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RE: [code-switching] code switching

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  • Kembo Sure
    I am yet to read what Evelyn says about Sheng but it is hardly true that Sheng is acquiring native speakers; the code is so unstable yet that it would be
    Message 1 of 12 , Jun 29, 2001
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      I am yet to read what Evelyn says about Sheng but it is hardly true that
      Sheng is acquiring native speakers; the code is so unstable yet that it
      would be difficult to imagine a group relying on it for all their
      crucial communication needs.
      Kembo

      -----Original Message-----
      From: Adam Blaxter Paliwala
      [SMTP:adam.paliwala@...]
      Sent: Friday, June 29, 2001 6:58 AM
      To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
      Subject: Re: [code-switching] code switching

      Evelyne's reference to Sheng has got me quite excited!

      My own work is with code-switching between a creole language and
      it's lexical
      superstrate in Papua New Guinea. The language pair Tok Pisin /
      English is
      provocative in the light of the suggestions of Myers-Scotton
      (the originator of
      the Matrix Language Frame model) and others that CS strategies
      may be a
      significant mechanism in the formation of pidgin languages, and
      my own
      postulation that, parallel to language internal processes in
      creolisation, CS
      with the superstrate is the strongest motivator of
      decreolisation.

      I don't know how much members of this group have considered
      pidgin and creole
      languages, but a studying an interlanguage like Sheng as
      descibed by Evelyne as
      it is transmitted to its first generation of first-language
      speakers is an
      amazing opportunity to consider how, if at all, such speakers
      modify the
      language.

      The acquisition of first-lanaguge speakers by mixed-code
      interlanguages which
      show the simplification characteristics of "pidgins" as a
      language class is the
      definitive step in the transition of such languages into
      "creoles". If Sheng, a
      product of CS by multilingual speakers, is similarly now
      acquiring
      first-language speakers, has anyone considered listening for
      creolisation
      processes in these children's speech?

      Exciting stuff!


      Adam.

      Adam Blaxter Paliwala
      University of Sydney
      Linguistics

      Evelyne Kisembe wrote:

