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is there any explanation for this code switching ?

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  • mostari hind
    hi, may be many of you remember my previous question but the new thing is that after trying an example on 94 respondents i found that : 60/94 of respondents
    Message 1 of 15 , Jun 9, 2009
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      hi,
      may be many of you remember my previous question but the new thing is that after trying an example on 94 respondents i found that :
      60/94 of respondents say : dik l'astuce ( that astuce ) in front of 34/94 who say : dak l'astuce .

      which demonstrates that the great majority regards astuce as feminine in Algerian Arabic . The problem is that ' astuce is not a common word used within the algerian speech community like in the francophone and even french speech community , so may be many of the speakers do not know its real meaning .
      Also, by applying the hypothesis of phonological shape , here astuce ends with 's' which is regarded as masculine in Arabic . *
      So nor translation ( since the word is uncommon ) nor the phonological application techniques can explain such tendency to regard astuce as masculine in Algerian Arabic .

      is there any explanation
      all the best
      Dr Mostari
    • sebastien kitengye
      Je pense pour ma part que le bilingue algérien qui incorpore la séquence « l’astuce » dans son discours en arabe la prend généralement au féminin du
      Message 2 of 15 , Jun 12, 2009
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        Je pense pour ma part que le bilingue algérien qui incorpore la séquence « l’astuce » dans son discours en arabe la prend généralement au féminin du fait que la séquence est un syntagme ayant un déterminant et un nom. Le déterminant  « l’ » suivie d’un nom commençant par la voyelle « a », il est perçu comme l’article féminin du français « la ». D’où attribution à toute la séquence du genre féminin. La séquence devient donc « la stuce ». J’estime également que ceux qui recourent au féminin commencent par identifier le genre de « astuce » (le féminin) avant de l’incorporer dans l’alternance. La marque du genre étant transportée par l’article (l’).Pour confirmer cela, il convient de catégoriser les enquêtés pour déterminer quelle catégorie d’usager traite cette séquence comme étant féminin et laquelle la traite comme masculin par rapport à leur degré d’acquisition du français.
        Il me semble aussi que ce sont les moins performants en français qui traite cette séquence comme masculin car non seulement ils sont attirés par la combinaison « l’ + a → la » mais aussi ils ignorent le genre de « astuce » dans sa langue d’origine (ici le francais)
        Sébastien KITENGYE SOKONI
        R.D.C.




        ________________________________
        De : mostari hind <hmostari@...>
        À : code-switching@yahoogroups.com
        Envoyé le : Mardi, 9 Juin 2009, 18h54mn 31s
        Objet : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?






        hi,
        may be many of you remember my previous question but the new thing is that after trying an example on 94 respondents i found that :
        60/94 of respondents say : dik l'astuce ( that astuce ) in front of 34/94 who say : dak l'astuce .

        which demonstrates that the great majority regards astuce as feminine in Algerian Arabic . The problem is that ' astuce is not a common word used within the algerian speech community like in the francophone and even french speech community , so may be many of the speakers do not know its real meaning .
        Also, by applying the hypothesis of phonological shape , here astuce ends with 's' which is regarded as masculine in Arabic . *
        So nor translation ( since the word is uncommon ) nor the phonological application techniques can explain such tendency to regard astuce as masculine in Algerian Arabic .

        is there any explanation
        all the best
        Dr Mostari







        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • Sebba, Mark
        I doubt that it will answer the question, but my chapter in the recent Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching discusses some of the complexities of
        Message 3 of 15 , Jun 12, 2009
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          I doubt that it will answer the question, but my chapter in the recent Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching discusses some of the complexities of this. The full reference is:

          Sebba, Mark "On the notions of congruence and convergence in code-switching", in Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds) The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching, pp. 40-57. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

          Mark

          Dr Mark Sebba
          Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact
          Department of Linguistics,
          Lancaster University
          Lancaster LA1 4YT
          Great Britain
          Tel. +44 1524 592453
          Fax +44 1524 843085
          e-mail: M.Sebba@...


          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Peter Bakker
          ... On trouve le même dans par example Michif, une langue qui a des verbes du Cris (Cree, Algonquienne) et des noms francais. Le nom l hôpital est devenu la
          Message 4 of 15 , Jun 12, 2009
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            code-switching@yahoogroups.com writes:
            >Je pense pour ma part que le bilingue algérien qui incorpore la séquence « l’astuce » dans son discours en arabe la prend généralement au féminin du fait que la séquence est un syntagme ayant un déterminant et un nom. Le déterminant « l’ » suivie d’un nom commençant par la voyelle « a », il est perçu comme l’article féminin du français « la ». D’où attribution à toute la séquence du genre féminin. La séquence devient donc « la stuce ». J’estime également que ceux qui recourent au féminin
            >commencent par identifier le genre de « astuce » (le féminin) avant de l’incorporer dans l’alternance. La marque du genre étant transportée par l’article (l’).Pour confirmer cela, il convient de catégoriser les enquêtés pour déterminer quelle catégorie d’usager traite cette séquence comme étant féminin et laquelle la traite comme masculin par rapport à leur degré d’acquisition du français.
            >Il me semble aussi que ce sont les moins performants en français qui traite cette séquence comme masculin car non seulement ils sont attirés par la combinaison « l’ + a la » mais aussi ils ignorent le genre de « astuce » dans sa langue d’origine (ici le francais)
            >Sébastien KITENGYE SOKONI
            >R.D.C.

