Mt. Weather telecom article
- From Government Computer news
GCN February 8, 1999
Combining voice and data traffic is cost-efficient, FEMA says
Tests indicate carrying voice calls on data links saves money, may result
in ease of management
By William Jackson
The new compression technology is better than I had ever heard.
When the Federal Emergency Management Agency set up a field office in
Puerto Rico after Hurricane Georges, it saved up to $1,500 a day in
long-distance charges by piggybacking voice calls on its data links.
FEMA has been testing voice-over-data products for disaster field offices
in the Caribbean and the southern United States since the summer.
The whole experience is very promising,� said Bill Anderson, team leader in
the Development and Implementation Branch of FEMA�s Information Technology
Division. �The cost benefit is impressive.�
Other potential benefits are greater efficiency and ease of
management�important factors for setting up field offices within days in
Only a test
The field trials evaluated the Multiservice Concentrator 3810 from Cisco
Systems Inc. of San Jose, Calif.
�We happened to be testing it at the time,� said Timothy S. Ritter, chief
of the Disaster Response Branch in the Engineering Division of FEMA�s IT
Directorate. When Hurricane Bonnie hit the North Carolina coast, �Cisco let
us borrow some of the equipment for use in Raleigh.�
Later, the concentrators carried phone calls to and from Puerto Rico and
the U.S. Virgin Islands.
They also helped out during recent flooding in Texas.
FEMA is testing additional equipment from Northern Telecom Inc. and Lucent
Technologies Inc. of Murray Hill, N.J., but has made no decision on what to
adopt. �We need to have an acquisition plan together by the end of this
fiscal year,� Anderson said.
Management of FEMA�s voice and data networks is the job of the National
Network Operations Center at the Mount Weather Emergency Assistance Center,
housed at a former presidential retreat atop the Blue Ridge mountains of
The data network is a packet-based IP/IPX multivendor routed network.
FEMA�s Integrated Services Digital Network for voice has private branch
exchanges to do the switching.
After the divestiture of AT&T Corp., �we decided we would become our own
telephone company,� said Robert A. Morris, chief of national network
The switched voice network provides telephone communications to FEMA
facilities throughout the United States and its territories, but remote
disaster response sites must make long-distance connections to reach FEMA�s
Initial links for a disaster field office sometimes must go via satellite
if the local communications infrastructure has been damaged. FEMA maintains
two full-time T1 connections on the Telstar 401 satellite.
Satellite links give way to more efficient terrestrial lines. Modern
telecommunications systems have reduced the need for satellite hookups,
When disaster field offices need more permanent connections, FEMA extends
the LAN from Mount Weather to an asynchronous transfer mode router at the
remote site via a T1 link. Telephone connections usually are established
over two T1 links from a PBX to the local central office.
�Anything going out over telephone is a long-distance call,� Ritter said.
�We have FTS 2000 as a primary choice, so we have reasonable rates.� But
calls to other FEMA offices still are toll calls.
Voice-compression technology is what makes it feasible for field offices to
use excess capacity on the data lines to carry voice calls toll-free and
possibly eliminate one of the T1 voice lines.
A voice compression box ties the local PBX to the router. The PBX gets its
dial tone from Mount Weather. It directs local calls to the local central
office. Long-distance calls and calls within the FEMA network are switched
to the router for a free ride to Mount Weather.
Eight-to-one compression makes eight voice channels out of a single 64-Kbps
Digital Signal-0 channel, and the voice quality is good, Anderson said.
�That was one of the biggest surprises to me,� Anderson said. �The new
compression technology is better than I had ever heard. It sounds
equivalent to toll quality.�
Systems tested so far are not perfect, however. The compression cards do
not handle high-speed modem connections or fax traffic very well. �We have
to do a little more programming on our network to identify modem calls and
occasionally faxes,� he said.
But combining voice and data traffic is worth the effort, Anderson said.
By routing 715 hours of what otherwise would have been long-distance calls
from Puerto Rico over the ATM link, FEMA saved $9,445.
- Ref Albert's posting on voice iggybacked over data channels:
>FEMA has been testing voice-over-data products for disaster field officesThe economies achieved in the Caribbean may be deceptive. This is because
>in the Caribbean and the southern United States since the summer.
most Caribbean governments have entered into monopoly arrangements with
Telcos, notably Cable & Wireless, that would be contrary to US or
European law. The result is gross abuse of monopoly positions manifested
as sky-high long distance charges and action to disable alternative means
of communication. It is, for example, very hard to use calling cards in
most Caribbean destinations, and indeed in Bermuda. Local access numbers
are blocked as soon as they are covered.
Friends in the industry maintain that substantial kickbacks are paid to
local politicians to preserve and protect the monopoly. Commercial data
links are seen as a new mich-cow. The tragedy is that this attitude harms
their own economic development. It is deeply resented by the business
community in these island nations. Not surprisingly the uptake of
satphones and webphone useage has grown rapidly though steps have
sometimes been taken to discourage the latter.
Regrettably, much the same is true in the South Pacific, albeit with
greater justification, the cost of service provision to far flung
out0islands being much greater than in the Caribbean