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  • Maria Eugenia Trillo
    On the subject of code-switching willingness , I found that my adult subjects (all members of my community) differed in the frequency and the type of
    Message 1 of 3 , Feb 7, 2002
      On the subject of code-switching 'willingness', I found that my adult subjects (all members of my community) differed in the frequency and the type of code-switching that was done, depending on various factors. For instance, the professionals did not code-switch nearly as much as the high school group.--Why? First of all, the professionals who were interviewed at either their place of work or at home all enquired from the onset whether I wanted their responses in English or Spanish (all greetings and initial 'talk' was done in Spanish only). I responded that either or both, whatever, was appropriate, they all initiated their responses in English. When the subject changed from giving a historical account to our collective experience of living in el barrio, most subjects code-switched more readily. The high school group code-switched from the onset. Why? The same interview format and instrument was used for all subjects. Clearly, code-switching is a marked code, even amo
      ng members of the same community and with an interviewer who is also a mamber of the community. The situation (academic vs. not) and other factors may determine if code-switching is appropriate or not. Code-switching for the high school group seems to be emblematic, a trademark of that group. Cultural/group identity, social status, childhood residence seems to be expressed through the use of code-switching in my community.

      As for data collection, if I had to do it over again, I would ask permission to audio and video-tape the sessions. Code-switching is 'performed' through body language as well and this is only documented on audiotapes through the audible pauses and/or occasional phrases that follow to explain a gesture.

      Good luck with your work.
      -
      Maria Eugenia Trillo, Ph.D.
      Dept. of English, Speech and
      Foreign Languages
      TEXAS WOMAN'S UNIVERSITY
      P.O. Box 425829
      Denton, TX. 76204-5829
      (940) 898-2159
      FAX: (940) 898-2297
    • Martina
      Dear Maria, how very interesting. Basically, what you seem to say is that the higher eduated group had certain very defined domains for one language or
      Message 2 of 3 , Feb 10, 2002
        Dear Maria,
        how very interesting. Basically, what you seem to say is that the higher eduated group had certain very defined domains for one language or another, whereas the people with lower educaton levels mixed both languages more readily. Would this mean that this mixing of codes would eventually develop into a merged code, like a creole?
        Why, do you think, is that so? I find that my two languages almost never mix, they are completely separate entities.
        Are your research findings available online?
        Martina
        ----- Original Message -----
        From: Maria Eugenia Trillo
        To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
        Sent: Friday, February 08, 2002 8:59 AM
        Subject: [code-switching] (No Subject)


        On the subject of code-switching 'willingness', I found that my adult subjects (all members of my community) differed in the frequency and the type of code-switching that was done, depending on various factors. For instance, the professionals did not code-switch nearly as much as the high school group.--Why? First of all, the professionals who were interviewed at either their place of work or at home all enquired from the onset whether I wanted their responses in English or Spanish (all greetings and initial 'talk' was done in Spanish only). I responded that either or both, whatever, was appropriate, they all initiated their responses in English. When the subject changed from giving a historical account to our collective experience of living in el barrio, most subjects code-switched more readily. The high school group code-switched from the onset. Why? The same interview format and instrument was used for all subjects. Clearly, code-switching is a marked code, even amo
        ng members of the same community and with an interviewer who is also a mamber of the community. The situation (academic vs. not) and other factors may determine if code-switching is appropriate or not. Code-switching for the high school group seems to be emblematic, a trademark of that group. Cultural/group identity, social status, childhood residence seems to be expressed through the use of code-switching in my community.

        As for data collection, if I had to do it over again, I would ask permission to audio and video-tape the sessions. Code-switching is 'performed' through body language as well and this is only documented on audiotapes through the audible pauses and/or occasional phrases that follow to explain a gesture.