            On trouve le même dans par example Michif, une langue qui a des verbes du Cris (Cree, Algonquienne) et des noms francais.
            Le nom l'hôpital est devenu la pital, une pital.
            Mais dans beaucoup dáutres noms qui commencent historiquement par a, on ne trouve pas cela.

            Et les locuteurs utilisent des consonne de hiatus un peu melangé: un ours, un z-ours, un l-ours, les n-ours, etc.

            Ce sont des cas de reanalyse, mais on ne le trouve pas souvent dans l'alternance de codes.

            Peter Bakker






            Peter Bakker email: linpb@...
            Department of Linguistics tel. (45) 8942.6553
            Inst. for Anthropology, Archaeology and Linguistics
            Aarhus University tel. institute: (0045)8942.6562
            Nordre Ringgade, buiding 1410 fax institute: (0045)8942.6570
            DK - 8000 Aarhus C room 340

            home page: www.hum.au.dk/lingvist/linpb/home_uk.htm






            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • rina marnita
            Dear all, I need an information. I had conducted a research on language choice among Minangkabau bilingual children as part of my PhD disertation. The
            Message 5 of 15 , Jun 12, 2009
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              Dear all,

              I need an information. I had conducted a research on language choice among Minangkabau bilingual children as part of my PhD disertation. The informants are of children of 12 to 16 years old taken from three different levels of school. Does this fulfill the criteria? Or should I use the term 'student' instead 'children'?


              Thank you.

              Rina Marnita
              Institute of Malay World and Civivlization, UKM. Malaysia.





              ________________________________
              From: "Sebba, Mark" <m.sebba@...>
              To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
              Sent: Friday, June 12, 2009 8:17:24 PM
              Subject: RE: Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?





              I doubt that it will answer the question, but my chapter in the recent Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching discusses some of the complexities of this. The full reference is:

              Sebba, Mark "On the notions of congruence and convergence in code-switching" , in Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds) The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching, pp. 40-57. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

              Mark

              Dr Mark Sebba
              Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact
              Department of Linguistics,
              Lancaster University
              Lancaster LA1 4YT
              Great Britain
              Tel. +44 1524 592453
              Fax +44 1524 843085
              e-mail: M.Sebba@lancaster. ac.uk

              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]







              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • sebastien kitengye
              Hello Dr Sebba! Comment puis-je obtenir The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-switching, 2OO9? Pouvez-vous me faire parvenir votre article et celui de
              Message 6 of 15 , Jun 13, 2009
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                Hello Dr Sebba!
                Comment puis-je obtenir The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-switching, 2OO9?
                Pouvez-vous me faire parvenir votre article et celui de Myers-Scotton?
                Sébastien.




                ________________________________
                De : "Sebba, Mark" <m.sebba@...>
                À : code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                Envoyé le : Vendredi, 12 Juin 2009, 14h17mn 24s
                Objet : RE: Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?





                I doubt that it will answer the question, but my chapter in the recent Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching discusses some of the complexities of this. The full reference is:

                Sebba, Mark "On the notions of congruence and convergence in code-switching" , in Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds) The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching, pp. 40-57. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                Mark

                Dr Mark Sebba
                Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact
                Department of Linguistics,
                Lancaster University
                Lancaster LA1 4YT
                Great Britain
                Tel. +44 1524 592453
                Fax +44 1524 843085
                e-mail: M.Sebba@lancaster. ac.uk

                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]







                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • sebastien kitengye
                Si vous considérez l âge et le niveau de scolarisation comme variable pouvant jouer sur le choix, vous pourrez dans ce cas parler d enfant et d élève. Mais
                Message 7 of 15 , Jun 13, 2009
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                  Si vous considérez l'âge et le niveau de scolarisation comme variable pouvant jouer sur le choix, vous pourrez dans ce cas parler d'enfant et d'élève. Mais si c'est l'une ou l'autre des deux variables, vous parlerez soit d'enfant, soit d'élève suivant l'orientation de votre recherche. Voilà mon avis.
                  Sébastien KITENGYE SOKONI
                  Doctorant à l'Université de Kinshasa
                  RDC




                  ________________________________
                  De : rina marnita <rmarnita@...>
                  À : code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                  Envoyé le : Samedi, 13 Juin 2009, 4h33mn 16s
                  Objet : [code-switching] Criteria for 'children'





                  Dear all,

                  I need an information. I had conducted a research on language choice among Minangkabau bilingual children as part of my PhD disertation. The informants are of children of 12 to 16 years old taken from three different levels of school. Does this fulfill the criteria? Or should I use the term 'student' instead 'children'?

                  Thank you.

                  Rina Marnita
                  Institute of Malay World and Civivlization, UKM. Malaysia.