      > Hi,
      > I think that the existance of language C is right and could be
      called an
      > extra language spoken by the speaker. This is so coz,
      following the MLF
      > model you just mentioned, we have the dominant and the
      embedded languages
      > and there are cases, where this type of mixing and switching
      has resulted
      > to the emergence of another language.For exmaple, in Kenya,
      Swahili is the
      > national language, English official and other indegineous
      languages. As a
      > result of this, a language called Sheng has emerged and it has
      as its
      > dominant structure the grammar of swahili,and emebedded words
      from English
      > and other indegineous languages, and is spoken as a third
      language and
      > first language to some little children now. Other cases of
      mixed languages
      > would reveal a similar phenomenon. Check out references of
      works done by
      > Maarten Mous, Majorie Meechan and Shana Poplack on how
      languages fit
      > together in Code-mixing and switching and how it brings about
      the issue of
      > the extra language. Hope i have helped.
      > Lynn
      >
      > On Tue, 26 Jun 2001 stussy_tom@... wrote:
      >
      > > hello,
      > > i would like to ask about the three languages, which are
      claimed to
      > > be acquired by biligual speakers or i am more prefer to use
      speakers
      > > of more than one language. language A, B, and C whereby C
      refers to
      > > the third language exists because the speaker speaks "an
      extra
      > > language".
      > > those who have read Romaine's "Bilingualism" might have come
      across
      > > the Matrix language and Embedded language frame.
      > >
      > > my question is, if there is at all why do language C exist?
      if we
      > > follow what Romaine has said, the Matrix language applies to
      the
      > > dominant language (L1) and the Embedded language will be the
      weaker
      > > ones. can't we just rely on what Romaine's has said?
      > >
      > >
      > >
      > > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
      > > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
      > > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
      > > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
      > >
      > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
      http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
      > >
      > >
      > >
      >
      > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
      > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
      > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
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      >
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    • azlinawati saleh
      thank you all for the replies. i do agree that MLF is not talking about the third grammar exists in the bilingual s speech. what about the semilinguals, are
      Message 2 of 12 , Jul 1, 2001
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        thank you all for the replies.
        i do agree that MLF is not talking about the third
        grammar exists in the bilingual's speech. what about
        the semilinguals, are they left undiscussed when the
        issue comes into picture? their language proficiency
        is incomplete. how do we relate this MLF, can we find
        similarity between semilinguals's syntactic structure
        to MLF?
        --- Nathan Ogechi <ogechinathan@...> wrote:
        > I am not sure if a third language actually exists
        > when bilinguals codeswitch. If one is indeed talking
        > about the ML - be it by Myesr-Scotton and her
        > associates in the MLF, Boumans, Kamwangamalu, Backus
        > etc - then, only one of the languages must be in
        > charge of the CS morphosyntactically. I say this
        > because I am not aware of an MLF model that is
        > talking
        > about a third or fourth grammar in CS. I am
        > investigating tringual CS in Kenya involving
        > Kiswahili, Ekegusii and English using the MLF and
        > its
        > extensions by Myers-Scotton. Only of the three
        > languages controls the switching at CP level.
        > Talking
        > about another language apart from those in the
        > switching is as good as proposing that CS is a
        > "language" in itself. Meeuwis and Blommaert (1998)
        > through their monolectal view argued that it is in
        > the
        > eye of the researcher that there seems to be CS
        > while
        > for the CSer the CS is the language. The CSers know
        > no
        > other language. Their analysis, however, ended up
        > recognising the "book" languages. In other words, I
        > am
        > not sure if the existence of third or fourth
        > language
        > in CS can be convincingly argued for. I doubt if the
        > emergence of Sheng in Kenya is a correct explanation
        > for the third language. Are we saying that my
        > subjects
        > speak a "Sheng" apart from switching between their
        > three languages? What is our view about Sheng? We
        > need
        > to be very clear about the phenomenon before we give
        > it as evidence. Further, is it always true that
        > people
        > who CS between English, Kiswahili and Luhya speak a
        > fourth language - Sheng?
        >
        >
        > or --- Evelyne Kisembe <ekisembe@...> wrote:
        > >
        > Hi,
        > > I think that the existance of language C is right
        > > and could be called an
        > > extra language spoken by the speaker. This is so
        > > coz, following the MLF
        > > model you just mentioned, we have the dominant and
        > > the embedded languages
        > > and there are cases, where this type of mixing and
        > > switching has resulted
        > > to the emergence of another language.For exmaple,
        > in
        > > Kenya, Swahili is the
        > > national language, English official and other
        > > indegineous languages. As a
        > > result of this, a language called Sheng has
        > emerged
        > > and it has as its
        > > dominant structure the grammar of swahili,and
        > > emebedded words from English
        > > and other indegineous languages, and is spoken as
        > a
        > > third language and
        > > first language to some little children now. Other
        > > cases of mixed languages
        > > would reveal a similar phenomenon. Check out
        > > references of works done by
        > > Maarten Mous, Majorie Meechan and Shana Poplack on
        > > how languages fit
        > > together in Code-mixing and switching and how it
        > > brings about the issue of
        > > the extra language. Hope i have helped.
        > > Lynn
        > >
        > > On Tue, 26 Jun 2001 stussy_tom@... wrote:
        > >
        > > > hello,
        > > > i would like to ask about the three languages,
        > > which are claimed to
        > > > be acquired by biligual speakers or i am more
        > > prefer to use speakers
        > > > of more than one language. language A, B, and C
