Loading ...
Sorry, an error occurred while loading the content.

Relocation Arc

Expand Messages
  • CBright10@aol.com
    List members may be interested in this recent post on H-DIPLO, an email discussion list for historians of American foreign policy. The original query was
    Message 1 of 10 , Nov 27, 2001
    • 0 Attachment
      List members may be interested in this recent post on H-DIPLO, an email
      discussion list for historians of American foreign policy. The original
      query was about Cold War relocation plans:

      Christopher Bright
      CBright10@...



      The origins of the COG (Continuity of Government) program can be traced
      back to the late 1940s. Although the Federal Relocation Arc (FRA), most
      notably Raven Rock (Pentagon Command Post near Fort Ritchie) and High
      Point (aka Mount Weather) represent the most advanced stages of the COG
      program, most of the FRA was (and may still be) existing government
      buildings and college campuses located in a 300 mile radius from DC,
      bascially stretching from NC to PA.

      The National Security Resources Board, under its first director Arthur
      Hill, took up the problem of security for Washington DC in spring 1948,
      after the brief "war scare" in Feb.-March. An interdepartmental staff
      group composed mostly of Defense, Bureau of Budget, NSRB and General
      Services Administration staffers produced report after report, most of
      them preliminary ideas and considerations, during 1948-50. The initial
      emphasis was not on emergency relocation, however, it was on dispersal,
      meaning the permanent relocation of government buildings and campuses at
      least 5 (later 10-15) miles from the zero milestone marker in Washington
      (located right by the White House). Basically planners drew circles on
      regional maps of DC and looked for suitable ares on which to build these
      campuses. The basic premise, of course, was that scattering of federal
      offices not only scattered the target, but also increased the likelihood
      the federal government could resume, hopefully, some operations after a
      nuclear attack on Washington.

      In August 1950, a reluctant Truman was persuaded to ask Congress for
      sufficient funds to carry out a four site dispersal plan for government
      buildings. Expenditures for the war in Korea pushed the plan to the
      wayside; moreover, legislators were loathe to give the impression to
      voters they were spending money to protect themselves and bureaucrats
      while asking voters to send their sons to Korea. (One Senator even
      proclaimed on the floor of Congress that 'we're just as expendable as the
      boys in Korea.') Thus long-range security for the nation's capital in
      case of future, in the form of dispersal, foundered during a real war.

      One of the ideas within those early plans (1948-50) included that of a
      CPS (Central Protected Space) that would provide shelter for 5000 key
      personnel, from the President on down but only within the executive
      branch). Initially it was thought such a space could be built in DC; that
      was infeasible, and attention turned to the Blue Ridge Mountains. High
      Point is the product of this search for a CPS. High Point was an old
      Bureau of Mines site where explosives testing had been carried out for
      years. High Point was not operable until 1954; Raven Rock was built a few
      years earlier. (The best account of High Point can be found in Ted Gup's
      articles in Time magazine, published in 1991 and 1992)

      The individual primarily responsible for the full development of High
      Point, the FRA, and the use of yearly tests to assess readiness and speed
      of relocation, was Eisenhower. Cabinet minutes at the Eisenhower Library
      reveal that the President, based on his military experience, believed
      such preparations were useless unless they were frequently
      tested. Eisenhower's interest was keen enough that at one point he gave
      detailed instructions on how to camoflauge the exterior features of High
      Point (communications towers, mostly) after flying over the site and
      seeing it stick out like a sore thumb.

      During the 1950s, Operation Alerts (OPALs) tests of the FRA were so
      well-developed that secretive bus routes ferried designated relocation
      cadres (workers with pre-set orders to evacuate DC when alerts
      received) to their respective sites. Deep with High Point, Cabinet
      secretaries (on occasion--not always) oversaw elaborate scenario
      exercises whereby nationwide casualties after a nuclear war were
      calculated, resources measured, fallout estimated. Under Eisenhower, the
      EADs (Emergency Action Documents) system was perfected, whereby the
      President's naval aide or another close aide carried a packet of orders
      to create post-attack emergency federal agencies and deliver
      proclamations to the public. Eisenhower even had Arthur Godfrey record a
      televised message that could be broadcast--the idea was that a familar
      celebrity would help reduce panic among survivors.

      One last note: dispersal as a strategy was revived late in the Eisenhower
      administration, but it was none other than the military that rejected
      plans to disperse its offices. Too much of an inconvenience, the report
      said.


      David Krugler
      University of Wisconsin-Platteville
    • David Lesher
      ... And that was how the Agency came to be in Langely.... {but they had, & still have, buildings far closer in...} -- A host is a host from coast to
      Message 2 of 10 , Nov 27, 2001
      • 0 Attachment
        Unnamed Administration sources reported that CBright10@... said:

        > meaning the permanent relocation of government buildings and campuses at
        > least 5 (later 10-15) miles from the zero milestone marker in Washington
        > (located right by the White House).