                  ____________ _________ _________ __
                  From: "Sebba, Mark" <m.sebba@lancaster. ac.uk>
                  To: code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                  Sent: Friday, June 12, 2009 8:17:24 PM
                  Subject: RE: Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                  I doubt that it will answer the question, but my chapter in the recent Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching discusses some of the complexities of this. The full reference is:

                  Sebba, Mark "On the notions of congruence and convergence in code-switching" , in Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds) The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching, pp. 40-57. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                  Mark

                  Dr Mark Sebba
                  Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact
                  Department of Linguistics,
                  Lancaster University
                  Lancaster LA1 4YT
                  Great Britain
                  Tel. +44 1524 592453
                  Fax +44 1524 843085
                  e-mail: M.Sebba@lancaster. ac.uk

                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]







                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • ngoie irene
                  BONJOUR Seba  est -ce qu on peut travailler sur le code-switching avec la methode de Myers-Scotton sans faire allusion de 4-M merci ... De: sebastien kitengye
                  Message 8 of 15 , Jun 13, 2009
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                    BONJOUR Seba 
                    est -ce qu'on peut travailler sur le code-switching avec la methode de Myers-Scotton sans faire allusion de 4-M
                    merci

                    --- En date de : Sam 13.6.09, sebastien kitengye <samsoki@...> a écrit :


                    De: sebastien kitengye <samsoki@...>
                    Objet: Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?
                    À: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                    Date: Samedi 13 Juin 2009, 9h26








                    Hello Dr Sebba!
                    Comment puis-je obtenir The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-switching, 2OO9?
                    Pouvez-vous me faire parvenir votre article et celui de Myers-Scotton?
                    Sébastien.

                    ____________ _________ _________ __
                    De : "Sebba, Mark" <m.sebba@lancaster. ac.uk>
                    À : code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                    Envoyé le : Vendredi, 12 Juin 2009, 14h17mn 24s
                    Objet : RE: Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                    I doubt that it will answer the question, but my chapter in the recent Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching discusses some of the complexities of this. The full reference is:

                    Sebba, Mark "On the notions of congruence and convergence in code-switching" , in Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds) The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching, pp. 40-57. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                    Mark

                    Dr Mark Sebba
                    Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact
                    Department of Linguistics,
                    Lancaster University
                    Lancaster LA1 4YT
                    Great Britain
                    Tel. +44 1524 592453
                    Fax +44 1524 843085
                    e-mail: M.Sebba@lancaster. ac.uk

                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]



















                    [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • sebastien kitengye
                    Je travaille sur l alternance kisongye/français. Et la thèse est en lecture depuis plusieurs mois. Je crois avoir dirigé une monographie sur l alternance
                    Message 9 of 15 , Jun 13, 2009
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                      Je travaille sur l'alternance kisongye/français. Et la thèse est en lecture depuis plusieurs mois. Je crois avoir dirigé une monographie sur l'alternance swahili/français d'un certain Lukulunga Masudi.
                      Quel est le titre exact de votre recherche? s'agit-il d'une étude  desciptive? Sociolinguistique (variation ou interaction?) Qu'est-ce que  vous appelez 4-M? J'ai besoin des réponses pour répondre à votre question. Vous savez que Myers-Scotton avec son modèle de la langue matrice s'oppose nettement à Shana Poplack.  Pouvez-vous me répondre?
                      Sébastien.




                      ________________________________
                      De : ngoie irene <ngoie.irene@...>
                      À : code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                      Envoyé le : Samedi, 13 Juin 2009, 14h31mn 38s
                      Objet : Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?





                      BONJOUR Seba 
                      est -ce qu'on peut travailler sur le code-switching avec la methode de Myers-Scotton sans faire allusion de 4-M
                      merci

                      --- En date de : Sam 13.6.09, sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr> a écrit :

                      De: sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr>
                      Objet: Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?
                      À: code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                      Date: Samedi 13 Juin 2009, 9h26

                      Hello Dr Sebba!
                      Comment puis-je obtenir The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-switching, 2OO9?
                      Pouvez-vous me faire parvenir votre article et celui de Myers-Scotton?
                      Sébastien.

                      ____________ _________ _________ __
                      De : "Sebba, Mark" <m.sebba@lancaster. ac.uk>
                      À : code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                      Envoyé le : Vendredi, 12 Juin 2009, 14h17mn 24s
                      Objet : RE: Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                      I doubt that it will answer the question, but my chapter in the recent Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching discusses some of the complexities of this. The full reference is:

                      Sebba, Mark "On the notions of congruence and convergence in code-switching" , in Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds) The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching, pp. 40-57. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                      Mark

                      Dr Mark Sebba
                      Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact
                      Department of Linguistics,
                      Lancaster University
                      Lancaster LA1 4YT
                      Great Britain
                      Tel. +44 1524 592453
                      Fax +44 1524 843085
                      e-mail: M.Sebba@lancaster. ac.uk

