- April 22, 2006 New York Times
A Break for Code Breakers on a C.I.A. Mystery
By KENNETH CHANG
For nearly 16 years, puzzle enthusiasts have labored to decipher an
865-character coded message stenciled into a sculpture on the grounds
of the Central Intelligence Agency's headquarters in Langley, Va. This
week, the sculptor gave them an unsettling but hopeful surprise: part
of the message they thought they had deciphered years ago actually says
The sculpture, titled "Kryptos," the Greek word for "hidden," includes
an undulating sheet of copper with a message devised by the sculptor,
Jim Sanborn, and Edward M. Scheidt, a retired chairman of the C.I.A.'s
The message is broken into four sections, and in 1999, a computer
programmer named Jim Gillogly announced he had figured out the first
three, which include poetic ramblings by the sculptor and an account of
the opening of King Tut's tomb. The C.I.A. then announced that one of
its physicists, David Stein, had also deciphered the first three
sections a year earlier.
On Wednesday afternoon, Mr. Sanborn left a phone message for Elonka
Dunin, a computer game developer who also runs an e-mail list for
enthusiasts trying to solve the "Kryptos" puzzle. For the first time,
Mr. Sanborn had done a line-by-line analysis of his text with what Mr.
Gillogly and Mr. Stein had offered as the solution and discovered that
part of the solved text was incorrect.
Within minutes, Ms. Dunin called back, and Mr. Sanborn told her that in
the second section, one of the X's he had used as a separator between
sentences had been omitted, altering the solution. "He was concerned
that it had been widely published incorrectly," Ms. Dunin said.
Mr. Sanborn's admission was first reported Thursday by Wired News.
Ms. Dunin excitedly started sending instant messages online to Chris
Hanson, the co-moderator of the "Kryptos" e-mail group. Within an hour,
Ms. Dunin figured out what was wrong. The last eight characters of the
second section, which describes something possibly hidden on C.I.A.
grounds, had been decoded as "IDBYROWS" which people read as "I.D. by
rows" or "I.D. by Row S."
In an interview yesterday, Mr. Sanborn said he had never meant that at
all. To give himself flexibility as he carved the letters into the
copper sheet, he had marked certain letters that could be left out. In
the second passage, he left out an X separator before these eight
"It was purely an act of aesthetics on my part," he said.
He said he expected that the encryption method, which relies on the
position of the letters, would transform that part of the message into
gibberish, and that the solvers would know to go back and reinsert the
missing separator. But "remarkably, when you used the same system, it
said something that was intelligible," Mr. Sanborn said. He decided to
let the code breakers know about the error because "they weren't
getting the whole story," he said.
When Ms. Dunin reinserted the X, the eight characters became
"LAYERTWO." She called Mr. Sanborn again, who confirmed that was the
intended message. "It's a surprise, and it's exciting," Ms. Dunin said.
That is the first real progress on "Kryptos" in more than six years.
Now to figure out what it means.
In an e-mail interview, Mr. Gillogly said that the corrected text,
"layer two," is "intriguing but scarcely definitive." He added, "Like
much of the sculpture, it can be taken in many ways." Mr. Gillogly, who
has not worked much on the puzzle in recent years, said he would go
back to see if the answer was now apparent.
One possibility is that "layer two" is the crucial key for solving the
rest of the puzzle. Or it could be a hint that the letters need to be
layered atop one another. Mr. Sanborn and Mr. Scheidt have said that
even when all of the text is unraveled, other puzzles will remain in
"This new discovery could possibly make it easier to crack and possibly
not make it easier to crack," Mr. Sanborn offered unhelpfully. "It may
be a dead-end diversion I like to send people on, a primrose lane to
Mr. Scheidt said it had taken only three or four months to devise a
puzzle that has lasted nearly 16 years, adding that only he, Mr.
Sanborn and "probably someone at C.I.A." know the answer.
For everyone else, the remaining 97 letters of the fourth section
remain baffling (the slashes indicate line breaks):
- This is a great illustration of how not knowing what the plaintext should look like can make
cryptanalysis a lot more difficult.
----- Original Message -----
Sent: Saturday, April 22, 2006 9:49 PM
Subject: [coldwarcomms] Kryptos
> April 22, 2006 New York Times
> A Break for Code Breakers on a C.I.A. Mystery
> By KENNETH CHANG
> For nearly 16 years, puzzle enthusiasts have labored to decipher an
> 865-character coded message stenciled into a sculpture on the grounds
> of the Central Intelligence Agency's headquarters in Langley, Va. This
> week, the sculptor gave them an unsettling but hopeful surprise: part
> of the message they thought they had deciphered years ago actually says
> something else.