        And that was how the Agency came to be in Langely....
        {but they had, & still have, buildings far closer in...}


        --
        A host is a host from coast to coast.................wb8foz@...
        & no one will talk to a host that's close........[v].(301) 56-LINUX
        Unless the host (that isn't close).........................pob 1433
        is busy, hung or dead....................................20915-1433
      • ozob99@yahoo.com
        ... email ... original ... One of the sites rumored to be associated with a college campus was a womans college(at that time)in Va or Md but i cant recall the
        Message 3 of 10 , Dec 1, 2001
        • 0 Attachment
          --- In coldwarcomms@y..., CBright10@a... wrote:
          > List members may be interested in this recent post on H-DIPLO, an
          email
          > discussion list for historians of American foreign policy. The
          original
          > query was about Cold War relocation plans:
          >
          > Christopher Bright
          > CBright10@a...




          One of the sites rumored to be associated with a college campus was a
          womans college(at that time)in Va or Md but i cant recall the name i
          heard back then; anyone have any info?




          >
          >
          >
          > The origins of the COG (Continuity of Government) program can be
          traced
          > back to the late 1940s. Although the Federal Relocation Arc (FRA),
          most
          > notably Raven Rock (Pentagon Command Post near Fort Ritchie) and
          High
          > Point (aka Mount Weather) represent the most advanced stages of the
          COG
          > program, most of the FRA was (and may still be) existing government
          > buildings and college campuses located in a 300 mile radius from DC,
          > bascially stretching from NC to PA.
          >
          > The National Security Resources Board, under its first director
          Arthur
          > Hill, took up the problem of security for Washington DC in spring
          1948,
          > after the brief "war scare" in Feb.-March. An interdepartmental
          staff
          > group composed mostly of Defense, Bureau of Budget, NSRB and General
          > Services Administration staffers produced report after report, most
          of
          > them preliminary ideas and considerations, during 1948-50. The
          initial
          > emphasis was not on emergency relocation, however, it was on
          dispersal,
          > meaning the permanent relocation of government buildings and
          campuses at
          > least 5 (later 10-15) miles from the zero milestone marker in
          Washington
          > (located right by the White House). Basically planners drew circles
          on
          > regional maps of DC and looked for suitable ares on which to build
          these
          > campuses. The basic premise, of course, was that scattering of
          federal
          > offices not only scattered the target, but also increased the
          likelihood
          > the federal government could resume, hopefully, some operations
          after a
          > nuclear attack on Washington.
          >
          > In August 1950, a reluctant Truman was persuaded to ask Congress for
          > sufficient funds to carry out a four site dispersal plan for
          government
          > buildings. Expenditures for the war in Korea pushed the plan to the
          > wayside; moreover, legislators were loathe to give the impression to
          > voters they were spending money to protect themselves and
          bureaucrats
          > while asking voters to send their sons to Korea. (One Senator even
          > proclaimed on the floor of Congress that 'we're just as expendable
          as the
          > boys in Korea.') Thus long-range security for the nation's capital
          in
          > case of future, in the form of dispersal, foundered during a real
          war.
          >
          > One of the ideas within those early plans (1948-50) included that of
          a
          > CPS (Central Protected Space) that would provide shelter for 5000
          key
          > personnel, from the President on down but only within the executive
          > branch). Initially it was thought such a space could be built in DC;
          that
          > was infeasible, and attention turned to the Blue Ridge Mountains.
          High
          > Point is the product of this search for a CPS. High Point was an old
          > Bureau of Mines site where explosives testing had been carried out
          for
          > years. High Point was not operable until 1954; Raven Rock was built
          a few
          > years earlier. (The best account of High Point can be found in Ted
          Gup's
          > articles in Time magazine, published in 1991 and 1992)
          >
          > The individual primarily responsible for the full development of
          High
          > Point, the FRA, and the use of yearly tests to assess readiness and
          speed
          > of relocation, was Eisenhower. Cabinet minutes at the Eisenhower
          Library
          > reveal that the President, based on his military experience,
          believed
          > such preparations were useless unless they were frequently
          > tested. Eisenhower's interest was keen enough that at one point he
          gave
          > detailed instructions on how to camoflauge the exterior features of
          High
          > Point (communications towers, mostly) after flying over the site and
          > seeing it stick out like a sore thumb.
          >
          > During the 1950s, Operation Alerts (OPALs) tests of the FRA were so
          > well-developed that secretive bus routes ferried designated
          relocation
          > cadres (workers with pre-set orders to evacuate DC when alerts
          > received) to their respective sites. Deep with High Point, Cabinet
          > secretaries (on occasion--not always) oversaw elaborate scenario
          > exercises whereby nationwide casualties after a nuclear war were
          > calculated, resources measured, fallout estimated. Under Eisenhower,
          the
          > EADs (Emergency Action Documents) system was perfected, whereby the
          > President's naval aide or another close aide carried a packet of
          orders
          > to create post-attack emergency federal agencies and deliver
          > proclamations to the public. Eisenhower even had Arthur Godfrey
          record a
          > televised message that could be broadcast--the idea was that a
          familar
          > celebrity would help reduce panic among survivors.
          >
          > One last note: dispersal as a strategy was revived late in the
          Eisenhower
          > administration, but it was none other than the military that
          rejected
          > plans to disperse its offices. Too much of an inconvenience, the
          report
          > said.
          >
          >
          > David Krugler
          > University of Wisconsin-Platteville
        • David Lesher
          ... That may be the Western MD place that held the Censorship board. -- A host is a host from coast to coast.................wb8foz@nrk.com & no one will talk
          Message 4 of 10 , Dec 1, 2001
          • 0 Attachment
            Unnamed Administration sources reported that ozob99@... said:
            >
            > --- In coldwarcomms@y..., CBright10@a... wrote:
            > > List members may be interested in this recent post on H-DIPLO, an
            > email
            > > discussion list for historians of American foreign policy. The
            > original
            > > query was about Cold War relocation plans:
            > >
            > > Christopher Bright
            > > CBright10@a...
            >
            >
            >
            >
            > One of the sites rumored to be associated with a college campus was a
            > womans college(at that time)in Va or Md but i cant recall the name i
            > heard back then; anyone have any info?