                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

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                    • ngoie irene
                      BONJOUR effectivement noyers et poplack se diffère sur la contrainte de morphème et sur les emprunt pour  myers  l insertion d un seul lexique ou plusieurs
                      Message 10 of 15 , Jun 13, 2009
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                        BONJOUR
                        effectivement noyers et poplack se diffère sur la contrainte de morphème et sur les emprunt pour  myers  l'insertion d'un seul lexique ou plusieurs suffit pour parler de l'alternance codique tandis que pour Poplack c'est le contraire. je fais une étude descriptive mon étude se fonde sur la methode (MLF) matrix language frame  et parfois quand je me retrouve devant un incongruence je fait recours au 4-M c'est justement l'un de modele du niveau abstrait Myers pour complete. 4-M pour dire 4morphème . ce modele vient compléter le MLF de (1993) à case des limites de ces derniers myers le completel'hypothèse de la ML. le modèle linéaire de Poplack est vraiment limité surtout surtout avec nos langue d'afrique ou l'insertion se fait n'importe quand  n'importe comment.   bref tout ces modele de myers consisteen   l'ident
                        ification de la ML. Mais le 4-M va plus loin il est plus psycholinguistique et psychocognitif . c'est interessant pour celui qui étudie le CS de L'acquisition de langue

                        merci
                        --- En date de : Sam 13.6.09, sebastien kitengye <samsoki@...> a écrit :


                        De: sebastien kitengye <samsoki@...>
                        Objet: Re : Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?
                        À: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                        Date: Samedi 13 Juin 2009, 14h15








                        Je travaille sur l'alternance kisongye/franç ais. Et la thèse est en lecture depuis plusieurs mois. Je crois avoir dirigé une monographie sur l'alternance swahili/franç ais d'un certain Lukulunga Masudi.
                        Quel est le titre exact de votre recherche? s'agit-il d'une étude  desciptive? Sociolinguistique (variation ou interaction? ) Qu'est-ce que  vous appelez 4-M? J'ai besoin des réponses pour répondre à votre question. Vous savez que Myers-Scotton avec son modèle de la langue matrice s'oppose nettement à Shana Poplack.  Pouvez-vous me répondre?
                        Sébastien.

                        ____________ _________ _________ __
                        De : ngoie irene <ngoie.irene@ yahoo.fr>
                        À : code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                        Envoyé le : Samedi, 13 Juin 2009, 14h31mn 38s
                        Objet : Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                        BONJOUR Seba 
                        est -ce qu'on peut travailler sur le code-switching avec la methode de Myers-Scotton sans faire allusion de 4-M
                        merci

                        --- En date de : Sam 13.6.09, sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr> a écrit :

                        De: sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr>
                        Objet: Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?
                        À: code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                        Date: Samedi 13 Juin 2009, 9h26

                        Hello Dr Sebba!
                        Comment puis-je obtenir The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-switching, 2OO9?
                        Pouvez-vous me faire parvenir votre article et celui de Myers-Scotton?
                        Sébastien.

                        ____________ _________ _________ __
                        De : "Sebba, Mark" <m.sebba@lancaster. ac.uk>
                        À : code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                        Envoyé le : Vendredi, 12 Juin 2009, 14h17mn 24s
                        Objet : RE: Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                        I doubt that it will answer the question, but my chapter in the recent Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching discusses some of the complexities of this. The full reference is:

                        Sebba, Mark "On the notions of congruence and convergence in code-switching" , in Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds) The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching, pp. 40-57. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                        Mark

                        Dr Mark Sebba
                        Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact
                        Department of Linguistics,
                        Lancaster University
                        Lancaster LA1 4YT
                        Great Britain
                        Tel. +44 1524 592453
                        Fax +44 1524 843085
                        e-mail: M.Sebba@lancaster. ac.uk

                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

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                      • sebastien kitengye
                        Bonjour Irène Je ne travaille pas sur le modèle de la langue matrice de Myers-Scotton mais j ai tout de même des informations sur son propos. On peut bien y
                        Message 11 of 15 , Jun 15, 2009
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                          Bonjour Irène

                          Je ne travaille pas sur le modèle de la langue matrice de Myers-Scotton mais j'ai tout de même des informations sur son propos. On peut bien y travailler car il s'agit  bien de faire la démonstration que dans l'alternance de codes swahili-français, le kiswahili est bien la langue matrice. Evidemment le quatre types de morphèmes qu'elle donne concourent à la démonstration ci-dessus mais ne constituent pas une vérité de l'évangile.

                          Irène peux-tu commander pour moi "The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Code Switching 2009? Il semble que ça  coûte 120 dollars!

                          Sébastien.




                          ________________________________
                          De : ngoie irene <ngoie.irene@...>
                          À : code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                          Envoyé le : Samedi, 13 Juin 2009, 14h31mn 38s
                          Objet : Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?





                          BONJOUR Seba 
                          est -ce qu'on peut travailler sur le code-switching avec la methode de Myers-Scotton sans faire allusion de 4-M
                          merci

                          --- En date de : Sam 13.6.09, sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr> a écrit :

                          De: sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr>
                          Objet: Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?
                          À: code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                          Date: Samedi 13 Juin 2009, 9h26

                          Hello Dr Sebba!
                          Comment puis-je obtenir The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-switching, 2OO9?
                          Pouvez-vous me faire parvenir votre article et celui de Myers-Scotton?
                          Sébastien.

