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Re: Capstones & Ankle Braces was: tower foundations

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  • rjfrank1@ymail.com
    ... Another example of a tower foundation capping slab further illustrating Widebandit s comments can be found at Hartsville, SC. HTVLSCQ5000/Hartsville, SC
    Message 1 of 13 , Jan 10, 2013
      From Message #26534, Widebandit wrote:

      >
      > And - as I said earlier - once the additional foundation concrete is covered and tamped a reinforced capping slab about 10-ft square and anywhere from one to four-feet thick may be placed around each foundation pier. The cap provides additional mass to withstand up-thrust and also serves to hold the soil overburden in place. In some cases the tower baseplate may be completely encased in concrete; in other cases a well is left in the slab around the tower baseplate, and the well is filled with ballast rock - wa -
      >

      Another example of a tower foundation capping slab further illustrating Widebandit's comments can be found at Hartsville, SC.

      HTVLSCQ5000/Hartsville, SC
      435 Ashland Road
      Hartsville, SC 29550
      34°21'15.38"N, 80°12'1.21"W

      I visited this tower mid-December last year and was struck by the dimensions of the concrete slabs at the tower foundations as well as the somewhat unusual construction build of the facility building. Each tower foundation capping slab at the site had a well filled with ballast rock surrounding the tower legs. Google Street View imagery of the site clearly shows why such foundations are required, especially near the southwest tower foundation, due to the visible soil erosion. For size scale reference to the dimensions of the foundation capping slabs, compare the vehicle parked near the intersection of Ashland Rd & Microtower Rd with the tower foundations (Google Earth, 3/26/2012 imagery); the foundation slabs appear to be approximately 20-ft square. Also, there appears to be another set of tower foundation bases approximately 26-ft square located directly to the north-east of the site facility. I overlooked this feature when I was at the site location, was there an earlier tower in-service at the site prior to the existing tower?

      RJFrank


      --- In coldwarcomms@yahoogroups.com, "widebandit" wrote:
      >
      > Albert has two good examples on his website...
      >
      > Noyack New York - the mother of all capstones:
      >
      > Added by ATC engineers - Noyack is out on the eastern end of Long Island where the soil is very sandy - ATC was really hedging their bets here. The ATC tower drawing suggests there may be 60-yards of concrete in each block - this project really enhanced some ready-mix firm's bottom line...
      >
      > Garden City - ankle braces & wing angles:
      >
      > They usually appear together. In this case to reinforce the Type-A Delay Lens tower for an extension and additional side-mount horns...
      >
      > Garden City close-up:
      >
      > You can see how the wing-angles connect directly into the ankle braces.
      >
      > This photo shows the braces on the A/D face extending diagonally to each side:
      >
      > This may have been done because the leg is very close to the building - wa -
      >
    • n2msqrp
      AT&T began transatlantic telephone service in 1927:
      Message 2 of 13 , Jan 11, 2013
        AT&T began transatlantic telephone service in 1927:

        <http://www.edn.com/electronics-blogs/edn-moments/4404333/1st-transatlantic-telephone-service-is-established--January-7--1927>

        Would anyone know the details such as the equipment used and location of the stations? I assume it was via HF radio and they may have used Single Sideband (SSB). Was this event covered in the BSTJ?

        I know this predates the Cold War but there are many knowledgable AT&T people in this group who may be of assistance.

        Thanks in Advance,

        Mike St. Angelo
      • Kevin Anderson, K9IUA
        See BSTJ Vol 19, n. 16, starting with page 611 Radio Extension Links to the Telephone System And BSTJ Vol 21, n 1, starting with page 1 On the Future of
        Message 3 of 13 , Jan 11, 2013
          See BSTJ Vol 19, n. 16, starting with page 611
          "Radio Extension Links to the Telephone System"

          And BSTJ Vol 21, n 1, starting with page 1
          "On the Future of Transoceanic Telephony"

