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Re: [comets-ml] Re: UPDATE LIGHT VISUAL CURVE OF COMET C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS

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  • jbortle@aol.com
    Indeed, Mermanus general impression is accurate, but for much of the Northern Hemisphere the actual visibility circumstances for Comet PANSTARRS early post-T
    Message 1 of 26 , Oct 25, 2012
      Indeed, Mermanus' general impression is accurate, but for much of the
      Northern Hemisphere the actual visibility circumstances for Comet PANSTARRS
      early post-T are certainly much less favorable than they were for Comet
      Hale-Bopp when it was near zero magnitude. And, of course, when Comet Hyakutake
      was near that brightness it was situated not far from the Pole Star, some 90
      degrees from the Sun's dominion.

      During its first week post-T Comet PANSTARRS will remain deep in the
      brightest portion of the evening twilight arc, fading significantly in b
      rightness each day as it withdraws from the Sun. Probably not until as late as a
      full two weeks past perihelion, when the comet's head will still only be
      around 5 degrees up in the northwestern sky by the end of twilight near
      latitude +42 degrees, will the comet become reasonably easy to observe. By then it
      may be no brighter than magnitude +2.5 , largely necessitating that most
      observations be made earlier before the sky has become fully dark.

      If one attempts to look for PANSTARRS earlier in the even brighter evening
      twilight in the days immediately following perihelion, so that it is
      higher up in the bright western sky, I would make the following point. I viewed
      Comet West a number of times in very bright evening twilight not far
      removed from the Sun when it was near T. Even with a magnitude of around -1 or -2
      it was still not a strikingly obvious object in large binoculars. Now I'm
      sure that with today's GOTO scopes PANSTARRS will be easier to locate and
      view in a bright sky, but just how impressive it will look with the unaided
      eye, or even in modest binoculars, at the same time is another question.

      So, I would contend that unless Comet PANSTARRS happens to end up
      intrinsically rather brighter overall than I currently anticipate it will be near
      perihelion, its show for the average observer (beyond the striking tail
      development that I do foresee) may turn out somewhat disappointing after all
      the hype, although we comet people will undoubtedly revel in what we see.

      J.Bortle




      In a message dated 10/25/2012 4:25:02 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time,
      HRTD@... writes:


      Hi John and everyone,

      If the comet follows indeed the brightness formula displayed below (m1 =
      4.0 + 5 log (D) + 9 log r), this would result in a maximum brightness of
      -0.4 on March 10th. In this case, the comet will be just a little fainter than
      Hale-Bopp of Hyakutake, though not so well placed for observation around
      peak brightness.

      Best regards,
      Hermanus Rietveld.







      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
    • cometas71
      Hi John , My analysis of the visual light curve contains only visual observations ccd not, the light curves of Luis Mansilla (LIADA) and FRAM ccd , CCD
      Message 2 of 26 , Oct 25, 2012
        Hi John ,

        My analysis of the visual light curve contains only visual observations ccd not, the light curves of Luis Mansilla (LIADA) and FRAM ccd , CCD magnitudes yes if they contain, so its formula is not correct , my photometric light curve is higher in number of visual observations with 102 visuals magnitudes , the news comets of Oort cloud ar = 1.5 AU is necessary to apply the formula to a correction photometric braking brightness and lower activity index ( n ).