                          ____________ _________ _________ __
                          De : "Sebba, Mark" <m.sebba@lancaster. ac.uk>
                          À : code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                          Envoyé le : Vendredi, 12 Juin 2009, 14h17mn 24s
                          Objet : RE: Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                          I doubt that it will answer the question, but my chapter in the recent Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching discusses some of the complexities of this. The full reference is:

                          Sebba, Mark "On the notions of congruence and convergence in code-switching" , in Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds) The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching, pp. 40-57. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                          Mark

                          Dr Mark Sebba
                          Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact
                          Department of Linguistics,
                          Lancaster University
                          Lancaster LA1 4YT
                          Great Britain
                          Tel. +44 1524 592453
                          Fax +44 1524 843085
                          e-mail: M.Sebba@lancaster. ac.uk

                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

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                        • ngoie irene
                          Bonjour Sebastien Après avoir appliqué la méthode MLF le swahili n est pas toujours la langue matrice ça depend. Donc il ne s agit pas de trancher non
                          Message 12 of 15 , Jun 15, 2009
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                            Bonjour Sebastien
                            Après avoir appliqué la méthode MLF le swahili n'est pas toujours la langue matrice ça depend. Donc il ne s'agit pas de trancher non c'est en se fondant sur la méthodologie  de Myers :  tantôt c'est le français qui est la langue matrice tantôt c'est le swahili. A propos du livre je n'ai pas des informationsprécises.

                            --- En date de : Lun 15.6.09, sebastien kitengye <samsoki@...> a écrit :


                            De: sebastien kitengye <samsoki@...>
                            Objet: Re : Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?
                            À: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                            Date: Lundi 15 Juin 2009, 15h11








                            Bonjour Irène

                            Je ne travaille pas sur le modèle de la langue matrice de Myers-Scotton mais j'ai tout de même des informations sur son propos. On peut bien y travailler car il s'agit  bien de faire la démonstration que dans l'alternance de codes swahili-franç ais, le kiswahili est bien la langue matrice. Evidemment le quatre types de morphèmes qu'elle donne concourent à la démonstration ci-dessus mais ne constituent pas une vérité de l'évangile.

                            Irène peux-tu commander pour moi "The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic Code Switching 2009? Il semble que ça  coûte 120 dollars!

                            Sébastien.

                            ____________ _________ _________ __
                            De : ngoie irene <ngoie.irene@ yahoo.fr>
                            À : code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                            Envoyé le : Samedi, 13 Juin 2009, 14h31mn 38s
                            Objet : Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                            BONJOUR Seba 
                            est -ce qu'on peut travailler sur le code-switching avec la methode de Myers-Scotton sans faire allusion de 4-M
                            merci

                            --- En date de : Sam 13.6.09, sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr> a écrit :

                            De: sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr>
                            Objet: Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?
                            À: code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                            Date: Samedi 13 Juin 2009, 9h26

                            Hello Dr Sebba!
                            Comment puis-je obtenir The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-switching, 2OO9?
                            Pouvez-vous me faire parvenir votre article et celui de Myers-Scotton?
                            Sébastien.

                            ____________ _________ _________ __
                            De : "Sebba, Mark" <m.sebba@lancaster. ac.uk>
                            À : code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                            Envoyé le : Vendredi, 12 Juin 2009, 14h17mn 24s
                            Objet : RE: Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                            I doubt that it will answer the question, but my chapter in the recent Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching discusses some of the complexities of this. The full reference is:

                            Sebba, Mark "On the notions of congruence and convergence in code-switching" , in Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds) The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching, pp. 40-57. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                            Mark

                            Dr Mark Sebba
                            Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact
                            Department of Linguistics,
                            Lancaster University
                            Lancaster LA1 4YT
                            Great Britain
                            Tel. +44 1524 592453
                            Fax +44 1524 843085
                            e-mail: M.Sebba@lancaster. ac.uk

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                          • sebastien kitengye
                            Bonjour Irène As-tu des documents en français sur le modèle 4-M de Scotton. Je viens de lire ce mail en retard. Puis-je attendre de toi ces documents?
                            Message 13 of 15 , Jun 15, 2009
                            • 0 Attachment
                              Bonjour Irène
                              As-tu des documents en français sur le modèle 4-M de Scotton. Je viens de lire ce mail en retard. Puis-je attendre de toi ces documents?
                              Merci d'avance.
                              Sébastien
                              l



                              ________________________________
                              De : ngoie irene <ngoie.irene@...>
                              À : code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                              Envoyé le : Samedi, 13 Juin 2009, 20h57mn 18s
                              Objet : Re : Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?





