14 -0400, Ingmar Roerdinkholder
      <ingmar.roerdinkholder@...> wrote:

      >Shukran Jazilan!
      >Actually, there is a quite large Jewish community in E Borg Medina
      >(Alborgia-City), partly speaking Alborgian, partly Ladino and the most
      >recent immigrants from Morocco speaking Maghribi Arabiya.
      >In fact, Alborgian it self, being spoken by non-Muslims, has already some
      >features in common with the Jewish dialects of Moroccan Arabic.
      >E.g. eu [2] for ClassArab au with non-emphatic consonants, as in geuz
      >[Z2z] = two,MorAr. zuj [zuZ];leula ["l2la] = first (fem), MorAr. lula.
      >But: loa ["lowa] = language (<lugha); xorin [Su"ri~] = months (<sh-hur),
      >odina = ear, lehodda [l@"hod:a] = tomorrow etc, so: "o" with emphatics, r,
      >â [@]for ClassArab u (non-emph): e lâwel [@ "l@w@l] first (m);
      >kâssi ["k@s:i] everything (<kullshi); moâra [mu"@ra] = flower (<nuwwara);
      >xâft [S@ft] = I saw (<shuft); akâlt = I ate (<kult), but: kolt = I said
      >The confusion between s and x [S] is a feature of both Borgi and Jewish
      >Maghribi as well, and the occurence of uvular r [R], in Borgi < rr.
      >e.g. sihed [si"hEd] = someone (<shi-Hedd), y serab [i"srab] = to drink
      >(<yshreb), y seri/será [i"sri] [s@"ra] = buy, bought ;
      >harra ["haRa] = hot (fem) (<Harra), marra ["maRa] = twice, barra ["baRa] =
      >Also t > ts/ch:
      >chesa ["tSEsa] = nine, hetsa ["hEtsa] = until (<Hatta), lebets [l@"bEts) =
      >home (<lil bait), chem [tSEm] = there, chema ["tSEma] = there is/are
      >(<temm(a)), y chemma [i"tSEm:a] = to call, y chellem [i"tSEl:@m] = to
      >speak, sets = six (<setta)
      >Notice the following pronouns with and without -a suffix, dew to Port.
      >influence a special "to be" verb was needed:
      >ien I
      >ent you (masc+fem!)
      >ô he
      >ei she
      >hena we
      >ento you (pl)
      >on they (m+f)
      >onê here
      >chem there
      >iena I am
      >enta you are
      >oa he is
      >oma (masc)/ona (fem)
      >(o)nêya here is
      >chema there is
      >kânt I was
      >kânti you were
      >kên he she it was
      >kânna we were
      >kânto you were (pl)
      >kêno they were
      >Same with "to have":
      >Forms with "and-" can be left out
      >n'ahu (and-i) I have (<nakhud = I take, 'endi = I have, litt:with
      >t'ahu (and-ek) you have
      >y'ahu (and-o)
      >y'ahu (and-a)
      >n'ahudo (and-na)
      >t'ahudo (and-ko)
      >y'ahudo (and-on)
      >Shalom, Ingmar
      >Shaul Vardi wrote:
      >That's really beautiful! And Portuguese and Arabic are two of the most
      >attractive languages to my ear, so the combination is great.
      >> Anyone familiar with (Western) Arabic dialects should
      >> recognize most words, and a lot of Portuguese ones as well.
      >Well I speak an Eastern dialect (Palestinian) but still did fine with
      >the Arab words, and the Portuguese I got from Spanish and French.
      >Maybe on this island there was also a small residual Jewish community
      >that survived the Inquisition? If I have time, I'll try to write a song
      >they might have sung, in their Hebrew-colored dialect of Alborgian.
      >Ingmar Roerdinkholder wrote:
      >>An example of Alborgian, originally a Maghrebi-Arabic dialect, comparable
      >>to Maltese but even more thoroughly influenced by Romance; it's the last
      >>treshold of Iberian Arabic, spoken by Christians on the imaginary island
      >>of Alborgia, South of Portugal.
      >>A short example:
      >>We nar mesih w'oliedo kal n'el abo d'o:
      >>Papá, en heb (en) mesí f'el alm kwir!
      >>Xâft youa basta d'el blêna zaïra deva.
      >>En soal-ek: atê-li 'l denêr-i, o ageos!
      >>L'abo gewab: Joan, enta l'olied'i 'l char helo.
      >>Iella 'l soal-ek meis fásel l'i.
      >>Alês la, papá? La'n kar figa onê.
      >>One good day a boy said to his father:
      >>Daddy, I want to go into the big world!
      >>I've seen enough of our little country now.
      >>I ask you: give me my money, and farewell!
      >>The father answered: John, you are my sweetest son.
      >>But your question isn't easy to me.
      >>Why not, Dad? I cannot stay here.
      >>more or less Portuguese, so:
      >>-o = usually [u]
      >>x, -s = [S]
      >>ge, gi, j = [Z]
      >>ê = [e]
      >>é = [E]
      >>ô = [o]
      >>ó = [O]
      >>Anyone familiar with (Western) Arabic dialects should recognize most
      >>and a lot of Portuguese ones as well.
      >>Ingmar wrote:
      >>>> I made all those Artlangs because I liked it, and not because I want
      >>>> the world to speak them, including Middelsprake.
      >>Henrik wrote:
      >>>Wow! Many of these seem really interesting. Could you post some bits
      >>>and pieces to give an impression?
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