        J. P. Navarro Pina

        --- In comets-ml@yahoogroups.com, jbortle@... wrote:
        >
        > Indeed, Mermanus' general impression is accurate, but for much of the
        > Northern Hemisphere the actual visibility circumstances for Comet PANSTARRS
        > early post-T are certainly much less favorable than they were for Comet
        > Hale-Bopp when it was near zero magnitude. And, of course, when Comet Hyakutake
        > was near that brightness it was situated not far from the Pole Star, some 90
        > degrees from the Sun's dominion.
        >
        > During its first week post-T Comet PANSTARRS will remain deep in the
        > brightest portion of the evening twilight arc, fading significantly in b
        > rightness each day as it withdraws from the Sun. Probably not until as late as a
        > full two weeks past perihelion, when the comet's head will still only be
        > around 5 degrees up in the northwestern sky by the end of twilight near
        > latitude +42 degrees, will the comet become reasonably easy to observe. By then it
        > may be no brighter than magnitude +2.5 , largely necessitating that most
        > observations be made earlier before the sky has become fully dark.
        >
        > If one attempts to look for PANSTARRS earlier in the even brighter evening
        > twilight in the days immediately following perihelion, so that it is
        > higher up in the bright western sky, I would make the following point. I viewed
        > Comet West a number of times in very bright evening twilight not far
        > removed from the Sun when it was near T. Even with a magnitude of around -1 or -2
        > it was still not a strikingly obvious object in large binoculars. Now I'm
        > sure that with today's GOTO scopes PANSTARRS will be easier to locate and
        > view in a bright sky, but just how impressive it will look with the unaided
        > eye, or even in modest binoculars, at the same time is another question.
        >
        > So, I would contend that unless Comet PANSTARRS happens to end up
        > intrinsically rather brighter overall than I currently anticipate it will be near
        > perihelion, its show for the average observer (beyond the striking tail
        > development that I do foresee) may turn out somewhat disappointing after all
        > the hype, although we comet people will undoubtedly revel in what we see.
        >
        > J.Bortle
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > In a message dated 10/25/2012 4:25:02 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time,
        > HRTD@... writes:
        >
        >
        > Hi John and everyone,
        >
        > If the comet follows indeed the brightness formula displayed below (m1 =
        > 4.0 + 5 log (D) + 9 log r), this would result in a maximum brightness of
        > -0.4 on March 10th. In this case, the comet will be just a little fainter than
        > Hale-Bopp of Hyakutake, though not so well placed for observation around
        > peak brightness.
        >
        > Best regards,
        > Hermanus Rietveld.
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >
      • martin mc kenna
        Hi John Thanks very much for the latest update on your thoughts regarding Panstarrs s appearance, I am eagerly waiting to observe and photograph this comet in
        Message 3 of 26 , Oct 26, 2012
          Hi John

          Thanks very much for the latest update on your thoughts regarding Panstarrs's appearance, I am eagerly waiting to observe and photograph this comet in the days and weeks post perihelion with a flat ocean horizon and a very dark sky so I hope that it may present us with something nice to catch on a DSLR. You mentioned about the tail, I would love to hear your thoughts regarding any interesting potential as far as tail length or structure is concerned.

          Thanks very much for your time

          Martin McKenna
          N. Ireland

           
          http://www.nightskyhunter.com/


          ________________________________
          From: "jbortle@..." <jbortle@...>
          To: comets-ml@yahoogroups.com
          Sent: Thursday, 25 October 2012, 14:06
          Subject: Re: [comets-ml] Re: UPDATE LIGHT VISUAL CURVE OF COMET C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS


           
          Indeed, Mermanus' general impression is accurate, but for much of the
          Northern Hemisphere the actual visibility circumstances for Comet PANSTARRS
          early post-T are certainly much less favorable than they were for Comet
          Hale-Bopp when it was near zero magnitude. And, of course, when Comet Hyakutake
          was near that brightness it was situated not far from the Pole Star, some 90
          degrees from the Sun's dominion.

          During its first week post-T Comet PANSTARRS will remain deep in the
          brightest portion of the evening twilight arc, fading significantly in b
          rightness each day as it withdraws from the Sun. Probably not until as late as a
          full two weeks past perihelion, when the comet's head will still only be
          around 5 degrees up in the northwestern sky by the end of twilight near
          latitude +42 degrees, will the comet become reasonably easy to observe. By then it
          may be no brighter than magnitude +2.5 , largely necessitating that most
          observations be made earlier before the sky has become fully dark.

          If one attempts to look for PANSTARRS earlier in the even brighter evening
          twilight in the days immediately following perihelion, so that it is
          higher up in the bright western sky, I would make the following point. I viewed
          Comet West a number of times in very bright evening twilight not far
          removed from the Sun when it was near T. Even with a magnitude of around -1 or -2
          it was still not a strikingly obvious object in large binoculars. Now I'm
          sure that with today's GOTO scopes PANSTARRS will be easier to locate and
          view in a bright sky, but just how impressive it will look with the unaided
          eye, or even in modest binoculars, at the same time is another question.