                              BONJOUR
                              effectivement noyers et poplack se diffère sur la contrainte de morphème et sur les emprunt pour  myers  l'insertion d'un seul lexique ou plusieurs suffit pour parler de l'alternance codique tandis que pour Poplack c'est le contraire. je fais une étude descriptive mon étude se fonde sur la methode (MLF) matrix language frame  et parfois quand je me retrouve devant un incongruence je fait recours au 4-M c'est justement l'un de modele du niveau abstrait Myers pour complete. 4-M pour dire 4morphème . ce modele vient compléter le MLF de (1993) à case des limites de ces derniers myers le completel'hypothè se de la ML. le modèle linéaire de Poplack est vraiment limité surtout surtout avec nos langue d'afrique ou l'insertion se fait n'importe quand  n'importe comment.   bref tout ces modele de myers consisteen   l'ident
                              ification de la ML. Mais le 4-M va plus loin il est plus psycholinguistique et psychocognitif . c'est interessant pour celui qui étudie le CS de L'acquisition de langue

                              merci
                              --- En date de : Sam 13.6.09, sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr> a écrit :

                              De: sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr>
                              Objet: Re : Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?
                              À: code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                              Date: Samedi 13 Juin 2009, 14h15

                              Je travaille sur l'alternance kisongye/franç ais. Et la thèse est en lecture depuis plusieurs mois. Je crois avoir dirigé une monographie sur l'alternance swahili/franç ais d'un certain Lukulunga Masudi.
                              Quel est le titre exact de votre recherche? s'agit-il d'une étude  desciptive? Sociolinguistique (variation ou interaction? ) Qu'est-ce que  vous appelez 4-M? J'ai besoin des réponses pour répondre à votre question. Vous savez que Myers-Scotton avec son modèle de la langue matrice s'oppose nettement à Shana Poplack.  Pouvez-vous me répondre?
                              Sébastien.

                              ____________ _________ _________ __
                              De : ngoie irene <ngoie.irene@ yahoo.fr>
                              À : code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                              Envoyé le : Samedi, 13 Juin 2009, 14h31mn 38s
                              Objet : Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                              BONJOUR Seba 
                              est -ce qu'on peut travailler sur le code-switching avec la methode de Myers-Scotton sans faire allusion de 4-M
                              merci

                              --- En date de : Sam 13.6.09, sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr> a écrit :

                              De: sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr>
                              Objet: Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?
                              À: code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                              Date: Samedi 13 Juin 2009, 9h26

                              Hello Dr Sebba!
                              Comment puis-je obtenir The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-switching, 2OO9?
                              Pouvez-vous me faire parvenir votre article et celui de Myers-Scotton?
                              Sébastien.

                              ____________ _________ _________ __
                              De : "Sebba, Mark" <m.sebba@lancaster. ac.uk>
                              À : code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                              Envoyé le : Vendredi, 12 Juin 2009, 14h17mn 24s
                              Objet : RE: Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                              I doubt that it will answer the question, but my chapter in the recent Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching discusses some of the complexities of this. The full reference is:

                              Sebba, Mark "On the notions of congruence and convergence in code-switching" , in Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds) The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching, pp. 40-57. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                              Mark

                              Dr Mark Sebba
                              Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact
                              Department of Linguistics,
                              Lancaster University
                              Lancaster LA1 4YT
                              Great Britain
                              Tel. +44 1524 592453
                              Fax +44 1524 843085
                              e-mail: M.Sebba@lancaster. ac.uk

                              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]

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                            • rina marnita
                              Thank you very much for your response. ________________________________ From: sebastien kitengye To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com Sent:
                              Message 14 of 15 , Jun 16, 2009
                              • 0 Attachment
                                Thank you very much for your response.




                                ________________________________
                                From: sebastien kitengye <samsoki@...>
                                To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                                Sent: Saturday, June 13, 2009 5:33:45 PM
                                Subject: Re : [code-switching] Criteria for 'children'





                                Si vous considérez l'âge et le niveau de scolarisation comme variable pouvant jouer sur le choix, vous pourrez dans ce cas parler d'enfant et d'élève. Mais si c'est l'une ou l'autre des deux variables, vous parlerez soit d'enfant, soit d'élève suivant l'orientation de votre recherche. Voilà mon avis.
                                Sébastien KITENGYE SOKONI
                                Doctorant à l'Université de Kinshasa
                                RDC

                                ____________ _________ _________ __
                                De : rina marnita <rmarnita@yahoo. com>
                                À : code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                                Envoyé le : Samedi, 13 Juin 2009, 4h33mn 16s
                                Objet : [code-switching] Criteria for 'children'

                                Dear all,

                                I need an information. I had conducted a research on language choice among Minangkabau bilingual children as part of my PhD disertation. The informants are of children of 12 to 16 years old taken from three different levels of school. Does this fulfill the criteria? Or should I use the term 'student' instead 'children'?

                                Thank you.

                                Rina Marnita
                                Institute of Malay World and Civivlization, UKM. Malaysia.