            That may be the Western MD place that held the Censorship board.




            --
            A host is a host from coast to coast.................wb8foz@...
            & no one will talk to a host that's close........[v].(301) 56-LINUX
            Unless the host (that isn't close).........................pob 1433
            is busy, hung or dead....................................20915-1433
          • David Lesher
            There s a relay tower in Bryans Road MD. It s east of 227 aka Marshall Hall {1} north of the 227/Indian Head Highway [210] intersection. It s within spitting
            Message 5 of 10 , Dec 1, 2001
            • 0 Attachment
              There's a relay tower in Bryans Road MD. It's east of 227 aka
              Marshall Hall {1} north of the 227/Indian Head Highway [210]
              intersection. It's within spitting distance of the PG-Charles
              line. Mapsonus sez: {wag} -77.06856 38.63763

              That would be ~8 miles from Waldorf; 13 from Oxen Hill.

              Is this p/o CoG or The Other Guy's?

              BTW, there was another tower on the other side of 227; recently
              felled. Signs there say it was the Voice of America's; headed
              to their Greenville, North Carolina transmitter complex.



              {Note that every frigging road in the area is named Marshall
              Hall or Livingston; an in-joke with friends is to kidnap some
              millionaire and demand the ransom be left "At Livingston Road and
              Marshall Hall" as there have to be 7-8 such intersections...}

              --
              A host is a host from coast to coast.................wb8foz@...
              & no one will talk to a host that's close........[v].(301) 56-LINUX
              Unless the host (that isn't close).........................pob 1433
              is busy, hung or dead....................................20915-1433
            • albertjlafrance@cs.com
              If it s AT&T, that would be the station known as Pomonkey. It was the relay point between Washington No. 3 (in SW DC) and Faulkner. There s other interesting
              Message 6 of 10 , Dec 2, 2001
              • 0 Attachment
                If it's AT&T, that would be the station known as Pomonkey. It was the relay
                point between Washington No. 3 (in SW DC) and Faulkner.

                There's other interesting stuff in that area. About a mile south on 210 from
                the 210/227 intersection, Chapman's Landing Rd. branches off to the west.
                That road crosses the cleared right-of-way for the AT&T coax (now fiber)
                cable which crosses the Potomac and goes to Dranesville. A short distance
                N/W along the ROW there's an old coax repeater hut, right next to an
                abandoned water-pumping station.

                The VA end of the cable crossing is at Hallowing Point. I haven't seen the
                MD end, but it looks as though it should be around Chapman Landing.

                Also, if you go up 227 toward Marshall Hall, the last left will be River Rd.,
                which runs SW parallel to the river. At the dead end of this road,
                apparently in the back yard of a house, I saw a tower with an unusual
                "spikey" kind of antenna on top. I didn't check it out closely because the
                only access seemed to be through the home's driveway. I'm wondering if it
                might be associated with the DoD research facility in Woodbridge, VA.