        > > whereby C refers to
        > > > the third language exists because the speaker
        > > speaks "an extra
        > > > language".
        > > > those who have read Romaine's "Bilingualism"
        > might
        > > have come across
        > > > the Matrix language and Embedded language frame.
        >
        > > >
        > > > my question is, if there is at all why do
        > language
        > > C exist? if we
        > > > follow what Romaine has said, the Matrix
        > language
        > > applies to the
        > > > dominant language (L1) and the Embedded language
        > > will be the weaker
        > > > ones. can't we just rely on what Romaine's has
        > > said?
        > > >
        > > >
        > > >
        > > > To Post a message:
        > code-switching@yahoogroups.com
        > > > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
        > > > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
        > > > Web page:
        > > http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
        > > >
        > > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
        > > http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
        > > >
        > > >
        > > >
        > >
        > >
        > >
        >
        >
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      • azlinawati saleh
        i will read thoroughly what you have written and reply later. thank you. ... __________________________________________________ Do You Yahoo!? Get personalized
        Message 3 of 12 , Jul 1, 2001
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          i will read thoroughly what you have written and reply
          later. thank you.
          --- Adam Blaxter Paliwala
          <adam.paliwala@...> wrote:
          > Evelyne's reference to Sheng has got me quite
          > excited!
          >
          > My own work is with code-switching between a creole
          > language and it's lexical
          > superstrate in Papua New Guinea. The language pair
          > Tok Pisin / English is
          > provocative in the light of the suggestions of
          > Myers-Scotton (the originator of
          > the Matrix Language Frame model) and others that CS
          > strategies may be a
          > significant mechanism in the formation of pidgin
          > languages, and my own
          > postulation that, parallel to language internal
          > processes in creolisation, CS
          > with the superstrate is the strongest motivator of
          > decreolisation.
          >
          > I don't know how much members of this group have
          > considered pidgin and creole
          > languages, but a studying an interlanguage like
          > Sheng as descibed by Evelyne as
          > it is transmitted to its first generation of
          > first-language speakers is an
          > amazing opportunity to consider how, if at all, such
          > speakers modify the
          > language.
          >
          > The acquisition of first-lanaguge speakers by
          > mixed-code interlanguages which
          > show the simplification characteristics of "pidgins"
          > as a language class is the
          > definitive step in the transition of such languages
          > into "creoles". If Sheng, a
          > product of CS by multilingual speakers, is similarly
          > now acquiring
          > first-language speakers, has anyone considered
          > listening for creolisation
          > processes in these children's speech?
          >
          > Exciting stuff!
          >
          >
          > Adam.
          >
          > Adam Blaxter Paliwala
          > University of Sydney
          > Linguistics
          >
          > Evelyne Kisembe wrote:
          >
          > > Hi,
          > > I think that the existance of language C is right
          > and could be called an
          > > extra language spoken by the speaker. This is so
          > coz, following the MLF
          > > model you just mentioned, we have the dominant and
          > the embedded languages
          > > and there are cases, where this type of mixing and
          > switching has resulted
          > > to the emergence of another language.For exmaple,
          > in Kenya, Swahili is the
          > > national language, English official and other
          > indegineous languages. As a
          > > result of this, a language called Sheng has
          > emerged and it has as its
          > > dominant structure the grammar of swahili,and
          > emebedded words from English
          > > and other indegineous languages, and is spoken as
          > a third language and
          > > first language to some little children now. Other
          > cases of mixed languages
          > > would reveal a similar phenomenon. Check out
          > references of works done by
          > > Maarten Mous, Majorie Meechan and Shana Poplack on
          > how languages fit
          > > together in Code-mixing and switching and how it
          > brings about the issue of
          > > the extra language. Hope i have helped.
          > > Lynn
          > >
          > > On Tue, 26 Jun 2001 stussy_tom@... wrote:
          > >
          > > > hello,
          > > > i would like to ask about the three languages,
          > which are claimed to
          > > > be acquired by biligual speakers or i am more
          > prefer to use speakers
          > > > of more than one language. language A, B, and C
          > whereby C refers to
          > > > the third language exists because the speaker
          > speaks "an extra
          > > > language".
          > > > those who have read Romaine's "Bilingualism"
          > might have come across
          > > > the Matrix language and Embedded language frame.
          > > >
          > > > my question is, if there is at all why do
          > language C exist? if we
          > > > follow what Romaine has said, the Matrix
          > language applies to the
          > > > dominant language (L1) and the Embedded language
          > will be the weaker
          > > > ones. can't we just rely on what Romaine's has
          > said?
          > > >
          > > >
          > > >
          > > > To Post a message:
          > code-switching@yahoogroups.com
          > > > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
          > > > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
          > > > Web page:
          > http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
          > > >
          > > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
          > http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
          > > >
          > > >
          > > >
          > >
          > > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
          > > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
          > > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
          > > Web page:
          > http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
          > >
          > > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
          > http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
          >
          >