                                ____________ _________ _________ __
                                From: "Sebba, Mark" <m.sebba@lancaster. ac.uk>
                                To: code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                                Sent: Friday, June 12, 2009 8:17:24 PM
                                Subject: RE: Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                                I doubt that it will answer the question, but my chapter in the recent Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching discusses some of the complexities of this. The full reference is:

                                Sebba, Mark "On the notions of congruence and convergence in code-switching" , in Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds) The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching, pp. 40-57. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                                Mark

                                Dr Mark Sebba
                                Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact
                                Department of Linguistics,
                                Lancaster University
                                Lancaster LA1 4YT
                                Great Britain
                                Tel. +44 1524 592453
                                Fax +44 1524 843085
                                e-mail: M.Sebba@lancaster. ac.uk

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                              • ngoie irene
                                LINGUIST List 14.2501 Mon Sep 22 2003 Review: Psycholing/Socioling: Myers-Scotton (2003) Editor for this issue: Naomi Ogasawara What
                                Message 15 of 15 , Jun 16, 2009
                                • 0 Attachment
                                  LINGUIST List 14.2501
                                  Mon Sep 22 2003
                                  Review: Psycholing/Socioling: Myers-Scotton (2003)
                                  Editor for this issue: Naomi Ogasawara <naomilinguistlist.org>

                                  What follows is a review or discussion note contributed to our Book Discussion Forum. We expect discussions to be informal and interactive; and the author of the book discussed is cordially invited to join in. If you are interested in leading a book discussion, look for books announced on LINGUIST as "available for review." Then contact Simin Karimi at siminlinguistlist.org.


                                  Directory

                                  Alexander Rusakov, Contact Linguistics: Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical Outcomes


                                  Message 1: Contact Linguistics: Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical OutcomesDate: Sun, 21 Sep 2003 12:30:46 +0000
                                  From: Alexander Rusakov <rusakovAR2015.spb.edu>
                                  Subject: Contact Linguistics: Bilingual Encounters and Grammatical Outcomes
                                  2nd review

                                  Myers-Scotton, Carol (2002) Contact Linguistics: Bilingual Encounters
                                  and Grammatical Outcomes, Oxford University Press.

                                  Announced at http://linguistlist.org/issues/13/13-3317.html


                                  Alexander Yu. Rusakov, St. Petersburg State University

                                  The book under review contains a detailed account of Myers-Scotton's
                                  theory in its current state. This theory was first proposed in her
                                  landmark classic ''Duelling languages'' (Myers-Scotton 1993a); further
                                  developments in this theory can be traced in numerous follow-up
                                  studies written by either Myers-Scotton alone (e.g. 1998, 2001 ) or in
                                  collaboration with colleagues (e.g. Myers-Scotton & Jake 1995,
                                  2000). Although the cornerstone assumptions remain unchanged, the
                                  theory has significantly changed since its appearance. It may be
                                  observed that a general trend of that development was a shift from a
                                  theory of code-switching with special stress on its grammatical aspect
                                  to a broader theory of language contacts. The phenomena viewed in this
                                  theory are different kinds of structural outcome in the languages
                                  involved in the contacts, ranging from borrowing to the formation of
                                  pidgin and creole languages. It is repeatedly pointed out that there
                                  is a fundamental unanimity between the phenomena at issue (cf. ''[t]he
                                  same set of principles and processes explains all contact phenomena'',
                                  xii), as well as between bilingual and monolingual speech
                                  (cf. ''[t]hese principles and processes are apparent in language in
                                  general'', xii).

                                  Along with the discussion of the ideas put forward by Myers-Scotton
                                  and numerous linguistic facts in support of those, the book contains
                                  an elaborate and expedient survey of the up-to-date literature for
                                  each of the raised topics. The text of the book is extremely dense,
                                  which poses certain problems for reviewing it. Thus, in the synopsis,
                                  I will confine myself to the indication at the basic issues raised in
                                  each chapter. It is equally impossible to touch upon all the
                                  theoretical problems discussed by Myers-Scotton in the evaluative part
                                  of the review. Thus I am forced to concentrate on a small range of
                                  issues, mostly on those of particular interest to me personally.

                                  SYNOPSIS

                                  The monograph is aptly organized from a didactic point of view. In the
                                  first chapter, a short outline of a theoretical model or, rather, of
                                  several models proposed by Myers-Scotton is offered, ''[c]hapter 2 is
                                  the only one that does not focus on grammatical structures in specific
                                  contact phenomena; instead, it offers an overview of the
                                  sociolinguistic factors that promote bilingualism across societies and
                                  in individuals'' (28). The third chapter contains a detailed
                                  description of the theoretical approach advocated in the book, while
                                  the following three ones show how this approach ''works'' with respect
                                  to the various types of contact data. In particular, chapter 4 focuses
                                  on the ''problematic'' cases of code-switching, chapter 5 on the
                                  problems of convergence and attrition and chapter 6 on lexical
                                  borrowings, mixed languages and creoles. ''The final chapter (Chapter
                                  7) offers a summary in the form of a set of hypotheses based on
                                  discussions in the earlier chapters'' (29).