          Kevin Anderson

          --- In coldwarcomms@yahoogroups.com, mstangelo@... wrote:
          >
          > AT&T began transatlantic telephone service in 1927:
          >
          >
          >
          > Would anyone know the details such as the equipment used and location of the stations? I assume it was via HF radio and they may have used Single Sideband (SSB). Was this event covered in the BSTJ?
          >
          > I know this predates the Cold War but there are many knowledgable AT&T people in this group who may be of assistance.
          >
          > Thanks in Advance,
          >
          > Mike St. Angelo
          >
        • n2msqrp
          Thanks! Mike St. Angelo ... From: Kevin Anderson, K9IUA To: coldwarcomms@yahoogroups.com Sent: Fri, 11 Jan 2013 16:38:35 -0000 (UTC) Subject:
          Message 4 of 13 , Jan 11, 2013
            Thanks!

            Mike St. Angelo
            ----- Original Message -----
            From: Kevin Anderson, K9IUA <k9iua@...>
            To: coldwarcomms@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Fri, 11 Jan 2013 16:38:35 -0000 (UTC)
            Subject: [coldwarcomms] Re: AT&T Transatlantic Telephone Service

            See BSTJ Vol 19, n. 16, starting with page 611
            "Radio Extension Links to the Telephone System"

            And BSTJ Vol 21, n 1, starting with page 1
            "On the Future of Transoceanic Telephony"

            Kevin Anderson

            --- In coldwarcomms@yahoogroups.com, mstangelo@... wrote:
            >
            > AT&T began transatlantic telephone service in 1927:
            >
            >
            >
            > Would anyone know the details such as the equipment used and location of the stations? I assume it was via HF radio and they may have used Single Sideband (SSB). Was this event covered in the BSTJ?
            >
            > I know this predates the Cold War but there are many knowledgable AT&T people in this group who may be of assistance.
            >
            > Thanks in Advance,
            >
            > Mike St. Angelo
            >
          • Kevin Anderson, K9IUA
            I sent an update, but apparently it didn t go through: The correct issue number for the first article is number 4. Kevin Anderson
            Message 5 of 13 , Jan 11, 2013
              I sent an update, but apparently it didn't go through: The correct issue number for the first article is number 4.

              Kevin Anderson

              --- In coldwarcomms@yahoogroups.com, mstangelo@... wrote:
              >
              > Thanks!
              >
              > Mike St. Angelo
              > ----- Original Message -----
              > From: Kevin Anderson, K9IUA
              > To: coldwarcomms@yahoogroups.com
              > Sent: Fri, 11 Jan 2013 16:38:35 -0000 (UTC)
              > Subject: [coldwarcomms] Re: AT&T Transatlantic Telephone Service
              >
              > See BSTJ Vol 19, n. 16, starting with page 611
              > "Radio Extension Links to the Telephone System"
              >
              > And BSTJ Vol 21, n 1, starting with page 1
              > "On the Future of Transoceanic Telephony"
              >
              > Kevin Anderson
              >
              > --- In coldwarcomms@yahoogroups.com, mstangelo@ wrote:
              > >
              > > AT&T began transatlantic telephone service in 1927:
              > >
              > >
              > >
              > > Would anyone know the details such as the equipment used and location of the stations? I assume it was via HF radio and they may have used Single Sideband (SSB). Was this event covered in the BSTJ?
              > >
              > > I know this predates the Cold War but there are many knowledgable AT&T people in this group who may be of assistance.
              > >
              > > Thanks in Advance,
              > >
              > > Mike St. Angelo
              > >
              >
            • n2msqrp
              Kevin, I did a searach on the title and found it. Mike ... From: Kevin Anderson, K9IUA To: coldwarcomms@yahoogroups.com Sent: Fri, 11 Jan
              Message 6 of 13 , Jan 11, 2013
                Kevin,

                I did a searach on the title and found it.