        Good luck with your work.
        -
        Maria Eugenia Trillo, Ph.D.
        Dept. of English, Speech and
        Foreign Languages
        TEXAS WOMAN'S UNIVERSITY
        P.O. Box 425829
        Denton, TX. 76204-5829
        (940) 898-2159
        FAX: (940) 898-2297



        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Renate Blankenhorn
        Dear Maria and Martina, I also observed very different patterns of code-switching and mixing within the community of the German-speaking minority in Sibiria.
        Message 3 of 3 , Feb 13, 2002
          Dear Maria and Martina,

          I also observed very different patterns of code-switching and mixing within
          the community of the German-speaking minority in Sibiria. My findings are
          that this depends partly on education and on the kind and amount of contact
          with monolingual Russians on the one hand and the German standard variety
          (books, newspapers, Radio) on the other hand. It also seems to depend on how
          strongly peoples identities are connected to their 'mothertongue' L1.
          People with higher education tend to use code-switching more in the sense
          of 'contextualization cue' (Gumperz'), as a communicative strategy, but try
          to keep the languageses separate otherwise - whereas people with less
          education, less knowledge of / and less contact with the standard language
          L1 mix and switch permanently with less (obvious) communicative
          'motivation'. Within the community there is no reason for keeping the
          languages apart and they indeed seem to develope a kind of merged code. When
          asked about their knowledge and competences, they would say things like:
          'Russian', 'German' and 'mixed' - but in ingroup communication they almost
          never use 'German', but rather use this mixed code and Russian.

          Renate

          ----- Original Message -----
          From: "Martina" <lutzmartina_@...>
          To: <code-switching@yahoogroups.com>
          Sent: Monday, February 11, 2002 4:44 AM
          Subject: Re: [code-switching] (No Subject)


          > Dear Maria,
          > how very interesting. Basically, what you seem to say is that the higher
          eduated group had certain very defined domains for one language or another,
          whereas the people with lower educaton levels mixed both languages more
          readily. Would this mean that this mixing of codes would eventually develop
          into a merged code, like a creole?
          > Why, do you think, is that so? I find that my two languages almost never
          mix, they are completely separate entities.
          > Are your research findings available online?
          > Martina
          > ----- Original Message -----
          > From: Maria Eugenia Trillo
          > To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
          > Sent: Friday, February 08, 2002 8:59 AM
          > Subject: [code-switching] (No Subject)
          >
          >
          > On the subject of code-switching 'willingness', I found that my adult
          subjects (all members of my community) differed in the frequency and the
          type of code-switching that was done, depending on various factors. For
          instance, the professionals did not code-switch nearly as much as the high
          school group.--Why? First of all, the professionals who were interviewed at
          either their place of work or at home all enquired from the onset whether I
          wanted their responses in English or Spanish (all greetings and initial
          'talk' was done in Spanish only). I responded that either or both,
          whatever, was appropriate, they all initiated their responses in English.
          When the subject changed from giving a historical account to our collective
          experience of living in el barrio, most subjects code-switched more readily.
          The high school group code-switched from the onset. Why? The same
          interview format and instrument was used for all subjects. Clearly,
          code-switching is a marked code, even amo
          > ng members of the same community and with an interviewer who is also a
          mamber of the community. The situation (academic vs. not) and other
          factors may determine if code-switching is appropriate or not.
          Code-switching for the high school group seems to be emblematic, a trademark
          of that group. Cultural/group identity, social status, childhood residence
          seems to be expressed through the use of code-switching in my community.
          >
          > As for data collection, if I had to do it over again, I would ask
          permission to audio and video-tape the sessions. Code-switching is
          'performed' through body language as well and this is only documented on
          audiotapes through the audible pauses and/or occasional phrases that follow
          to explain a gesture.
          >
          > Good luck with your work.
          > -
          > Maria Eugenia Trillo, Ph.D.
          > Dept. of English, Speech and
          > Foreign Languages
          > TEXAS WOMAN'S UNIVERSITY
          > P.O. Box 425829
          > Denton, TX. 76204-5829
          > (940) 898-2159
          > FAX: (940) 898-2297
          >
          >
          >
          > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          >
          >
          >
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