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Re: [code-switching] re: 'Biracial'

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  • Dan Villa
    Another anecdote: in the southern part of New Mexico where I live, most Spanish speakers are dark complected-- I am not. In any number of instances I ve been
    Message 1 of 19 , Feb 15, 2002
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      Another anecdote: in the southern part of New Mexico where I live, most
      Spanish speakers are dark complected-- I am not. In any number of
      instances I've been in line in the grocery store with my sons, who are
      very fair. I speak only Spanish with them, and as often happens they want
      a last minute treat, so I'm carrying on (in Spanish)"No, no, put that
      back, no I won't buy it for you it'll rot your teeth, you can have an
      apple when you get home etc. etc." and the checker and bagger will look at
      me with astonishment and ask "es ud. mexicano?" (are you Mexican?) to
      which I reply "pos si que otra cosa voy a ser" (sure, what else would I
      be?) There is always a moment of disconnect, and then invariably one or
      the other will say "oh, I have a
      cousin/uncle/father/brother/brother-in-law/ that looks just like you!" I
      should add here that I speak a local variety of Spanish, which is
      evidently being keyed on. I also drive a 1947 Chevy pickup, a popular
      "fixer-upper" around here. Invariably, people who ask me what year it is,
      if I have an extra fender, bumper, door, whatever, will address me in
      Spanish, or codeswitch between Spanish and English, without asking me
      first if I know Spanish. Anybody know of any studies on the relationship
      between ethnic identity and pickup trucks?

      Daniel

      On Fri, 15 Feb 2002, Harold F. Schiffman wrote:

      > Tim et al.,
      >
      > The more I think about this topic, the more it seems to me that visual
      > cues are often involved in code-switching, and visual cues that involve
      >
      > (a) what people look like, and
      > (b) what some society thinks people ought to look like in order to
      > understand/use/function in a particular linguistic code
      >
      > are certainly involved in code switching.
      >
      > Example: when I am in India, and try to speak Tamil to people there, I
      > often get the following reactions:
      >
      > a. people refuse to believe I am speaking Tamil and answer in
      > English, often asking for clarification.
      >
      > b. people recognize that I am speaking Tamil, but burst out
      > laughing, and answer in English with words like "Oh, do you speak
      > Tamil?"
      >
      > c. people recognize that I am speaking Tamil but then want to
      > discuss how, where, why etc. I learned it
      >
      > d. people react angrily, saying things like "do you think I don't
      > know English?! I am an educated person!"
      >
      > When I speak Tamil on the telephone to strangers, e.g. to make a
      > reservation for a train or other travel, I get no reactions: no questions
      > about who I am or why I am speaking Tamil. Then when I go to the travel
      > agency to get the tickets, there is disbelief, lack of comprehension. Or,
      > in one case, the same person who spoke Tamil on the phone then informed me
      > that he was a Telugu speaker, and didn't want to speak Tamil with me. I
      > mollified him by babbling a few words of Telugu. (Madras has, by some
      > counts, a population of perhaps 40% Telugu speakers.)
      >
      > The visual cues here are paramount, and I'm told this happens in Japan as
      > well. The only people who don't give me a hard time are monolinguals. I
      > should also note that in Singapore, where I would expect people to have
      > even *less* expectation that a white foreigner would speak Tamil, I never
      > get any flak. People just answer in Tamil, no problem. In Malaysia,
      > however, when I spoke Tamil to an immigration agent at the airport, she
      > replied (in English) "You sound just like my Granny!" I guess that means
      > sort of old-fashioned.
      >
      > Sometimes, therefore, if the encounter is going to be short and I don't
      > feel like telling my life story, I just avoid speaking Tamil and use
      > English instead.
      >
      > Hal Schiffman
      >
      >
      >
      >
      > On Fri, 15 Feb 2002, Tim Greer wrote:
      >
      > > Thanks Martina,
      > >
      > > I would hope that my topic is of relevance to the growing number of
      > > international families, as well as for those of us who work and live on
      > > (increasingly common)intercultural borders.
      > >
      > > Certainly, apart from Rampton's work, there have been a number of articles
      > > recently looking at the link between 'race' (and/or ethnicity) and
      > > codeswitching including those below by Bailey and Lo.
      > >
      > > Bailey, B. (2000a). Social/interactional functions of code switching among
      > > Dominican Americans. Pragmatics, 10(2), 165-193.
      > >
      > > Bailey, B. (2000b). Language and negotiation of ethnic/racial identity among
      > > Dominican Americans. Language in Society, 29(4), 555-582.
      > >
      > > Bailey, B. (2001). The Language of Multiple Identities among Dominican
      > > Americans. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 10(2), 190-223.
      > >
      > > Lo, A. (1999). Codeswitching, speech community membership, and the
      > > construction of ethnic identity. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(4),
      > > 461-479.
      > >
      > > If anybody can recommend any similar "required reading" for this subject,
      > > I'd be very glad to hear them.
      > >
      > > However, personally I joined this list to learn more about Conversational
      > > Analytic approaches to CS, so I am hoping to hear more discussion of that
      > > aspect of my dissertation in future posts. Please remember that I am just
      > > starting out on my thesis so I really have far more questions than answers
      > > at this stage.
      > >
      > > Tim
      > >
      > > ----- Original Message -----
      > > From: "Martina" <lutzmartina_@...>
      > >
      > >
      > > > Tim,
      > > > I found your explanations very interesting and totally appropriate for
      > > this discussion group. Please keep us up-to-date with your findings.
      > > > Martina
      > > > ----- Original Message -----
      > > > From: Jan Blommaert
      > > > >
      > > > and now back to relevant issues.
      > >
      > >
      > >
      > >
      > >
      > > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
      > > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
      > > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
      > > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
      > >
      > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
      > >
      > >
      >
      >
      >
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      > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
      > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
      >
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      >
      >
      >
    • Monica Heller
      My sense from the various postings here is actually that, perhaps inadvertently, we have identified something which actually does seem to be relevant in ways
      Message 2 of 19 , Feb 15, 2002
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        My sense from the various postings here is actually that, perhaps
        inadvertently, we have identified something which actually does seem to be
        relevant in ways we haven't paid much attention to really (not that there
        aren't other things that are worth thinking about of course) and that
        might bear further inspection. I bet many of us have had experiences
        similar to those being reported here; and I would add to this, in support
        of what I understand to be Celso's point, that phenotype turns out to be a
        highly culturally constructed thing (e.g. people in Montreal are always
        claiming to be able to (literally) see the difference between the
        categories of people relevant there, differences which would get lumped
        together under "white" in other circumstances). And in the 19th and early
        20th century, and even today for some people, these categories are
        understood as "races". So the issue here seems to be the relationship
        between socially relevant categories, the ideologies which legitimate
        them, and the practices which serve to reproduce or contest them. Among
        these practices, both "visibility" and language (seeing and hearing?).
        Ideological constraints on codeswitching, if you like. And I suspect that
        part of the answer to the question that Jan poses actually lies somewhere
        in that direction. Monica