          So, I would contend that unless Comet PANSTARRS happens to end up
          intrinsically rather brighter overall than I currently anticipate it will be near
          perihelion, its show for the average observer (beyond the striking tail
          development that I do foresee) may turn out somewhat disappointing after all
          the hype, although we comet people will undoubtedly revel in what we see.

          J.Bortle




          In a message dated 10/25/2012 4:25:02 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time,
          HRTD@... writes:

          Hi John and everyone,

          If the comet follows indeed the brightness formula displayed below (m1 =
          4.0 + 5 log (D) + 9 log r), this would result in a maximum brightness of
          -0.4 on March 10th. In this case, the comet will be just a little fainter than
          Hale-Bopp of Hyakutake, though not so well placed for observation around
          peak brightness.

          Best regards,
          Hermanus Rietveld.

          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Jakub Cerny
          Hi Pablo, FRAM data contains only CCD data measured by single telescope. I am sure that this is best way to see brightening trend. Mixing data of more
          Message 4 of 26 , Oct 26, 2012
            Hi Pablo,

            FRAM data contains only CCD data measured by single telescope. I am sure
            that this is best way to see brightening trend. Mixing data of more
            observers can cause distortion of analysis in some cases. And also,
            photometry on FRAM provides even on CCD almost similar magnitude results
            as visual photometry.

            Best regards,
            Jakub Cerny

            On 10/25/2012 04:44 PM, cometas71 wrote:
            >
            > Hi John ,
            >
            > My analysis of the visual light curve contains only visual
            > observations ccd not, the light curves of Luis Mansilla (LIADA) and
            > FRAM ccd , CCD magnitudes yes if they contain, so its formula is not
            > correct , my photometric light curve is higher in number of visual
            > observations with 102 visuals magnitudes , the news comets of Oort
            > cloud ar = 1.5 AU is necessary to apply the formula to a correction
            > photometric braking brightness and lower activity index ( n ).
            >
            > J. P. Navarro Pina
            >
            > --- In comets-ml@yahoogroups.com <mailto:comets-ml%40yahoogroups.com>,
            > jbortle@... wrote:
            > >
            > > Indeed, Mermanus' general impression is accurate, but for much of the
            > > Northern Hemisphere the actual visibility circumstances for Comet
            > PANSTARRS
            > > early post-T are certainly much less favorable than they were for Comet
            > > Hale-Bopp when it was near zero magnitude. And, of course, when
            > Comet Hyakutake
            > > was near that brightness it was situated not far from the Pole Star,
            > some 90
            > > degrees from the Sun's dominion.
            > >
            > > During its first week post-T Comet PANSTARRS will remain deep in the
            > > brightest portion of the evening twilight arc, fading significantly in b
            > > rightness each day as it withdraws from the Sun. Probably not until
            > as late as a
            > > full two weeks past perihelion, when the comet's head will still
            > only be
            > > around 5 degrees up in the northwestern sky by the end of twilight near
            > > latitude +42 degrees, will the comet become reasonably easy to
            > observe. By then it
            > > may be no brighter than magnitude +2.5 , largely necessitating that
            > most
            > > observations be made earlier before the sky has become fully dark.
            > >
            > > If one attempts to look for PANSTARRS earlier in the even brighter
            > evening
            > > twilight in the days immediately following perihelion, so that it is
            > > higher up in the bright western sky, I would make the following
            > point. I viewed
            > > Comet West a number of times in very bright evening twilight not far
            > > removed from the Sun when it was near T. Even with a magnitude of
            > around -1 or -2
            > > it was still not a strikingly obvious object in large binoculars.
            > Now I'm
            > > sure that with today's GOTO scopes PANSTARRS will be easier to
            > locate and
            > > view in a bright sky, but just how impressive it will look with the
            > unaided
            > > eye, or even in modest binoculars, at the same time is another question.
            > >
            > > So, I would contend that unless Comet PANSTARRS happens to end up
            > > intrinsically rather brighter overall than I currently anticipate it
            > will be near
            > > perihelion, its show for the average observer (beyond the striking tail
            > > development that I do foresee) may turn out somewhat disappointing
            > after all
            > > the hype, although we comet people will undoubtedly revel in what we
            > see.
            > >
            > > J.Bortle
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > > In a message dated 10/25/2012 4:25:02 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time,
            > > HRTD@... writes:
            > >
            > >
            > > Hi John and everyone,
            > >
            > > If the comet follows indeed the brightness formula displayed below
            > (m1 =
            > > 4.0 + 5 log (D) + 9 log r), this would result in a maximum
            > brightness of
            > > -0.4 on March 10th. In this case, the comet will be just a little
            > fainter than
            > > Hale-Bopp of Hyakutake, though not so well placed for observation
            > around
            > > peak brightness.
            > >
            > > Best regards,
            > > Hermanus Rietveld.
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > >
            > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            > >
            >
            >