                Mike
                ----- Original Message -----
                From: Kevin Anderson, K9IUA <k9iua@...>
                To: coldwarcomms@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Fri, 11 Jan 2013 17:50:58 -0000 (UTC)
                Subject: [coldwarcomms] Re: AT&T Transatlantic Telephone Service

                I sent an update, but apparently it didn't go through: The correct issue number for the first article is number 4.

                Kevin Anderson

                --- In coldwarcomms@yahoogroups.com, mstangelo@... wrote:
                >
                > Thanks!
                >
                > Mike St. Angelo
                > ----- Original Message -----
                > From: Kevin Anderson, K9IUA
                > To: coldwarcomms@yahoogroups.com
                > Sent: Fri, 11 Jan 2013 16:38:35 -0000 (UTC)
                > Subject: [coldwarcomms] Re: AT&T Transatlantic Telephone Service
                >
                > See BSTJ Vol 19, n. 16, starting with page 611
                > "Radio Extension Links to the Telephone System"
                >
                > And BSTJ Vol 21, n 1, starting with page 1
                > "On the Future of Transoceanic Telephony"
                >
                > Kevin Anderson
                >
              • widebandit
                How about Chapin SC: 212 6 H-Tower with two side-platforms added later at the 75 level. This required wing angles up to the
                Message 7 of 13 , Jan 12, 2013
                  How about Chapin SC:
                  <http://tinyurl.com/ChpnSC88678>
                  212'6" H-Tower with two side-platforms added later at the 75' level. This required wing angles up to the side platforms, ankle braces, capstones. Check out the tower baseplate photos - the 4" drainage tubes for the base-plate wells are a nice touch. The leg bolts that look like rivet heads are called structural rib-bolts; they have a ribbed shank that makes an interference fit in the hole, resulting in a much stronger joint. SRBs are secured with Anco self-locking nuts...
                  - wa -
                  >
                  > Another example of a tower foundation capping slab further illustrating Widebandit's comments can be found at Hartsville, SC.
                  >
                  > HTVLSCQ5000/Hartsville, SC
                  > 435 Ashland Road
                  > Hartsville, SC 29550
                  > 34°21'15.38"N, 80°12'1.21"W
                  >
                  > I visited this tower mid-December last year and was struck by the dimensions of the concrete slabs at the tower foundations as well as the somewhat unusual construction build of the facility building. Each tower foundation capping slab at the site had a well filled with ballast rock surrounding the tower legs. Google Street View imagery of the site clearly shows why such foundations are required, especially near the southwest tower foundation, due to the visible soil erosion. For size scale reference to the dimensions of the foundation capping slabs, compare the vehicle parked near the intersection of Ashland Rd & Microtower Rd with the tower foundations (Google Earth, 3/26/2012 imagery); the foundation slabs appear to be approximately 20-ft square. Also, there appears to be another set of tower foundation bases approximately 26-ft square located directly to the north-east of the site facility. I overlooked this feature when I was at the site location, was there an earlier tower in-service at the site prior to the existing tower?
                  >
                  > RJFrank
                  >
                  >
                  > --- In coldwarcomms@yahoogroups.com, "widebandit" wrote:
                  > >
                  > > Albert has two good examples on his website...
                  > >
                  > > Noyack New York - the mother of all capstones:
                  > >
                  > > Added by ATC engineers - Noyack is out on the eastern end of Long Island where the soil is very sandy - ATC was really hedging their bets here. The ATC tower drawing suggests there may be 60-yards of concrete in each block - this project really enhanced some ready-mix firm's bottom line...
                  > >
                  > > Garden City - ankle braces & wing angles:
                  > >
                  > > They usually appear together. In this case to reinforce the Type-A Delay Lens tower for an extension and additional side-mount horns...
                  > >
                  > > Garden City close-up:
                  > >
                  > > You can see how the wing-angles connect directly into the ankle braces.
                  > >
                  > > This photo shows the braces on the A/D face extending diagonally to each side:
                  > >
                  > > This may have been done because the leg is very close to the building - wa -
                  > >
                  >
                • David
                  ... 4th of 5 Tower Base Plate shots. So the new square donut pours sit atop an existing plate, somewhere below grade? And the 45
                  Message 8 of 13 , Jan 12, 2013
                    On 1/12/13 11:24 PM, widebandit wrote:

                    > How about Chapin SC:
                    > <http://tinyurl.com/ChpnSC88678>

                    >

                    > 212'6" H-Tower with two side-platforms added later at the 75' level.
                    > This required wing angles up to the side platforms, ankle braces,
                    > capstones. Check out the tower baseplate photos - the 4" drainage tubes
                    > for the base-plate wells are a nice touch. The leg bolts that look like
                    > rivet heads are called structural rib-bolts; they have a ribbed shank
                    > that makes an interference fit in the hole, resulting in a much stronger
                    > joint. SRBs are secured with Anco self-locking nuts...


                    <http://bit.ly/W1o2pX> 4th of 5 "Tower Base Plate" shots.

                    So the new square donut pours sit atop an existing plate, somewhere below
                    grade? And the 45 degree braces go through dirt between the old base column
                    and the new donut...

                    BTW, how far down would the vertical studs do, and what was attached along
                    the way, inside the original column pour?
                  • David
                    I m now thinking Long-Lines radio relay and L4/L5 were secretly schemes created by the US cement lobby & the structural steel cartel...
                    Message 9 of 13 , Jan 12, 2013
                      I'm now thinking Long-Lines radio relay and L4/L5 were secretly schemes
                      created by the US cement lobby & the structural steel cartel...
                    • Dexter McIntyre W4DEX
                      ... Hartsville was added to my list of sites to maintain in 1991. All equipment was still in place but just about all service had been rerouted. I don t know
                      Message 10 of 13 , Jan 13, 2013
                        rjfrank1@... wrote:
                        >
                        >
                        >
                        > Another example of a tower foundation capping slab further
                        > illustrating Widebandit's comments can be found at Hartsville, SC.
                        > was there an earlier tower in-service at the site prior to the
                        > existing tower?
                        >
                        Hartsville was added to my list of sites to maintain in 1991. All
                        equipment was still in place but just about all service had been
                        rerouted. I don't know the history of this site but I suspect it was
                        once considered a maintenance center due to all the file cabinets and
                        office furniture that was in the front of the building. Seems like the
                        front part may have been added because there was a masonry wall
                        separating the office area from the radio room. I suspect the original
                        tower was built in the early 50's and was replaced with the existing one
                        about mid 60's. Everyone I knew that would know the station's history
                        is now gone.

                        Hartsville was was my first encounter with fire ants. Many thing I have
                        forgot but that experience is in permanent memory.

                        Dex
                      • widebandit
                        ... The term tower base plate refers to the steel weldment in the form of a reinforced leg stub attached to an approximately 10 square by 2 thick steel
                        Message 11 of 13 , Jan 14, 2013
                          > > How about Chapin SC:
                          > > 212'6" H-Tower with two side-platforms added later at the 75' level.
                          > > This required wing angles up to the side platforms, ankle braces,
                          > > capstones. Check out the tower baseplate photos - the 4" drainage tubes
                          > > for the base-plate wells are a nice touch. The leg bolts that look like
                          > > rivet heads are called structural rib-bolts; they have a ribbed shank
                          > > that makes an interference fit in the hole, resulting in a much stronger
                          > > joint. SRBs are secured with Anco self-locking nuts...
                          >
                          >
                          > 4th of 5 "Tower Base Plate" shots.
                          >
                          The term 'tower base plate' refers to the steel weldment in the form of a reinforced leg stub attached to an approximately 10" square by 2" thick steel plate that is secured to the anchor bolts forming the base of each tower leg. All vertical dimensions associated with the tower are referenced to the top of the base-plates - top of TBP.