        code-switching@yahoogroups.com writes:
        >Clarification: I didn't intend to be judgmental nor divide the world into
        >those who accept race as a relevant issue versus those who don't. But now
        >that the issue has been cleared, let's move on. In the field of CS there
        >are
        >lots of pressing questions nowadays. For instance: where do you locate the
        >boundaries of 'mixing' - can a 'pure variety' (a monolingual one) be
        >'mixed', e.g. at a pragmatic level. And so on.
        >Jan Blommaert
        >----- Original Message -----
        >From: "Martina" <lutzmartina_@...>
        >To: <code-switching@yahoogroups.com>
        >Sent: Thursday, February 14, 2002 10:11 PM
        >Subject: Re: [code-switching] re: 'Biracial'
        >
        >
        >> Tim,
        >> I found your explanations very interesting and totally appropriate for
        >this discussion group. Please keep us up-to-date with your findings.
        >> Martina
        >> ----- Original Message -----
        >> From: Jan Blommaert
        >> To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
        >> Sent: Wednesday, February 13, 2002 11:37 PM
        >> Subject: Re: [code-switching] re: 'Biracial'
        >>
        >>
        >> and now back to relevant issues.
        >>
        >> ----- Original Message -----
        >> From: "Tim Greer" <tim@...>
        >> To: <code-switching@yahoogroups.com>
        >> Sent: Wednesday, February 13, 2002 4:04 AM
        >> Subject: [code-switching] re: 'Biracial'
        >>
        >>
        >> > Thanks to everyone who responded to my post. The discussion has been
        >very
        >> > valuable. I get the feeling it is starting to lead a little away
        >from
        >the
        >> > topic of codeswitching, so IÅfd like to take this opportunity to
        >say a
        >few
        >> > final words and leave it at that.
        >> >
        >> > Firstly, as you might anticipate, discussion of ÅeraceÅf has been
        >one
        >of
        >> the
        >> > hardest issues I have had to deal with in preparing my proposal. I
        >guess I
        >> > should have mentioned that my 1 year-old son is part-Japanese, so
        >that
        >> > explains some of my bias in investigating this topic. I am
        >interested
        >in
        >> how
        >> > such kids feel about themselves as they grow older and become aware
        >of
        >> their
        >> > differences in what can otherwise be a fairly homogenous community.
        >In
        >> > essence, I want to investigate the link between hybrid language and
        >hybrid
        >> > identity, particularly when the speakers invoke it as a mark of
        >in-group
        >> > affiliation.
        >> >
        >> >
        >> > Of course, I realise that 'race' is an outmoded classification and
        >as
        >a
        >> > 'science fiction' it has little or no genetic basis in fact.
        >However,
        >as a
        >> > social construct, phenotypic traits are still very much the reason
        >behind
        >> > many of the judgments people make about others. Naturally we change
        >the
        >> way
        >> > we talk according who we are speaking to: I use goo-goo talk for
        >babies, I
        >> > try not to swear in front of women, and I speak louder for my best
        >friend,
        >> > who is partially deaf. These are all aspects of language choice that
        >are
        >> > based on visible physical traits.
        >> >
        >> >
        >> > That doesnÅft make it right but it is something that children from
        >> > ÅeinterracialÅf families must deal with daily. The participants in
        >my
        >> pilot
        >> > study reported that strangers (say on the train) spoke to them in
        >English
        >> > based on their physical features.
        >> >
        >> >
        >> > I think that certainly a part of any hybrid identity involves a
        >> 'bicultural'
        >> > worldview, but it is a hidden (or hideable) side of one's
        >personality.
        >> Those
        >> > with 'monoracial' features are either able to show their
        >'bicultural'
        >> side,
        >> > or try to 'pass' as one of the minority culture at will. So-called
        >> > 'biracial' people do not have this luxury.
        >> >
        >> >
        >> > As Hal mentioned, I hedged the word 'biracial' in my posting by
        >placing it
        >> > in single quotations, and I have done the same in my proposal. I do
        >this
        >> not
        >> > only for the problematic connotations that the word 'race' holds,
        >but
        >also
        >> > for its forced binary notions of a socially-constructed duality. In
        >Japan,
        >> > these kids are usually called ÅehalfÅf, although some parents have
        >started
        >> > to use the term ÅedoubleÅf. Neither these nor ÅebiÅf or 'dual' can
        >> > adequately express the ways in which ÅebiracialÅf kids (and perhaps
        >the
        >> rest
        >> > of us too) continually (re)adjust a multifaceted sense of who they
        >are,
        >> > depending on the situation they find themselves in.
        >> >
        >> > I don't intend to use the word 'biracial' to refer to particular
        >> > individuals, and I don't think it has any real currency among most
        >kids in
        >> > international families in Japan. I would much prefer to call my son
        >> > Japanese-Australian, but this doesn't work as a label for a group of
        >kids
        >> > from diverse parental backgrounds like the one I will be studying in
        >my
        >> > dissertation.
        >> >
        >> >
        >> > However, I am also aware that ÅebiracialÅf is commonly used in the
        >> > literature, especially in the United States. A quick search of ERIC
        >came
        >> up
        >> > with 179 hits for journal articles in education which use the word
        >> > ÅebiracialÅf. In order to make my work accessible to others who want
        >to
        >> > research in a similar area in the future, I will have to work with
        >> existing
        >> > terms to some extent.
        >> >
        >> >
        >> > Celso, I have read RamptonÅfs work and it has been very useful. I
        >think
        >> many
        >> > of his findings will be applicable to my situation at an
        >International
        >> > school in Japan. I guess I could follow his lead and use the word
        >> > ÅeethnicityÅf in the subtitle of the thesis and leave discussion of
        >Åerace
        >> Åf
        >> > to the main body where it is less likely to cause confusion.
        >> >
        >> >
        >> > For now, I thank you all for your responses and look forward to
        >further
        >> > posts on issues closer related to codeswitching.
        >> >
        >> >
        >> > Tim
        >> >
        >> >
        >> >
        >> > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        >> >
        >> >
        >> >
        >> > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
        >> > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
        >> > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
        >> > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
        >> >
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        >http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
        >> >
        >> >
        >> >
        >>
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        >