            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • jbortle@aol.com
            In a message dated 10/26/2012 6:56:07 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time, martinastro2003@yahoo.com writes: Hi John Thanks very much for the latest update on your
            Message 5 of 26 , Oct 28, 2012
              In a message dated 10/26/2012 6:56:07 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time,
              martinastro2003@... writes:

              Hi John

              Thanks very much for the latest update on your thoughts regarding
              Panstarrs's appearance, I am eagerly waiting to observe and photograph this comet
              in the days and weeks post perihelion with a flat ocean horizon and a very
              dark sky so I hope that it may present us with something nice to catch on a
              DSLR. You mentioned about the tail, I would love to hear your thoughts
              regarding any interesting potential as far as tail length or structure is
              concerned.

              Thanks very much for your time

              Martin McKenna
              N. Ireland
              Hello Martin,

              I need to get this out rather hurriedly as tropical storm Sandy is rapidly
              closing in on my area and past history indicates that I'll likely be
              without power for the next several days and be out of the communications loop.

              I currently have formed some fairly confident ideas concerning what the
              general appearance and brightness of PANSTARRS will be, particularly as seen
              with the unaided eye, next March and April. However, I would prefer to hold
              off posting these in detail on the Internet until I see some more data from
              my colleagues here regarding gas-to-dust ratios and the volume of dust
              production relative to past comets, as PANSTARRS approaches r = 2.0 a.u. Once
              I've had the opportunity to evaluate such information I'll be willing to
              share a more detailed prediction, but for now see below.

              Based on current information here is how I see PANSTARRS' appearance
              shortly following T. As viewed from a dark sky site, I visualize its appearance
              as largely a mirror image of Comet Bennett 1969Y1 (for those of us who can
              recall that fine object) as it looked to the unaided eye in the early days
              of April of 1970 from an equally good observing site. The main difference
              I anticipate between the two displays will be that PANNSTARRS' head will be
              set very low over the western horizon, as compared with Bennett's comet
              having been much higher up in the east. This situation will cause Comet
              PANSTARRS to "seem" somewhat less impressive, particularly as seen from
              locations with any significant light pollution.

              Incidentally, the January S&T will carry a brief initial article from me
              prognosticating the likely development and appearance of Comet ISON during
              the latter half of 2013.

              J.Bortle

              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Cometas LIADA
              Web: http://cometas.liada.net ________________________________________________ Luis Alberto Mansilla / COMETS WATCHERS Coordinator of Cometary Section
              Message 6 of 26 , Oct 28, 2012
                Web: http://cometas.liada.net
                ________________________________________________
                Luis Alberto Mansilla / COMETS WATCHERS
                Coordinator of Cometary Section of LIADA
                * The Iberoamerican Astronomical League *
                "54 Years ... Semper Observandum"
                Web: http://cometas.liada.net
                Reports: cometas.liada@...
                ________________________________________________

                -----Mensaje original-----
                From: Rob
                Sent: Tuesday, October 23, 2012 9:01 PM
                To: comets-ml@yahoogroups.com
                Subject: [comets-ml] Re: UPDATE LIGHT VISUAL CURVE OF COMET C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS

                Liada has just released their light curve based on 95 observations. I got it via email and can't find the link on the Liada web site, sorry. They have a 'blue line' rather than a 'green line' and the blue line about which the observations cluster leads nicely to mag -2, just as nicely as the posted light curve leads to mag -4. So who's right LOL?