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        • Kembo Sure
          Evelyn I like your thoughts about Sheng but I think you are missing some facts about the phenomenon as it occurs here. It is true that there is CS between the
          Message 4 of 12 , Jul 2, 2001
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            Evelyn
            I like your thoughts about Sheng but I think you are missing some facts
            about the phenomenon as it occurs here. It is true that there is CS
            between the Kenyan languages and English and this has occurred to the
            extent that the youth have developed a kind of code we popularly call
            Sheng. Is Sheng similar to pidgin/creole in any way? Yes and no. Sheng
            is a consciously constructed code used by bilingual people with
            different mother tongues or sharing a mother tongue, but deliberately
            wishing to cut off a certain section of the speech community to which
            they also belong. It is a kind of secret jargon. Secondly, it is not
            true that Sheng is being acquired by children as a first language; this
            may happen later but it is still a far cry given the prevailing attitude
            to Sheng even by its own users. Sheng speakers will tell you that they
            outgrow it after some time and that it is so dynamic that no two
            generations would speak the same variety. This kind of situation does
            not auger well for its acquisition by children.

            kembo

            -----Original Message-----
            From: Evelyne Kisembe [SMTP:ekisembe@...]
            Sent: Wednesday, June 27, 2001 7:52 PM
            To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
            Subject: Re: [code-switching] code switching

            Hi,
            I think that the existance of language C is right and could be
            called an
            extra language spoken by the speaker. This is so coz, following
            the MLF
            model you just mentioned, we have the dominant and the embedded
            languages
            and there are cases, where this type of mixing and switching has
            resulted
            to the emergence of another language.For exmaple, in Kenya,
            Swahili is the
            national language, English official and other indegineous
            languages. As a
            result of this, a language called Sheng has emerged and it has
            as its
            dominant structure the grammar of swahili,and emebedded words
            from English
            and other indegineous languages, and is spoken as a third
            language and
            first language to some little children now. Other cases of mixed
            languages
            would reveal a similar phenomenon. Check out references of works
            done by
            Maarten Mous, Majorie Meechan and Shana Poplack on how languages
            fit
            together in Code-mixing and switching and how it brings about
            the issue of
            the extra language. Hope i have helped.
            Lynn

            On Tue, 26 Jun 2001 stussy_tom@... wrote:

            > hello,
            > i would like to ask about the three languages, which are
            claimed to
            > be acquired by biligual speakers or i am more prefer to use
            speakers
            > of more than one language. language A, B, and C whereby C
            refers to
            > the third language exists because the speaker speaks "an extra

            > language".
            > those who have read Romaine's "Bilingualism" might have come
            across
            > the Matrix language and Embedded language frame.
            >
            > my question is, if there is at all why do language C exist? if
            we
            > follow what Romaine has said, the Matrix language applies to
            the
            > dominant language (L1) and the Embedded language will be the
            weaker
            > ones. can't we just rely on what Romaine's has said?
            >
            >
            >
            > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
            > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
            > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
            > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
            >
            > Your use of Yahoo! Groups is subject to
            http://docs.yahoo.com/info/terms/
            >
            >
            >



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          • Zahra Amirian
            Hello there, I am a PhD student studying TEFL. Next Monday, I have a lecture on code switching and language contact . It was fascinating to me to find such a
            Message 5 of 12 , Dec 5, 2004
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              Hello there,
              I am a PhD student studying TEFL. Next Monday, I have a lecture on "code switching and language contact". It was fascinating to me to find such a site. but unfortunately I couldn't get any articles from this site . Specially, I need information about psychological aspect of code switching. Would you please help me? I will be so thankful.
              Thanks in advance.
              I'm eagerly waiting for the response.