        Monica Heller
        CREFO, OISE
        Université de Toronto
        252 Bloor Ouest
        Toronto (Ontario) M5S 1V6
        Canada
      • janilta@j.email.ne.jp
        Hal, Thanks for this interesting message about the attitude towards foreign speakers in Tamil (the booklet Assimil de poche for Tamil language has
        Message 3 of 19 , Feb 16, 2002
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          Hal,

          Thanks for this interesting message about the attitude towards foreign
          speakers in Tamil (the booklet 'Assimil de poche' for Tamil language has
          paradoxally more or less the same introduction note for the learner so
          that he/she does not feel too disappointed when trying to speak the
          language for real and gets such reaction perhaps).

          I may add though that this attitude is not so common anymore in Japan,
          at least in the big cities and there are many situations where the
          foreigner is expected to understand the spoken language (but often not
          the written language). In fact, unlike after the War, most foreigners
          living in Japan seem now to be able to understand at least simple
          conversations in Japanese (of course, the percentage is much lower among
          the English-speaking population than among the economic migrants !).
          Of course, the experience of someone trying to speak with you in (often
          bad) English in a situation where your Japanese is sufficient/or even if
          you're able to speak Japanese, still occurs from time to time...

          But I had often this kind of experience in HongKong where one often gets
          'but I do speak English (generally implied)' or 'what don't you learn
          Mandarin ?' when trying to say something in Cantonese (except with
          monolinguals here again).

          Regards, Yann, Tokyo
        • band mas
          hi there every one 1st i wana thank all the people who are in this group. i really need help on the subject of code switching, why is it and why does it
          Message 4 of 19 , Feb 17, 2002
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            hi there every one
            1st i wana thank all the people who are in this group.
            i really need help on the subject of code switching,
            why is it and why does it happen.
            i am a post graduate and i am conducting a small
            research about this subject and i am quite new to the
            internet
            so if dont minde can some help me to look for sources.
            ps. i am doing the research on
            code switching from arabic to english

            thank you all
            bander, riyadh. saudia arabia

            __________________________________________________
            Do You Yahoo!?
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          • Martina
            Harold, Interesting that you say that monolinguals do not present this problem. Could it be that the visual cues activate a certain language? From the
            Message 5 of 19 , Feb 17, 2002
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              Harold,
              Interesting that you say that monolinguals do not present this problem. Could it be that the visual cues 'activate' a certain language? From the viewpoint of the bilingual, this problem is very hard, maybe impossible in certain situations, to overcome. That is why people become emotional, ie burst out laughing or become angry.
              For instance, I recall an incident where a German friend of mine suddenly switched to English during a conversation. I presume that he wanted to practise his English.... I could not switch. The words, sentence structures, sounds of English were, somehow, inaccessible to me in this situation. I felt bewildered, confused and embarrassed. After all, I speak English fluently.
              I presume that my inhibition could have been overcome had I persevered, after half an hour or so of stuttering.
              But why is this code-switching connected with such strong emotions?
              Martina


              ----- Original Message -----
              From: Harold F. Schiffman
              To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
              Sent: Saturday, February 16, 2002 2:57 AM
              Subject: Re: [code-switching] re: 'Biracial'


              Tim et al.,

              The more I think about this topic, the more it seems to me that visual
              cues are often involved in code-switching, and visual cues that involve

              (a) what people look like, and
              (b) what some society thinks people ought to look like in order to
              understand/use/function in a particular linguistic code

              are certainly involved in code switching.

              Example: when I am in India, and try to speak Tamil to people there, I
              often get the following reactions:

              a. people refuse to believe I am speaking Tamil and answer in
              English, often asking for clarification.

              b. people recognize that I am speaking Tamil, but burst out
              laughing, and answer in English with words like "Oh, do you speak
              Tamil?"

              c. people recognize that I am speaking Tamil but then want to
              discuss how, where, why etc. I learned it

              d. people react angrily, saying things like "do you think I don't
              know English?! I am an educated person!"

              When I speak Tamil on the telephone to strangers, e.g. to make a
              reservation for a train or other travel, I get no reactions: no questions
              about who I am or why I am speaking Tamil. Then when I go to the travel
              agency to get the tickets, there is disbelief, lack of comprehension. Or,
              in one case, the same person who spoke Tamil on the phone then informed me
              that he was a Telugu speaker, and didn't want to speak Tamil with me. I
              mollified him by babbling a few words of Telugu. (Madras has, by some
              counts, a population of perhaps 40% Telugu speakers.)

              The visual cues here are paramount, and I'm told this happens in Japan as
              well. The only people who don't give me a hard time are monolinguals. I
              should also note that in Singapore, where I would expect people to have
              even *less* expectation that a white foreigner would speak Tamil, I never
              get any flak. People just answer in Tamil, no problem. In Malaysia,
              however, when I spoke Tamil to an immigration agent at the airport, she
              replied (in English) "You sound just like my Granny!" I guess that means
              sort of old-fashioned.

              Sometimes, therefore, if the encounter is going to be short and I don't
              feel like telling my life story, I just avoid speaking Tamil and use
              English instead.