                Cheers -

                Rob Kaufman



                --- In comets-ml@yahoogroups.com, dfischer@... wrote:
                >
                > > Updating the light visual curve of the comet C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS
                >
                > The green model
                > http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-RzViYgqS8ls/UIaMv4KXdTI/AAAAAAAAAD8/bGvCI8ymd5s/s1600/2011l4.jpg
                > that fits the present data so well is truly intriguing as it peaks at -4
                > mag. Now I'd like to see statements of the kind
                >
                > "you cannot extrapolate along the green curve all the way to perihelion in
                > this specific case because [insert sound scientific argument here]" or
                >
                > "the green model is indeed the best guess we have for L4's future as
                > [insert previous cases of comets on similar orbits] also followed the
                > trend all the way in and L4 is comparable" -
                >
                > who volunteers? :-)
                >
                > Dan
                >




                ------------------------------------

                Comet Observations List: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/CometObs/
                Comet Images List: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Comet-Images/

                NOTICE: Material quoted or re-posted from the Comets Mailing List should be indicated by:

                Comets Mailing List [date]
                http://www.yahoogroups.com/group/comets-ml
                Yahoo! Groups Links




                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • cometas71
                Hi Rob , The visual light curve of cometas-LIADA begins in T-300 , and my light curve starts at T-350, some observations of cometas-liada contain ccd
                Message 7 of 26 , Oct 28, 2012
                  Hi Rob ,

                  The visual light curve of cometas-LIADA begins in T-300 , and my light curve starts at T-350, some observations of cometas-liada contain ccd magnitudes and mixing ccd-visual data , my curve light only contains unique visual magnitudes, my light curve contains 102 visual magnitudes versus 95 of the cometas_LIADA , i think that explanation difference between their results and mine in photometricals parameters ..

                  I calculated several future possible photometrics models of comet C/2011 L4 , varying n ( activity index ) , and thinking of a braking heliocentric brightness in the range 1.4 <r <1.6 and a high chance of a maximum magnitude range of 0 <max m1 < -1 for this comet , my personal analysis , in news comets from oort cloud have and including one variable braking factor's - n ( activity index ) , for this comet the preliminary analysis , the range calculated is 12 < n < 9 more info my personal blog here :

                  http://astrocometas.blogpsot.com


                  J.P.Navarro Pina

                  --- In comets-ml@yahoogroups.com, "Cometas LIADA" <cometas.liada@...> wrote:
                  >
                  > Web: http://cometas.liada.net
                  > ________________________________________________
                  > Luis Alberto Mansilla / COMETS WATCHERS
                  > Coordinator of Cometary Section of LIADA
                  > * The Iberoamerican Astronomical League *
                  > "54 Years ... Semper Observandum"
                  > Web: http://cometas.liada.net
                  > Reports: cometas.liada@...
                  > ________________________________________________
                  >
                  > -----Mensaje original-----
                  > From: Rob
                  > Sent: Tuesday, October 23, 2012 9:01 PM
                  > To: comets-ml@yahoogroups.com
                  > Subject: [comets-ml] Re: UPDATE LIGHT VISUAL CURVE OF COMET C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS
                  >
                  > Liada has just released their light curve based on 95 observations. I got it via email and can't find the link on the Liada web site, sorry. They have a 'blue line' rather than a 'green line' and the blue line about which the observations cluster leads nicely to mag -2, just as nicely as the posted light curve leads to mag -4. So who's right LOL?
                  >
                  > Cheers -
                  >
                  > Rob Kaufman
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > --- In comets-ml@yahoogroups.com, dfischer@ wrote:
                  > >
                  > > > Updating the light visual curve of the comet C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS
                  > >
                  > > The green model
                  > > http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-RzViYgqS8ls/UIaMv4KXdTI/AAAAAAAAAD8/bGvCI8ymd5s/s1600/2011l4.jpg
                  > > that fits the present data so well is truly intriguing as it peaks at -4
                  > > mag. Now I'd like to see statements of the kind
                  > >
                  > > "you cannot extrapolate along the green curve all the way to perihelion in
                  > > this specific case because [insert sound scientific argument here]" or
                  > >
                  > > "the green model is indeed the best guess we have for L4's future as
                  > > [insert previous cases of comets on similar orbits] also followed the
                  > > trend all the way in and L4 is comparable" -
                  > >
                  > > who volunteers? :-)
                  > >
                  > > Dan
                  > >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > ------------------------------------
                  >
                  > Comet Observations List: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/CometObs/
                  > Comet Images List: http://groups.yahoo.com/group/Comet-Images/
                  >
                  > NOTICE: Material quoted or re-posted from the Comets Mailing List should be indicated by:
                  >
                  > Comets Mailing List [date]
                  > http://www.yahoogroups.com/group/comets-ml
                  > Yahoo! Groups Links
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  >
                • martin mc kenna
                  Hi John Thanks very much for the information in such short notice, I look forward to reading any updated data you have on Panstarrs or ISON, especially in
                  Message 8 of 26 , Oct 30, 2012
                    Hi John