                          So far as I know, the cap-slab is simply poured into a form on top of the ground. Close examination of the Chapin cap-slab photos reveals where stress caused by the foundation pier and settlement of the replaced overburden has created spall fractures inside the wells.
                          >
                          > So the new square donut pours sit atop an existing plate, somewhere below
                          > grade? And the 45 degree braces go through dirt between the old base column
                          >
                          Most L-L tower foundations are of the pier-and-pad variety - a tapered reinforced pier about 3' square at the top protruding from a much larger 'pad' anywhere from ten to twelve-feet square, about four feet thick, and resting somewhere between six and twelve feet below finish grade. Sometimes, in soft soil conditions, the pads are also anchored to pilings. There are also cases where soil conditions near the surface required most of the concrete to be above finish grade. At Madison Florida, you get to see naked tower foundations in all their glory: http://tinyurl.com/MdsnFl-ATC88449

                          When excavating the foundation holes, the contractor was required to stop at precisely the required depth. He was not allowed to use any replacement fill - which is subject to settling - to 'adjust' the depth of excavation. If he excavated too deep - he was required to make the pad that much thicker and eat the cost of additional labor and material. Obviously, a savy contractor will take this into account when bidding a foundation job - and dig very carefully.

                          When a tower required additional leg support, a new excavation was made for addtiional blocks of reinforced concrete - usually outboard of the existing pads. The 45-degree brace angles terminate into an anchor plate encased in the center of the new concrete blocks - the same rules applied to depth of excavation for the new blocks as applied to the original foundation pads.

                          Needless to say, since the contractor was now removing overburden from a foundation supporting an existing tower, he had to be very careful not to place the structure at risk of overturning. The usual procedure was to prepare the forms, the rebar, and the steel beforehand, attach the bracing gussets to the tower leg, dig the hole, place the forms the rebar and the structural steel; then pour the concrete; all within a single 24-hour period. Then he had to get everything covered and properly compacted again as soon as the new mud had cured to its minimum yield strength. This procedure was done one-leg at a time - one block at a time.
                          >
                          > and the new donut...
                          >
                          > BTW, how far down would the vertical studs do, and what was attached along
                          > the way, inside the original column pour?
                          >
                          Tower anchor bolts were usually an L-shaped assembly separate from the foundation rebar and long enough to reach down into the center of mass of the pad block. The foundation forms and rebar were usually placed first then the anchor bolts - which were usually held in precise relative alignment by a template - were set and precisely located with respect to the other tower legs:
                          http://www.normantower.com/tower_erection.php
                          Once the pour began the concrete crew had to be very careful not to disturb the anchor bolt settings. I know of one L-L tower where two of the baseplates show evidence of heavy sledge-hammer blows - presumably to 'adjust' an improperly placed anchor bolt set.

                          When the piers were sufficiently cured for construction, the tower base-plates were secured to the anchor bolts with nuts both above and below the plate, but not directly against the concrete. There was an adjustment gap allowing final leveling of the base-plates to insure the tower started up plumb. Once the plates were leveled and the nuts were tightened, a layer of grout was forced into the gap to make a firm bond with the pier surface. Tower erection could now commence.

                          Are you ready for your contractor's license? - wa -
                        • David
                          ... I assume that if the tower is on bedrock itself, all the rules change. You put anchors into it, and little cement is needed... True?
                          Message 12 of 13 , Jan 14, 2013
                            On 1/14/13 3:05 AM, widebandit wrote:

                            > Most L-L tower foundations are of the pier-and-pad variety - a tapered
                            > reinforced pier about 3' square at the top protruding from a much larger
                            > 'pad' anywhere from ten to twelve-feet square, about four feet thick,
                            > and resting somewhere between six and twelve feet below finish grade.
                            > Sometimes, in soft soil conditions, the pads are also anchored to
                            > pilings. There are also cases where soil conditions near the surface
                            > required most of the concrete to be above finish grade. At Madison
                            > Florida, you get to see naked tower foundations in all their
                            > glory:http://tinyurl.com/MdsnFl-ATC88449



                            I assume that if the tower is on bedrock itself, all the rules change.
                            You put anchors into it, and little cement is needed...

                            True?
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