              Hal Schiffman




              On Fri, 15 Feb 2002, Tim Greer wrote:

              > Thanks Martina,
              >
              > I would hope that my topic is of relevance to the growing number of
              > international families, as well as for those of us who work and live on
              > (increasingly common)intercultural borders.
              >
              > Certainly, apart from Rampton's work, there have been a number of articles
              > recently looking at the link between 'race' (and/or ethnicity) and
              > codeswitching including those below by Bailey and Lo.
              >
              > Bailey, B. (2000a). Social/interactional functions of code switching among
              > Dominican Americans. Pragmatics, 10(2), 165-193.
              >
              > Bailey, B. (2000b). Language and negotiation of ethnic/racial identity among
              > Dominican Americans. Language in Society, 29(4), 555-582.
              >
              > Bailey, B. (2001). The Language of Multiple Identities among Dominican
              > Americans. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 10(2), 190-223.
              >
              > Lo, A. (1999). Codeswitching, speech community membership, and the
              > construction of ethnic identity. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(4),
              > 461-479.
              >
              > If anybody can recommend any similar "required reading" for this subject,
              > I'd be very glad to hear them.
              >
              > However, personally I joined this list to learn more about Conversational
              > Analytic approaches to CS, so I am hoping to hear more discussion of that
              > aspect of my dissertation in future posts. Please remember that I am just
              > starting out on my thesis so I really have far more questions than answers
              > at this stage.
              >
              > Tim
              >
              > ----- Original Message -----
              > From: "Martina" <lutzmartina_@...>
              >
              >
              > > Tim,
              > > I found your explanations very interesting and totally appropriate for
              > this discussion group. Please keep us up-to-date with your findings.
              > > Martina
              > > ----- Original Message -----
              > > From: Jan Blommaert
              > > >
              > > and now back to relevant issues.
              >
              >
              >
              >
              >
              > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
              > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
              > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
              > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
              >
              > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
              >
              >


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            • linguaffix
              ... seem to be ... there ... that ... Who does we cover, Monica? Some of us had identified that something long ago...Good to see someone has put it in the
              Message 6 of 19 , Feb 17, 2002
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                --- In code-switching@y..., "Monica Heller" <mheller@o...> wrote:
                > My sense from the various postings here is actually that, perhaps
                > inadvertently, we have identified something which actually does
                seem to be
                > relevant in ways we haven't paid much attention to really (not that
                there
                > aren't other things that are worth thinking about of course) and
                that
                > might bear further inspection.

                Who does 'we' cover, Monica? Some of us had identified
                that 'something' long ago...Good to see someone has put it in the
                techical (and in-group) jargon for us.
                Cheers
                Petek
              • Martina
                Harold, you are describing a very emotional reaction to code-switching. Is it possible that this lady was - in addition to being disconcerted about the
                Message 7 of 19 , Feb 21, 2002
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                  Harold,
                  you are describing a very emotional reaction to code-switching. Is
                  it possible that this lady was - in addition to being disconcerted about the
                  language you were speaking - in a bad mood about something maybe totally
                  unrelated? She could also have been a Swiss nationalist and really have a
                  severe dislike for the German language (as opposed to their native
                  Schwytzerduetsch).

                  I agree that the emotions connected with code-switching may well have
                  much to do with identity, and this explains the immediacy of the almost
                  existential fear or confusion. I am thinking here also about bilingual
                  children who
                  almost universially refuse to speak their private 'mother tongue' in
                  public.

                  So, the problem may originate as a threat to a person's sense of self (the
                  distinction distant - intimate, self - other) which gets confused,
                  disordered (order being a certain thought-structure which is in turn
                  dependent on language) when someone addresses them in the 'wrong' code.

                  You can see that I am not yet very clear about this myself.

                  Thank you for pointing me towards your materials on your website.

                  Martina






                  ----- Original Message -----
                  From: "Harold F. Schiffman" <haroldfs@...>
                  To: "Martina" <lutzmartina_@...>
                  Sent: Tuesday, February 19, 2002 6:16 AM
                  Subject: Re: [code-switching] re: 'Biracial'


