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Re: probem - integrated "borrowing" vs. transfer

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  • lxalvarz@udc.es
    Marian I forgot to mention our Code-Switching Bibliography Database to do your bibliographical searches: http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/plc/codeswitching/ -celso
    Message 1 of 6 , Sep 7, 2001
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      Marian

      I forgot to mention our Code-Switching Bibliography Database to do
      your bibliographical searches:

      http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/plc/codeswitching/

      -celso
      lxalvarz@...
    • psa208@nyu.edu
      Ahoj Marian, Your data sounds very interesting. It draws attention to the fact that languages are not the clearly demarkated, discrete entities that we
      Message 2 of 6 , Sep 8, 2001
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        Ahoj Marian,

        Your data sounds very interesting. It draws attention to the fact
        that languages are not the clearly demarkated, discrete entities that
        we commonly imagine them to be.

        I would recommend an article by Woolard (1999) (see below), which
        focuses mostly on "codeswitching" between Catalan and Castillian
        (Spanish) and the use of elements that prescriptively "belong" to
        both codes - or to neither. It can probably give you some ideas about
        how to describe your data without forcing it into preexisting notions
        of what is Croation and what is Slovak.
        Good luck with your research!
        Best,
        Philipp Angermeyer
        New York University

        Woolard, Kathryn. 1999. Simultaneity and Bivalency as Strategies in
        Bilingualism. Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 8 (1): 3-29.



        --- In code-switching@y..., "Marian" <maslo@z...> wrote:
        > Dear list members,
        >
        > I am student who is writing a work where he has met the following
        > rather terminoligical problems:
        >
        > I have an audio tape and a transcript of a narrative interview with
        a
        > man who is speaking Slovak, the man lives in Croatia. His Slovak
        is,
        > therefore, very influenced by the local variety of Croatian.
        >
        > I can clearly see some Croatian words integrated into (=being part
        > of) his Slovakian subidiolect - these words have the phonetic
        > characteristics of other Slovak words and segments in his speech,
        and
        > their Croatian equivalents never occur in his discourse, for
        example,
        > he uses the word vykoristit' which is originally from Croatian
        > iskoristiti, there is the prefix is- translated into Slovakian vy-,
        > the lexeme is Croatian -kosisti- (Slovak is -uzi-, so completely
        > different), the suffix is Slovakian as well (-t' instead of
        Croatian
        -
        > ti or -t). The whole word is phonetically Slovak. In the interview
        he
        > never said vykoristit' and also vyuzit' at the same time (both have
        > the same meaning, but one is his own, the second is Slovakian). On
        > the other hand, quite frequently he says some words (f ex.
        > Cr. "trebao" instead of Sl. "mal"/"potreboval"), which are
        > phonetically Croatian, but their Slovak equivalent is never used.
        > Is it a transfer, a code switch? I don't think so. I call the case
        > like "vykoristit'" an integrated element (into his Slovak
        > subidiolect). As for the case like "trebao" I don't know.
        >
        > There is also a Croatian conjunction "da" in the discourse, but at
        > the same time he uses Slovak "ze", "aby" etc. which have the same
        > function. As for phonetics, one can hardly say, because the word is
        > too short. The "da" is quite frequent, and used without any
        > antecedent hesitation, so I would say that it is at least partly
        > integrated. Is it a transfer (the context is usually Slovak: Slovak
        +
        > da + Slovak)?
        >
        > There is also a hybrid word:
        > "dopaci sa" (cca it-makes-someone-he-likes-it)
        > do- is from Croatian "dopada se"
        > -paci sa is from Slovakian "paci sa"
        > But the phonetic characteristics is Croatian
        > It is in Slovak context. Is it a transfer?
        > What if it came to his mind (and tongue) to say Croatian "dopada",
        > but "realized" that Slovak word is "paci", so he made this hybrid?
        > Would it be a code switch then? (from Slovakian to Croatian and
        back
        > to Slovakian)
        >
        > An other word in his Slovak speech is Slovak, but what is strange
        is
        > that it sounds Croatian:
        > Thanks to the fact the languages are similar, he used the
        intonation
        > contour of the Croatian "ostali" (the-remaining-one), but otherwise
        > the word is completely Slovak "ostatni". The context is
        > Slovak__Croatian, so the phonetics could have been transfered
        thanks
        > to the postcedent.
        > But the initial os- is identical in both the languages, and it
        bears
        > the accent, which in the discourse is Croatian. It could have been
        > some slow code switch with the first language persevering. Or can
        one
        > call it a mix?
        >
        >
        > -I would like to mark what is in the speaker's Slovak subidiolect
        > integrated from Croatian - how can I identify it in the speech then?
        >
        > -How could I identify and name the cases above? It is very hard to
        > write about something if one cannot name it. BTW, what is the
        > difference between an interference and a transfer, and between a
        > borrowing and a transfer?
        >
        > Do you have any suggestions or literature recommendations please
        (the
        > only problem is that a CS literature is rare in here, that is also
        > why I am writing to you)?
        >
        >
      • Renate Blankenhorn
        Hello Marian, ... the same time he uses Slovak ze , aby etc. which have the same function. As for phonetics, one can hardly say, because the word is too
        Message 3 of 6 , Sep 8, 2001
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          Hello Marian,

          >There is also a Croatian conjunction "da" in the discourse, but at
          the same time he uses Slovak "ze", "aby" etc. which have the same
          function. As for phonetics, one can hardly say, because the word is
          too short. The "da" is quite frequent, and used without any
          antecedent hesitation, so I would say that it is at least partly
          integrated. Is it a transfer (the context is usually Slovak: Slovak +
          da + Slovak)?