                    Thanks very much for the information in such short notice, I look forward to reading any updated data you have on Panstarrs or ISON, especially in relation to viewing opps in twilight and a dark sky with mag and tail length/structure ideas. Hopefully at least one of these comets will put on a show for us in the northern hemisphere as we are long overdue a decent naked eye comet apparition, I have a 50mm F/1.8 lens on my DSLR which has patiently been waiting for a bright comet with a decent dust tail!

                    Many thanks and be careful with Sandy!

                    Martin

                     
                    http://www.nightskyhunter.com/


                    ________________________________
                    From: "jbortle@..." <jbortle@...>
                    To: comets-ml@yahoogroups.com
                    Sent: Sunday, 28 October 2012, 13:56
                    Subject: Re: [comets-ml] Re: UPDATE LIGHT VISUAL CURVE OF COMET C/2011 L4 PANSTARRS


                     
                    In a message dated 10/26/2012 6:56:07 A.M. Eastern Daylight Time,
                    martinastro2003@... writes:

                    Hi John

                    Thanks very much for the latest update on your thoughts regarding
                    Panstarrs's appearance, I am eagerly waiting to observe and photograph this comet
                    in the days and weeks post perihelion with a flat ocean horizon and a very
                    dark sky so I hope that it may present us with something nice to catch on a
                    DSLR. You mentioned about the tail, I would love to hear your thoughts
                    regarding any interesting potential as far as tail length or structure is
                    concerned.

                    Thanks very much for your time

                    Martin McKenna
                    N. Ireland
                    Hello Martin,

                    I need to get this out rather hurriedly as tropical storm Sandy is rapidly
                    closing in on my area and past history indicates that I'll likely be
                    without power for the next several days and be out of the communications loop.

                    I currently have formed some fairly confident ideas concerning what the
                    general appearance and brightness of PANSTARRS will be, particularly as seen
                    with the unaided eye, next March and April. However, I would prefer to hold
                    off posting these in detail on the Internet until I see some more data from
                    my colleagues here regarding gas-to-dust ratios and the volume of dust
                    production relative to past comets, as PANSTARRS approaches r = 2.0 a.u. Once
                    I've had the opportunity to evaluate such information I'll be willing to
                    share a more detailed prediction, but for now see below.

                    Based on current information here is how I see PANSTARRS' appearance
                    shortly following T. As viewed from a dark sky site, I visualize its appearance
                    as largely a mirror image of Comet Bennett 1969Y1 (for those of us who can
                    recall that fine object) as it looked to the unaided eye in the early days
                    of April of 1970 from an equally good observing site. The main difference
                    I anticipate between the two displays will be that PANNSTARRS' head will be
                    set very low over the western horizon, as compared with Bennett's comet
                    having been much higher up in the east. This situation will cause Comet
                    PANSTARRS to "seem" somewhat less impressive, particularly as seen from
                    locations with any significant light pollution.

                    Incidentally, the January S&T will carry a brief initial article from me
                    prognosticating the likely development and appearance of Comet ISON during
                    the latter half of 2013.

                    J.Bortle

                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]




                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
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