                  > Martina,
                  >
                  > I think there's no question but that emotional issues are connected with
                  > particular languages somehow; a language 'conveys' or acts as a vehicle
                  > for (or connects with) a particular language, and I think we know very
                  > little about this.
                  >
                  > I had a similar experience once in Switzerland; I was working in the
                  > library of the Basler Mission, which sent missionaries to India, and
                  > which has interesting archives. When I arrived I checked in with a
                  > particular "Hausmutter" who spoke German with me (since German is my
                  > strongest 2nd language) and we had no problem. Over the weekend, another
                  > "Hausmutter" took her shift, and she appeared in the library where I was
                  > working and spoke very sharply to me in English (I thought), wondering how
                  > I was going to take care of my bill etc. I told her that I thought I had
                  > worked it out with the previous Hausmutter; she left in a huff.
                  >
                  > The next morning I was in the breakfast room with my wife, and this 2nd
                  > Hausmutter again addressed me in English and asked how long I was planning
                  > to stay. I answered in German that we were going to go to Freiburg for
                  > the day but would be back in the evening. She replied (in English): "Why
                  > are you speaking German? I spoke to you in English." I answered (in
                  > German) "Wir sind in der deutschen Schweiz; ich denke, man kann hier
                  > Deutsch sprechen." She then asked, in English of course "Who are you? Why
                  > are you speaking German?"
                  >
                  > [I think the question of identity is clear here: who are you? what is
                  > your identity? why are you speaking a particular language as an expression
                  > of your identity?]
                  >
                  > I answered, again in German, that I was/am a German-American and felt
                  > like I could speak any language that was appropriate under the
                  > circumstances. She then replied, with great anger (in English) "I hate
                  > the Germans! I hate the German language!" and stomped out. (This seemed
                  > very strange to me and still does, coming from an employee of a religious
                  > organization, but whatever.)
                  >
                  > Her reaction was of course very extreme, and my wife looked at me and
                  > asked what I could possibly have said to her to make her so angry. I
                  > could only say that my great crime was to speak German when she thought I
                  > shouldn't. Code-switching was inappropriate for me, at least, in her
                  > eyes. (What she would have done with an actual German I don't know.)
                  >
                  > Hal Schiffman
                  >
                  > By the way, I have some materials on my website that I use for pedagogy on
                  > this issue (not necessarily related to code-switching).
                  >
                  > http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/540/handouts/emotion/emotion2.html
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > On Mon, 18 Feb 2002, Martina wrote:
                  >
                  > > Harold,
                  > > Interesting that you say that monolinguals do not present this problem.
                  Could it be that the visual cues 'activate' a certain language? From the
                  viewpoint of the bilingual, this problem is very hard, maybe impossible in
                  certain situations, to overcome. That is why people become emotional, ie
                  burst out laughing or become angry.
                  > > For instance, I recall an incident where a German friend of mine
                  suddenly switched to English during a conversation. I presume that he wanted
                  to practise his English.... I could not switch. The words, sentence
                  structures, sounds of English were, somehow, inaccessible to me in this
                  situation. I felt bewildered, confused and embarrassed. After all, I speak
                  English fluently.
                  > > I presume that my inhibition could have been overcome had I persevered,
                  after half an hour or so of stuttering.
                  > > But why is this code-switching connected with such strong emotions?
                  > > Martina
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > ----- Original Message -----
                  > > From: Harold F. Schiffman
                  > > To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                  > > Sent: Saturday, February 16, 2002 2:57 AM
                  > > Subject: Re: [code-switching] re: 'Biracial'
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > Tim et al.,
                  > >
                  > > The more I think about this topic, the more it seems to me that visual
                  > > cues are often involved in code-switching, and visual cues that
                  involve
                  > >
                  > > (a) what people look like, and
                  > > (b) what some society thinks people ought to look like in order to
                  > > understand/use/function in a particular linguistic code
                  > >
                  > > are certainly involved in code switching.
                  > >
                  > > Example: when I am in India, and try to speak Tamil to people there,
                  I
                  > > often get the following reactions:
                  > >
                  > > a. people refuse to believe I am speaking Tamil and answer in
                  > > English, often asking for clarification.
                  > >
                  > > b. people recognize that I am speaking Tamil, but burst out
                  > > laughing, and answer in English with words like "Oh, do you
                  speak
                  > > Tamil?"
                  > >
                  > > c. people recognize that I am speaking Tamil but then want to
                  > > discuss how, where, why etc. I learned it
                  > >
                  > > d. people react angrily, saying things like "do you think I
                  don't
                  > > know English?! I am an educated person!"
                  > >
                  > > When I speak Tamil on the telephone to strangers, e.g. to make a
                  > > reservation for a train or other travel, I get no reactions: no
                  questions
                  > > about who I am or why I am speaking Tamil. Then when I go to the
                  travel
                  > > agency to get the tickets, there is disbelief, lack of comprehension.
                  Or,
                  > > in one case, the same person who spoke Tamil on the phone then
                  informed me
                  > > that he was a Telugu speaker, and didn't want to speak Tamil with me.
                  I
                  > > mollified him by babbling a few words of Telugu. (Madras has, by some
                  > > counts, a population of perhaps 40% Telugu speakers.)
                  > >
                  > > The visual cues here are paramount, and I'm told this happens in Japan
                  as
                  > > well. The only people who don't give me a hard time are monolinguals.
                  I
                  > > should also note that in Singapore, where I would expect people to
                  have
                  > > even *less* expectation that a white foreigner would speak Tamil, I
                  never
                  > > get any flak. People just answer in Tamil, no problem. In Malaysia,
                  > > however, when I spoke Tamil to an immigration agent at the airport,
                  she
                  > > replied (in English) "You sound just like my Granny!" I guess that
                  means
                  > > sort of old-fashioned.
                  > >
                  > > Sometimes, therefore, if the encounter is going to be short and I
                  don't
                  > > feel like telling my life story, I just avoid speaking Tamil and use
                  > > English instead.
                  > >
                  > > Hal Schiffman
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > On Fri, 15 Feb 2002, Tim Greer wrote:
                  > >
                  > > > Thanks Martina,
                  > > >
                  > > > I would hope that my topic is of relevance to the growing number of
                  > > > international families, as well as for those of us who work and live
                  on
                  > > > (increasingly common)intercultural borders.
                  > > >
                  > > > Certainly, apart from Rampton's work, there have been a number of
                  articles
                  > > > recently looking at the link between 'race' (and/or ethnicity) and
                  > > > codeswitching including those below by Bailey and Lo.
                  > > >
                  > > > Bailey, B. (2000a). Social/interactional functions of code switching
                  among
                  > > > Dominican Americans. Pragmatics, 10(2), 165-193.
                  > > >
                  > > > Bailey, B. (2000b). Language and negotiation of ethnic/racial
                  identity among
                  > > > Dominican Americans. Language in Society, 29(4), 555-582.
                  > > >
                  > > > Bailey, B. (2001). The Language of Multiple Identities among
                  Dominican
                  > > > Americans. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 10(2), 190-223.
                  > > >
                  > > > Lo, A. (1999). Codeswitching, speech community membership, and the
                  > > > construction of ethnic identity. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 3(4),
                  > > > 461-479.
                  > > >
                  > > > If anybody can recommend any similar "required reading" for this
                  subject,
                  > > > I'd be very glad to hear them.
                  > > >
                  > > > However, personally I joined this list to learn more about
                  Conversational
                  > > > Analytic approaches to CS, so I am hoping to hear more discussion of
                  that
                  > > > aspect of my dissertation in future posts. Please remember that I am
                  just
                  > > > starting out on my thesis so I really have far more questions than
                  answers
                  > > > at this stage.
                  > > >
                  > > > Tim
                  > > >
                  > > > ----- Original Message -----
                  > > > From: "Martina" <lutzmartina_@...>
                  > > >
                  > > >
                  > > > > Tim,
                  > > > > I found your explanations very interesting and totally appropriate
                  for
                  > > > this discussion group. Please keep us up-to-date with your findings.
                  > > > > Martina
                  > > > > ----- Original Message -----
                  > > > > From: Jan Blommaert
                  > > > > >
                  > > > > and now back to relevant issues.
                  > > >
                  > > >
                  > > >
                  > > >
                  > > >
                  > > > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                  > > > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
                  > > > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                  > > > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
                  > > >
                  > > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
                  http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                  > > >
                  > > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > Yahoo! Groups Sponsor
                  > > ADVERTISEMENT
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                  > > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
                  > > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                  > > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
                  > >
                  > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to the Yahoo! Terms of Service.
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > >
                  > > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                  > > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
                  > > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                  > > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
                  > >
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                  > >
                  > >
                  >
                  >
                • n_privitera
                  Hello, I just came across this message exchange and thought I d drop in my 2 cents although I realize that all the postings are quite old and my reply might
                  Message 8 of 19 , Nov 11, 2002
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                    Hello,

