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[Computational Complexity] The Importance of Natural Proofs

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  • Lance
    Razborov and Rudich s paper Natural Proofs gives a combinatorial framework for proofs to show that circuits in a given class cannot achieve a given
    Message 1 of 1 , May 10, 2006
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      Razborov and Rudich's paper Natural Proofs gives a combinatorial framework for proofs to show that circuits in a given class cannot achieve a given computational task. The paper explains the difficultly of extending these proofs to show, for example, that NP does not have polynomial-size circuits (and thus P≠NP). But do natural proofs really present a barrier to proving important circuit lower bounds?

      One approach to showing NP does not have polynomial-size circuits: Find some property C of functions such that SAT is in C. We then show, using some sort of inductive argument, that no function computable by polynomial-size circuits can have property C. This would imply SAT, cannot have polynomial-size circuits.

      Briefly a natural proof is such a proof where C has two properties.

      1. Largeness: C contains many functions.
      2. Constructivity: One can efficiently verify that a function f is in C.
      Razborov and Rudich show that such a proof against polynomial-size circuits would break pseudorandom generators and in particular imply that the discrete logarithm is not hard. So under reasonable hardness assumptions, natural proofs cannot be used to prove lower bounds against polynomial-size circuits. See the paper for more details.

      Sounds bad for proofs against circuits. But let's consider the two properties. The authors give a good argument why the largeness condition should hold, however

      We do not have any similar formal evidence for constructivity, but from experience it is plausible to say that we do not yet understand the mathematics of Cn outside exponential time (as a function of n) well enough to use them effectively in a combinatorial style proof. We make this point in Section 3, where we argue that all known lower bound proofs against nonmonotone circuits are natural by our definition.
      Indeed they do show all known proofs are natural, but in some cases go through considerable effort to "naturalize" these proofs (as opposed to relativization where the fact that a theorem relativizes follows immediately from the proof).

      Consider what I call quasinatural proofs, where we only require the largeness condition. One might say that if discrete logarithm is hard then a quasinatural proof must prove the nonconstructivity of C. But really you get a conditional. If there are quasinatural proofs against polynomial-size circuits then

      If C is constructive then Discrete logarithm is easy
      which is just a "pigs can fly" theorem that we see often in complexity.

      Avi Wigderson points out that unconditionally you cannot have a natural proof showing that the discrete logarithm problem is hard. If we unravel this statement then we get that giving a quasinatural proof showing discrete logarithm is hard would require proving that discrete logarithm is hard, hardly a surprise.

      I don't have an example of a quasinatural proof not known to be natural as we have very limited techniques for proving circuit lower bounds. Natural proofs do give us some insight into what kind of proof techniques we need for stronger lower bounds, but they do not, in and of themselves, present a major barrier to finding such proofs.

      Posted by Lance to Computational Complexity at 5/10/2006 11:44:00 AM

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