          The use of L2 (modal) particles, conjunctions and interjections of different
          kinds seems to be very frequent in bilingual talk.
          My own research about the use of Russian discourse markers in
          Russian-German discourse (i.e. German-speaking minority living in Sibiria)
          shows, that for some functions only Russian discourse markers are used, for
          others Russian and German ones are used interchangeably and sometimes they
          even
          double. The most frequent ones are "nu", "no", "a", "vot" (all
          multifunctional) but "da" and "net" are also amongst them.
          I think you are right - they look pretty integrated to me too: they are used
          repeatedly in the same ways by the same person, by different people, without
          hesitiation (and with hesitation where it is "needed"). If you are
          interested in a few examples (and read German), I can send you my
          article about the borrowing of these Russian function words.

          Best, Renate


          If you want to know more, you could read

          Maschler, Yael (1994) Metalanguaging and discourse markers in bilingual
          conversation. Language in Society 23, S. 325-366.

          Matras, Yaron (1998) Utterance modifiers and universals of grammatical
          borrowing. Linguistics 36-2, S.281-332

          Salmons, Joe (1990) Bilingual Discourse Marking: Code Switching, Borrowing,
          and Convergence in Some German-American Dialects. Linguistics 28, 453-480.
          ----- Original Message -----
          From: "Marian" <maslo@...>
          To: <code-switching@yahoogroups.com>
          Sent: Thursday, September 06, 2001 11:30 AM
          Subject: [code-switching] probem - integrated "borrowing" vs. transfer


          > Dear list members,
          >
          > I am student who is writing a work where he has met the following
          > rather terminoligical problems:
          >
          > I have an audio tape and a transcript of a narrative interview with a
          > man who is speaking Slovak, the man lives in Croatia. His Slovak is,
          > therefore, very influenced by the local variety of Croatian.
          >
          > I can clearly see some Croatian words integrated into (=being part
          > of) his Slovakian subidiolect - these words have the phonetic
          > characteristics of other Slovak words and segments in his speech, and
          > their Croatian equivalents never occur in his discourse, for example,
          > he uses the word vykoristit' which is originally from Croatian
          > iskoristiti, there is the prefix is- translated into Slovakian vy-,
          > the lexeme is Croatian -kosisti- (Slovak is -uzi-, so completely
          > different), the suffix is Slovakian as well (-t' instead of Croatian -
          > ti or -t). The whole word is phonetically Slovak. In the interview he
          > never said vykoristit' and also vyuzit' at the same time (both have
          > the same meaning, but one is his own, the second is Slovakian). On
          > the other hand, quite frequently he says some words (f ex.
          > Cr. "trebao" instead of Sl. "mal"/"potreboval"), which are
          > phonetically Croatian, but their Slovak equivalent is never used.
          > Is it a transfer, a code switch? I don't think so. I call the case
          > like "vykoristit'" an integrated element (into his Slovak
          > subidiolect). As for the case like "trebao" I don't know.
          >
          > There is also a Croatian conjunction "da" in the discourse, but at
          > the same time he uses Slovak "ze", "aby" etc. which have the same
          > function. As for phonetics, one can hardly say, because the word is
          > too short. The "da" is quite frequent, and used without any
          > antecedent hesitation, so I would say that it is at least partly
          > integrated. Is it a transfer (the context is usually Slovak: Slovak +
          > da + Slovak)?
          >
          > There is also a hybrid word:
          > "dopaci sa" (cca it-makes-someone-he-likes-it)
          > do- is from Croatian "dopada se"
          > -paci sa is from Slovakian "paci sa"
          > But the phonetic characteristics is Croatian
          > It is in Slovak context. Is it a transfer?
          > What if it came to his mind (and tongue) to say Croatian "dopada",
          > but "realized" that Slovak word is "paci", so he made this hybrid?
          > Would it be a code switch then? (from Slovakian to Croatian and back
          > to Slovakian)
          >
          > An other word in his Slovak speech is Slovak, but what is strange is
          > that it sounds Croatian:
          > Thanks to the fact the languages are similar, he used the intonation
          > contour of the Croatian "ostali" (the-remaining-one), but otherwise
          > the word is completely Slovak "ostatni". The context is
          > Slovak__Croatian, so the phonetics could have been transfered thanks
          > to the postcedent.
          > But the initial os- is identical in both the languages, and it bears
          > the accent, which in the discourse is Croatian. It could have been
          > some slow code switch with the first language persevering. Or can one
          > call it a mix?
          >
          >
          > -I would like to mark what is in the speaker's Slovak subidiolect
          > integrated from Croatian - how can I identify it in the speech then?
          >
          > -How could I identify and name the cases above? It is very hard to
          > write about something if one cannot name it. BTW, what is the
          > difference between an interference and a transfer, and between a
          > borrowing and a transfer?
          >
          > Do you have any suggestions or literature recommendations please (the
          > only problem is that a CS literature is rare in here, that is also
          > why I am writing to you)?
          >
          > Best regards
          > Marian
          >
          >
          >
          >
          >
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