                    I just came across this message exchange and thought I'd drop in my 2
                    cents although I realize that all the postings are quite old and my
                    reply might not be read at all.

                    There is a very easy explanation for the Hausmutter's outburst (apart
                    from what the other poster suggested, that she might have been
                    aggravated already due to something completely unrelated): the Swiss
                    are still very resentful towards the Germans, and the German language
                    as such is not really spoken in Switzerland. What *is* spoken, in the
                    German-speaking parts of the country, are the various dialects of
                    German (High German). To the Swiss, people who speak High German are
                    obviously connected to Germany, and the Swiss are very careful not to
                    be associated with them. Don't forget that WWII is only a little over
                    half a century old, and the Swiss haven't "cleaned out their closets"
                    yet, so to speak. If you want to talk to a swiss-german speaking
                    person in Switzerland, don't be surprised if they are apprehensive
                    about High German. French, Italian or English might be a better way
                    to go.

                    Cheers,

                    N.


                    > ----- Original Message -----
                    > From: "Harold F. Schiffman" <haroldfs@c...>
                    > To: "Martina" <lutzmartina_@h...>
                    > Sent: Tuesday, February 19, 2002 6:16 AM
                    > Subject: Re: [code-switching] re: 'Biracial'
                    >
                    >
                    > > Martina,
                    > >
                    > > I think there's no question but that emotional issues are
                    connected with
                    > > particular languages somehow; a language 'conveys' or acts as a
                    vehicle
                    > > for (or connects with) a particular language, and I think we know
                    very
                    > > little about this.
                    > >
                    > > I had a similar experience once in Switzerland; I was working in
                    the
                    > > library of the Basler Mission, which sent missionaries to India,
                    and
                    > > which has interesting archives. When I arrived I checked in with a
                    > > particular "Hausmutter" who spoke German with me (since German is
                    my
                    > > strongest 2nd language) and we had no problem. Over the weekend,
                    another
                    > > "Hausmutter" took her shift, and she appeared in the library
                    where I was
                    > > working and spoke very sharply to me in English (I thought),
                    wondering how
                    > > I was going to take care of my bill etc. I told her that I
                    thought I had
                    > > worked it out with the previous Hausmutter; she left in a huff.
                    > >
                    > > The next morning I was in the breakfast room with my wife, and
                    this 2nd
                    > > Hausmutter again addressed me in English and asked how long I was
                    planning
                    > > to stay. I answered in German that we were going to go to
                    Freiburg for
                    > > the day but would be back in the evening. She replied (in
                    English): "Why
                    > > are you speaking German? I spoke to you in English." I answered
                    (in
                    > > German) "Wir sind in der deutschen Schweiz; ich denke, man kann
                    hier
                    > > Deutsch sprechen." She then asked, in English of course "Who are
                    you? Why
                    > > are you speaking German?"
                    > >
                    > > [I think the question of identity is clear here: who are you?
                    what is
                    > > your identity? why are you speaking a particular language as an
                    expression
                    > > of your identity?]
                    > >
                    > > I answered, again in German, that I was/am a German-American and
                    felt
                    > > like I could speak any language that was appropriate under the
                    > > circumstances. She then replied, with great anger (in
                    English) "I hate
                    > > the Germans! I hate the German language!" and stomped out. (This
                    seemed
                    > > very strange to me and still does, coming from an employee of a
                    religious
                    > > organization, but whatever.)
                    > >
                    > > Her reaction was of course very extreme, and my wife looked at me
                    and
                    > > asked what I could possibly have said to her to make her so
                    angry. I
                    > > could only say that my great crime was to speak German when she
                    thought I
                    > > shouldn't. Code-switching was inappropriate for me, at least, in
                    her
                    > > eyes. (What she would have done with an actual German I don't
                    know.)
                    > >
                    > > Hal Schiffman
                    > >
                    > > By the way, I have some materials on my website that I use for
                    pedagogy on
                    > > this issue (not necessarily related to code-switching).
                    > >
                    > >
                    http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/540/handouts/emotion/emotion2.html
                  • Harold F. Schiffman
                    Yes, well, I guess my own annoyance about this situation stems from the fact that the world criticizes Americans for their monolingualism, their inability and
                    Message 9 of 19 , Nov 14, 2002
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Yes, well, I guess my own annoyance about this situation stems from the
                      fact that the world criticizes Americans for their monolingualism, their
                      inability and unwillingness to learn other languages, etc. etc. but when
                      an American then attempts to *speak* a language other than English, like
                      as not, the answer comes back in English. I have sometimes pretended
                      (usually in vain) to be Polish or Icelandic or something, just to get off
                      the idea that things have to be said in English.

                      In that situation I referred to in Basel, up to that point everybody else
                      at the Basler Mission had been just fine speaking German; nobody asked any
                      questions, or objected; and I spent 2 months in Switzerland as a
                      "Gastarbeiter" back in 1958, during which time I hitchhiked across the
                      country speaking German to many drivers who picked me up. Nobody ever
                      responded with the vitriol of the 2nd Hausmutter, and that was 30 years
                      earlier.