              __________________________________________________
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              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • Silvina Faure
              Hi everyone! My name is Silvina. I live in Argentina and I am a teacher of English. I m very interested in Lingüistics and I m planning to take up a
              Message 6 of 12 , Dec 6, 2004
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                Hi everyone!
                My name is Silvina. I live in Argentina and I am a teacher of English. I'm very interested in Lingüistics and I'm planning to take up a postgraduate course on that.
                I've read Zahra's mail looking for information on code-switching. As far as I know - and speaking from a personal perspective as well - when an individual is bilingual he/she attaches a particular language to specific domains. When dealing with feelings and personal issues, the mother tongue is likely to come up as the best vehicle to deal with these. Therefore, two people can work together and use their second language as the language of work, but switch to their mother tongue when they are having a more intimate conversation. From my personal experience, it wouldn't cross my mind to use English with my children when we are having a personal conversation, it would be impersonal and less sincere. Therefore, I only do so for casual chit chat. The same applies to diglossic situations, for example, in Paraguay Spanish is used in educational and official contexts, whereas jokes and family talk - the type of interaction that aims at strengthening social bonds - takes place in Guaraní. I think this is so because language is so inextricably linked to culture and to identity. Well, hope to read what others have to say,
                Best,
                Silvina
                ----- Original Message -----
                From: Zahra Amirian
                To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                Sent: Sunday, December 05, 2004 6:18 PM
                Subject: [code-switching] code switching



                Hello there,
                I am a PhD student studying TEFL. Next Monday, I have a lecture on "code switching and language contact". It was fascinating to me to find such a site. but unfortunately I couldn't get any articles from this site . Specially, I need information about psychological aspect of code switching. Would you please help me? I will be so thankful.
                Thanks in advance.
                I'm eagerly waiting for the response.

                __________________________________________________
                Do You Yahoo!?
                Tired of spam? Yahoo! Mail has the best spam protection around
                http://mail.yahoo.com

                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]






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              • lidaa aka
                hi everyone, silvina...there is a problem....what you are talking about is alternation i.e. use of different languages in different domains et....however, code
                Message 7 of 12 , Dec 7, 2004
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                  hi everyone,
                  silvina...there is a problem....what you are talking
                  about is alternation i.e. use of different languages
                  in different domains et....however, code
                  mixing/switching is when you mix two languages in the
                  same sentence or maybe speak out one clause in one
                  language and another in another language. to put it
                  nicely, we can say say that code mixing can be
                  intersentential or intrasentential........ (i dont
                  want to go into the details of nomenclature here but
                  code mixing and swithching can be used for each other
                  though it is better to use inter- or intra-sentential
                  to clarify what we are saying)...
                  lidaa



                  --- Silvina Faure <si_re_fa@...> wrote:

                  >
                  > Hi everyone!
                  > My name is Silvina. I live in Argentina and I am a
                  > teacher of English. I'm very interested in
                  > Ling�istics and I'm planning to take up a
                  > postgraduate course on that.
                  > I've read Zahra's mail looking for information on
                  > code-switching. As far as I know - and speaking from
                  > a personal perspective as well - when an individual
                  > is bilingual he/she attaches a particular language
                  > to specific domains. When dealing with feelings and
                  > personal issues, the mother tongue is likely to come
                  > up as the best vehicle to deal with these.
                  > Therefore, two people can work together and use
                  > their second language as the language of work, but
                  > switch to their mother tongue when they are having a
                  > more intimate conversation. From my personal
                  > experience, it wouldn't cross my mind to use English
                  > with my children when we are having a personal
                  > conversation, it would be impersonal and less
                  > sincere. Therefore, I only do so for casual chit
                  > chat. The same applies to diglossic situations, for
                  > example, in Paraguay Spanish is used in educational
                  > and official contexts, whereas jokes and family talk
                  > - the type of interaction that aims at strengthening
                  > social bonds - takes place in Guaran�. I think this
                  > is so because language is so inextricably linked to
                  > culture and to identity. Well, hope to read what
                  > others have to say,
                  > Best,
                  > Silvina
                  > ----- Original Message -----
                  > From: Zahra Amirian
                  > To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                  > Sent: Sunday, December 05, 2004 6:18 PM
                  > Subject: [code-switching] code switching
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > Hello there,
                  > I am a PhD student studying TEFL. Next Monday, I
                  > have a lecture on "code switching and language
                  > contact". It was fascinating to me to find such a
                  > site. but unfortunately I couldn't get any articles
                  > from this site . Specially, I need information about
                  > psychological aspect of code switching. Would you
                  > please help me? I will be so thankful.
                  > Thanks in advance.
                  > I'm eagerly waiting for the response.
                  >
                  > __________________________________________________
                  > Do You Yahoo!?
                  > Tired of spam? Yahoo! Mail has the best spam
                  > protection around
                  > http://mail.yahoo.com
                  >
                  > [Non-text portions of this message have been
                  > removed]
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  >
                  > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                  > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
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                • Silvina Faure
                  All right, Lidaa. As far as I knew, code-switching applies to intersentential alternation and code mixing refers to alternation within the same sentence. I
                  Message 8 of 12 , Dec 9, 2004
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                    All right, Lidaa. As far as I knew, code-switching applies to
                    intersentential alternation and code mixing refers to alternation within the
                    same sentence. I think the situation I described is an instance of
                    code-switching according to domain. There are other instances in which
                    code-switching can be used to indicate mood, intention, etc. Anyway, I
                    entered this list to learn more so it's always enriching to read what others
                    say.