                Albert

                In a message dated 12/1/2001 10:52:56 PM Eastern Standard Time,
                wb8foz@... writes:

                > There's a relay tower in Bryans Road MD. It's east of 227 aka
                > Marshall Hall {1} north of the 227/Indian Head Highway [210]
                > intersection. It's within spitting distance of the PG-Charles
                > line. Mapsonus sez: {wag} -77.06856 38.63763
                >
                > That would be ~8 miles from Waldorf; 13 from Oxen Hill.
                >
                > Is this p/o CoG or The Other Guy's?
                >
                > BTW, there was another tower on the other side of 227; recently
                > felled. Signs there say it was the Voice of America's; headed
                > to their Greenville, North Carolina transmitter complex.
                >
                >
                >
                > {Note that every frigging road in the area is named Marshall
                > Hall or Livingston; an in-joke with friends is to kidnap some
                > millionaire and demand the ransom be left "At Livingston Road and
                > Marshall Hall" as there have to be 7-8 such intersections...}
                >
              • David Lesher
                ... Pomonkey is about 12 miles SE of there, according to my friend. Sounds like this is not it. Some day we ll stop and copy down signs, etc from the tower. It
                Message 7 of 10 , Dec 9, 2001
                • 0 Attachment
                  Unnamed Administration sources reported that albertjlafrance@... said:
                  >
                  > If it's AT&T, that would be the station known as Pomonkey. It was the relay
                  > point between Washington No. 3 (in SW DC) and Faulkner.


                  Pomonkey is about 12 miles SE of there, according to my friend.
                  Sounds like this is not it.

                  Some day we'll stop and copy down signs, etc from the tower.
                  It does have horns, which was one factor in the "It's ATT's"
                  thoughts.



                  --
                  A host is a host from coast to coast.................wb8foz@...
                  & no one will talk to a host that's close........[v].(301) 56-LINUX
                  Unless the host (that isn't close).........................pob 1433
                  is busy, hung or dead....................................20915-1433
                • albertjlafrance@cs.com
                  Here s the American Tower web page for the site I visited, which was a former AT&T station with two pairs of horns:
                  Message 8 of 10 , Dec 12, 2001
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Here's the American Tower web page for the site I visited, which was a former
                    AT&T station with two pairs of horns:

                    http://atcdmziis03.americantower.com/OASISPublic/SitePublicPagesADO/SiteBrochu

                    re.asp?lngSiteID=559&lngTowerid=-1

                    It's at the end of a private road/driveway, shared with at least one house.
                    As I recall, the road had a name like "Momma's Place". There was a gate at
                    the entrance to the tower site.

                    The site is about 2.3 mi. NNE of what my map program identifies as Pomonkey:
                    the 224/227 intersection.

                    Albert

                    In a message dated 12/9/2001 1:47:55 PM Eastern Standard Time, wb8foz@...
                    writes:

                    > Pomonkey is about 12 miles SE of there, according to my friend.
                    > Sounds like this is not it.
                    >
                    > Some day we'll stop and copy down signs, etc from the tower.
                    > It does have horns, which was one factor in the "It's ATT's"
                    > thoughts.
                  • David Lesher
                    ... Yep, that s it. I may have misunderstood my friend; he s about 12 miles from Pomonkey (and ~10 from the tower). Where is/was the DC site it went to? -- A
                    Message 9 of 10 , Dec 12, 2001
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Unnamed Administration sources reported that albertjlafrance@... said:
                      >
                      > Here's the American Tower web page for the site I visited, which was a former
                      > AT&T station with two pairs of horns:
                      >
                      > http://atcdmziis03.americantower.com/OASISPublic/SitePublicPagesADO/SiteBrochu
                      >
                      > re.asp?lngSiteID=559&lngTowerid=-1
                      >
                      > It's at the end of a private road/driveway, shared with at least one house.
                      > As I recall, the road had a name like "Momma's Place". There was a gate at
                      > the entrance to the tower site.
                      >
                      > The site is about 2.3 mi. NNE of what my map program identifies as Pomonkey:
                      > the 224/227 intersection.


                      Yep, that's it.

                      I may have misunderstood my friend; he's about 12 miles from
                      Pomonkey (and ~10 from the tower).

                      Where is/was the DC site it went to?




                      --
                      A host is a host from coast to coast.................wb8foz@...
                      & no one will talk to a host that's close........[v].(301) 56-LINUX
                      Unless the host (that isn't close).........................pob 1433
                      is busy, hung or dead....................................20915-1433
                    • albertjlafrance@cs.com
                      Pomonkey s northern destination was the Washington No. 3 Long Lines office, at 30 E St. SW, Washington, DC. That office also had a microwave link to Waldorf
                      Message 10 of 10 , Dec 17, 2001
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Pomonkey's northern destination was the "Washington No. 3" Long Lines office,
                        at 30 E St. SW, Washington, DC. That office also had a microwave link to
                        Waldorf (via a relay at North Barnaby) and a coaxial-cable route to
                        Dranesville.

                        Albert

                        In a message dated 12/12/2001 7:01:17 PM Eastern Standard Time,
                        wb8foz@... writes:

                        > Where is/was the DC site it went to?
                      Your message has been successfully submitted and would be delivered to recipients shortly.