                      H. Schiffman

                      On Mon, 11 Nov 2002, n_privitera wrote:

                      > Hello,
                      >
                      > I just came across this message exchange and thought I'd drop in my 2
                      > cents although I realize that all the postings are quite old and my
                      > reply might not be read at all.
                      >
                      > There is a very easy explanation for the Hausmutter's outburst (apart
                      > from what the other poster suggested, that she might have been
                      > aggravated already due to something completely unrelated): the Swiss
                      > are still very resentful towards the Germans, and the German language
                      > as such is not really spoken in Switzerland. What *is* spoken, in the
                      > German-speaking parts of the country, are the various dialects of
                      > German (High German). To the Swiss, people who speak High German are
                      > obviously connected to Germany, and the Swiss are very careful not to
                      > be associated with them. Don't forget that WWII is only a little over
                      > half a century old, and the Swiss haven't "cleaned out their closets"
                      > yet, so to speak. If you want to talk to a swiss-german speaking
                      > person in Switzerland, don't be surprised if they are apprehensive
                      > about High German. French, Italian or English might be a better way
                      > to go.
                      >
                      > Cheers,
                      >
                      > N.
                      >
                      >
                      > > ----- Original Message -----
                      > > From: "Harold F. Schiffman" <haroldfs@c...>
                      > > To: "Martina" <lutzmartina_@h...>
                      > > Sent: Tuesday, February 19, 2002 6:16 AM
                      > > Subject: Re: [code-switching] re: 'Biracial'
                      > >
                      > >
                      > > > Martina,
                      > > >
                      > > > I think there's no question but that emotional issues are
                      > connected with
                      > > > particular languages somehow; a language 'conveys' or acts as a
                      > vehicle
                      > > > for (or connects with) a particular language, and I think we know
                      > very
                      > > > little about this.
                      > > >
                      > > > I had a similar experience once in Switzerland; I was working in
                      > the
                      > > > library of the Basler Mission, which sent missionaries to India,
                      > and
                      > > > which has interesting archives. When I arrived I checked in with a
                      > > > particular "Hausmutter" who spoke German with me (since German is
                      > my
                      > > > strongest 2nd language) and we had no problem. Over the weekend,
                      > another
                      > > > "Hausmutter" took her shift, and she appeared in the library
                      > where I was
                      > > > working and spoke very sharply to me in English (I thought),
                      > wondering how
                      > > > I was going to take care of my bill etc. I told her that I
                      > thought I had
                      > > > worked it out with the previous Hausmutter; she left in a huff.
                      > > >
                      > > > The next morning I was in the breakfast room with my wife, and
                      > this 2nd
                      > > > Hausmutter again addressed me in English and asked how long I was
                      > planning
                      > > > to stay. I answered in German that we were going to go to
                      > Freiburg for
                      > > > the day but would be back in the evening. She replied (in
                      > English): "Why
                      > > > are you speaking German? I spoke to you in English." I answered
                      > (in
                      > > > German) "Wir sind in der deutschen Schweiz; ich denke, man kann
                      > hier
                      > > > Deutsch sprechen." She then asked, in English of course "Who are
                      > you? Why
                      > > > are you speaking German?"
                      > > >
                      > > > [I think the question of identity is clear here: who are you?
                      > what is
                      > > > your identity? why are you speaking a particular language as an
                      > expression
                      > > > of your identity?]
                      > > >
                      > > > I answered, again in German, that I was/am a German-American and
                      > felt
                      > > > like I could speak any language that was appropriate under the
                      > > > circumstances. She then replied, with great anger (in
                      > English) "I hate
                      > > > the Germans! I hate the German language!" and stomped out. (This
                      > seemed
                      > > > very strange to me and still does, coming from an employee of a
                      > religious
                      > > > organization, but whatever.)
                      > > >
                      > > > Her reaction was of course very extreme, and my wife looked at me
                      > and
                      > > > asked what I could possibly have said to her to make her so
                      > angry. I
                      > > > could only say that my great crime was to speak German when she
                      > thought I
                      > > > shouldn't. Code-switching was inappropriate for me, at least, in
                      > her
                      > > > eyes. (What she would have done with an actual German I don't
                      > know.)
                      > > >
                      > > > Hal Schiffman
                      > > >
                      > > > By the way, I have some materials on my website that I use for
                      > pedagogy on
                      > > > this issue (not necessarily related to code-switching).
                      > > >
                      > > >
                      > http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/540/handouts/emotion/emotion2.html
                      >
                      >
                      >
                      > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                      > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
                      > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                      > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
                      >
                      > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
                      >
                      >
                    • peterson
                      It may also be suspicion. In Egypt, English has become the de facto language of social mobility. Most Egyptians in the cosmopolitan parts of the city are
                      Message 10 of 19 , Nov 15, 2002
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                        It may also be suspicion.

                        In Egypt, English has become the de facto language of social mobility. Most
                        Egyptians in the cosmopolitan parts of the city are happy enough to hear you
                        speaking Arabic. But they ask you why you bother.

                        Two American students moved out of the American University in Cairo dorms into
                        a low-rent area of Cairo in order to be forced to really work their Arabic in
                        a part of the city no one was likely to speak English. They faced enormous
                        antipathy from locals -- unlike anything they'd experienced previously in
                        Egypt. It turned out that everyone assumed that no one who already spoke
                        English (and thus had the lifestyle it indexes) would bother learning Arabic
                        unless they were going to be spies.