                    ----- Original Message -----
                    From: "lidaa aka" <lidaa_aka@...>
                    To: <code-switching@yahoogroups.com>
                    Sent: Tuesday, December 07, 2004 7:57 AM
                    Subject: Re: [code-switching] code switching Silvina


                    >
                    >
                    > hi everyone,
                    > silvina...there is a problem....what you are talking
                    > about is alternation i.e. use of different languages
                    > in different domains et....however, code
                    > mixing/switching is when you mix two languages in the
                    > same sentence or maybe speak out one clause in one
                    > language and another in another language. to put it
                    > nicely, we can say say that code mixing can be
                    > intersentential or intrasentential........ (i dont
                    > want to go into the details of nomenclature here but
                    > code mixing and swithching can be used for each other
                    > though it is better to use inter- or intra-sentential
                    > to clarify what we are saying)...
                    > lidaa
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > --- Silvina Faure <si_re_fa@...> wrote:
                    >
                    > >
                    > > Hi everyone!
                    > > My name is Silvina. I live in Argentina and I am a
                    > > teacher of English. I'm very interested in
                    > > Lingüistics and I'm planning to take up a
                    > > postgraduate course on that.
                    > > I've read Zahra's mail looking for information on
                    > > code-switching. As far as I know - and speaking from
                    > > a personal perspective as well - when an individual
                    > > is bilingual he/she attaches a particular language
                    > > to specific domains. When dealing with feelings and
                    > > personal issues, the mother tongue is likely to come
                    > > up as the best vehicle to deal with these.
                    > > Therefore, two people can work together and use
                    > > their second language as the language of work, but
                    > > switch to their mother tongue when they are having a
                    > > more intimate conversation. From my personal
                    > > experience, it wouldn't cross my mind to use English
                    > > with my children when we are having a personal
                    > > conversation, it would be impersonal and less
                    > > sincere. Therefore, I only do so for casual chit
                    > > chat. The same applies to diglossic situations, for
                    > > example, in Paraguay Spanish is used in educational
                    > > and official contexts, whereas jokes and family talk
                    > > - the type of interaction that aims at strengthening
                    > > social bonds - takes place in Guaraní. I think this
                    > > is so because language is so inextricably linked to
                    > > culture and to identity. Well, hope to read what
                    > > others have to say,
                    > > Best,
                    > > Silvina
                    > > ----- Original Message -----
                    > > From: Zahra Amirian
                    > > To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                    > > Sent: Sunday, December 05, 2004 6:18 PM
                    > > Subject: [code-switching] code switching
                    > >
                    > >
                    > >
                    > > Hello there,
                    > > I am a PhD student studying TEFL. Next Monday, I
                    > > have a lecture on "code switching and language
                    > > contact". It was fascinating to me to find such a
                    > > site. but unfortunately I couldn't get any articles
                    > > from this site . Specially, I need information about
                    > > psychological aspect of code switching. Would you
                    > > please help me? I will be so thankful.
                    > > Thanks in advance.
                    > > I'm eagerly waiting for the response.
                    > >
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