                        Mark Peterson


                        >===== Original Message From code-switching@yahoogroups.com =====
                        >Yes, well, I guess my own annoyance about this situation stems from the
                        >fact that the world criticizes Americans for their monolingualism, their
                        >inability and unwillingness to learn other languages, etc. etc. but when
                        >an American then attempts to *speak* a language other than English, like
                        >as not, the answer comes back in English. I have sometimes pretended
                        >(usually in vain) to be Polish or Icelandic or something, just to get off
                        >the idea that things have to be said in English.
                        >
                        >In that situation I referred to in Basel, up to that point everybody else
                        >at the Basler Mission had been just fine speaking German; nobody asked any
                        >questions, or objected; and I spent 2 months in Switzerland as a
                        >"Gastarbeiter" back in 1958, during which time I hitchhiked across the
                        >country speaking German to many drivers who picked me up. Nobody ever
                        >responded with the vitriol of the 2nd Hausmutter, and that was 30 years
                        >earlier.
                        >
                        >H. Schiffman
                        >
                        >On Mon, 11 Nov 2002, n_privitera wrote:
                        >
                        >> Hello,
                        >>
                        >> I just came across this message exchange and thought I'd drop in my 2
                        >> cents although I realize that all the postings are quite old and my
                        >> reply might not be read at all.
                        >>
                        >> There is a very easy explanation for the Hausmutter's outburst (apart
                        >> from what the other poster suggested, that she might have been
                        >> aggravated already due to something completely unrelated): the Swiss
                        >> are still very resentful towards the Germans, and the German language
                        >> as such is not really spoken in Switzerland. What *is* spoken, in the
                        >> German-speaking parts of the country, are the various dialects of
                        >> German (High German). To the Swiss, people who speak High German are
                        >> obviously connected to Germany, and the Swiss are very careful not to
                        >> be associated with them. Don't forget that WWII is only a little over
                        >> half a century old, and the Swiss haven't "cleaned out their closets"
                        >> yet, so to speak. If you want to talk to a swiss-german speaking
                        >> person in Switzerland, don't be surprised if they are apprehensive
                        >> about High German. French, Italian or English might be a better way
                        >> to go.
                        >>
                        >> Cheers,
                        >>
                        >> N.
                        >>
                        >>
                        >> > ----- Original Message -----
                        >> > From: "Harold F. Schiffman" <haroldfs@c...>
                        >> > To: "Martina" <lutzmartina_@h...>
                        >> > Sent: Tuesday, February 19, 2002 6:16 AM
                        >> > Subject: Re: [code-switching] re: 'Biracial'
                        >> >
                        >> >
                        >> > > Martina,
                        >> > >
                        >> > > I think there's no question but that emotional issues are
                        >> connected with
                        >> > > particular languages somehow; a language 'conveys' or acts as a
                        >> vehicle
                        >> > > for (or connects with) a particular language, and I think we know
                        >> very
                        >> > > little about this.
                        >> > >
                        >> > > I had a similar experience once in Switzerland; I was working in
                        >> the
                        >> > > library of the Basler Mission, which sent missionaries to India,
                        >> and
                        >> > > which has interesting archives. When I arrived I checked in with a
                        >> > > particular "Hausmutter" who spoke German with me (since German is
                        >> my
                        >> > > strongest 2nd language) and we had no problem. Over the weekend,
                        >> another
                        >> > > "Hausmutter" took her shift, and she appeared in the library
                        >> where I was
                        >> > > working and spoke very sharply to me in English (I thought),
                        >> wondering how
                        >> > > I was going to take care of my bill etc. I told her that I
                        >> thought I had
                        >> > > worked it out with the previous Hausmutter; she left in a huff.
                        >> > >
                        >> > > The next morning I was in the breakfast room with my wife, and
                        >> this 2nd
                        >> > > Hausmutter again addressed me in English and asked how long I was
                        >> planning
                        >> > > to stay. I answered in German that we were going to go to
                        >> Freiburg for
                        >> > > the day but would be back in the evening. She replied (in
                        >> English): "Why
                        >> > > are you speaking German? I spoke to you in English." I answered
                        >> (in
                        >> > > German) "Wir sind in der deutschen Schweiz; ich denke, man kann
                        >> hier
                        >> > > Deutsch sprechen." She then asked, in English of course "Who are
                        >> you? Why
                        >> > > are you speaking German?"
                        >> > >
                        >> > > [I think the question of identity is clear here: who are you?
                        >> what is
                        >> > > your identity? why are you speaking a particular language as an
                        >> expression
                        >> > > of your identity?]
                        >> > >
                        >> > > I answered, again in German, that I was/am a German-American and
                        >> felt
                        >> > > like I could speak any language that was appropriate under the
                        >> > > circumstances. She then replied, with great anger (in
                        >> English) "I hate
                        >> > > the Germans! I hate the German language!" and stomped out. (This
                        >> seemed
                        >> > > very strange to me and still does, coming from an employee of a
                        >> religious
                        >> > > organization, but whatever.)
                        >> > >
                        >> > > Her reaction was of course very extreme, and my wife looked at me
                        >> and
                        >> > > asked what I could possibly have said to her to make her so
                        >> angry. I
                        >> > > could only say that my great crime was to speak German when she
                        >> thought I
                        >> > > shouldn't. Code-switching was inappropriate for me, at least, in
                        >> her
                        >> > > eyes. (What she would have done with an actual German I don't
                        >> know.)
                        >> > >
                        >> > > Hal Schiffman
                        >> > >
                        >> > > By the way, I have some materials on my website that I use for
                        >> pedagogy on
                        >> > > this issue (not necessarily related to code-switching).
                        >> > >
                        >> > >
                        >> http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~haroldfs/540/handouts/emotion/emotion2.html
                        >>
                        >>
                        >>
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                      • Marian Sloboda
                        ... ... stems from the ... monolingualism, their ... etc. but when ... English, like ... This might be/cause a serious problem, I
                        Message 11 of 19 , Nov 15, 2002
                        • 0 Attachment
                          > From: "Harold F. Schiffman"
                          <haroldfs@...>
                          >
                          > Yes, well, I guess my own annoyance about this situation
                          stems from the
                          > fact that the world criticizes Americans for their
                          monolingualism, their
                          > inability and unwillingness to learn other languages, etc.
                          etc. but when
                          > an American then attempts to *speak* a language other than
                          English, like
                          > as not, the answer comes back in English.

                          This might be/cause a serious problem, I think. The same
                          behavior has been reported by Tamah Sherman who researches
                          the American community in Czechia, esp. Czech-American
                          families and couples. Czechs often respond in English (or
                          more precisely in a mix of English and Czech) to an American
                          who tries to speak Czech. The American then switches to
                          English too. (S)he might not be able to integrate so easily
                          into the Czech society then, as it demotivates the person to
                          use Czech and so to learn it well enough to be able to fully
                          participate in interactions in Czech.

                          Regards,

                          Marian S.
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