                                  1. INTRODUCTION (1-29) briefly outlines the subject of investigation
                                  (see above) and introduces the general theoretical base of the
                                  study. This base includes four general principles: - The Matrix
                                  Language principle - The Uniform Structure principle, cf. ''[a] given
                                  constituent type in any language has a uniform abstract structure and
                                  the requirements of well-formedness for this constituent type must be
                                  observed whenever the constituent appears'' (8) - The Asymmetry
                                  Principle for bilingual frames (asymmetry of the participation of the
                                  languages involved in the bilingual speech) - and The Morpheme-Sorting
                                  Principle (''[a]t the abstract level of linguistic competence and
                                  production, there are different types of morphemes. In bilingual
                                  speech, the outcome of these abstract differences is that all the
                                  morphemes from the participating varieties do not have equal
                                  possibilities of occurrence'' (9).

                                  Based on these principles, three models are put forward: the main
                                  Matrix Language Frame model (MLF), that was originally proposed in
                                  (Myers-Scotton 1993a) and then amended almost to its current state in
                                  Myers-Scotton 1997, and two supplementary models developed in
                                  collaboration with Jan Jake - The 4-M model and the Abstract Level
                                  model. These models are thoroughly described in Chapter 3.

                                  A number of questions essential for further argument are tackled in
                                  the Introduction. In particular, ''implications for a model of
                                  language production'' are discussed; an approach adopted by
                                  Myers-Scotton ''presupposes the model of language production'' that is
                                  generally in accordance with (Levelt 1989) although in a modified
                                  version (basically, as a result of putting forward the 4-M model).

                                  A crucial terminological opposition is introduced here between classic
                                  codeswitching (codeswitching in which both the matrix language and
                                  embedded language are preserved more or less intact, and ''the
                                  speakers ... can produce well-formed monolingual utterances in the
                                  variety which becomes the source of... ML'' - 8) and composite
                                  codeswitching (matrix language has gone through a convergence with the
                                  embedded language).

                                  2. THE ROOTS OF LANGUAGE CONTACT (30-52) views language contact
                                  phenomena from a sociolinguistic point of view. Some factors favoring
                                  bilingualism are revealed, as well as ''the costs and rewards of
                                  bilingualism in the international area'' and the ''motivations to
                                  become bilingual''. A separate section is devoted to language-use
                                  patterns, here lexical borrowing are dealt with (to be discussed in
                                  more detail in chapter 6) along with the use of language in various
                                  functional domains and sociolinguistic aspects of
                                  codeswitching. Besides, Rational Choice Model (cf. in detail Myers-
                                  Scotton & Bolonyai 2001) is briefly outlined, which is an up-to-date
                                  variant of Myers-Scotton's earlier Markedness model (cf. Myers-
                                  Scotton 1993b). The most important innovation in this model is
                                  assuming ''that choices are best explained as cognitive based
                                  calculations that depend on their estimations of what choices offer
                                  them the greatest rewards... [t]hat a bilingual may see switching
                                  languages at some point in a conversation as a way to optimize
                                  rewards'' (46). Further on, one may find a short section devoted to
                                  language shift; finally, in the end of the chapter and as a kind of
                                  transitory part to the essential part of the monograph, six structural
                                  results of bilingualism are listed which are the topics of the book.
                                  These are (i) lexical borrowing, (ii) codeswitching, (iii)
                                  convergence, (iv) attrition, that goes hand in hand with language
                                  shift, (v) mixed (split) languages, and (vi) creoles (52).

                                  3. EXPLAINING THE MODELS AND THEIR USES (53-107) contains a detailed
                                  description of the three basic models, with special stress on the
                                  innovations as compared to the theory outlined in Myers-Scotton
                                  1993a. Some points are highlighted:

                                  - CP (projection of complementizer) and not sentence is used as unit
                                  of analysis (an argument for that has been already proposed in
                                  Myers-Scotton 1997). Codeswitching addressed to in the monograph is
                                  codeswitching within the CP exclusively. Such a preference is first of
                                  all due to the vagueness of the notion of sentence and, contrariwise,
                                  to the clearness of the notion of CP. - There are some amendments
                                  with respect to the concept of Matrix Language (ML) if compared to the
                                  1993 model. In particular, it is indicated that, although ML may
                                  change within an utterance, it happens very rarely and, most
                                  importantly, ML does not change within the CP. A discussion follows on
                                  the relations between ML and ''the source variety that the Matrix
                                  Language frame so closely resembles'' (66). In order to demonstrate
                                  the distinction, Myers- Scotton points to the fact that there are two
                                  types of elements that are built into the ML frame (bare forms from
                                  Embedded Language and Embedded Language islands) ''that are not
                                  completely integrated into the morphosyntax of the source of the
                                  Matrix Language'' (67). Admittedly, however, '''Matrix Language' may
                                  be used as a label for the source language as a short cut'' (67). It
                                  is curious in this respect that on the following page one reads that
                                  ''[t]he Matrix Language is an abstract construct... . The Matrix
                                  language is an abstract frame... [i]t does not include actual
                                  morphemes nor is it isomorphic with any fully fleshed-out linguistic
                                  variety'' (68). It seems that the relations (or even a controversy)
                                  between the two understandings of ML, viz. 1) a language form that is
                                  near to, although probably distinct from, the source language (this
                                  distinction is in fact determined by the ML's role in Codeswitching)
                                  and 2) ML as an abstract frame remain somewhat unexplicated (see also
                                  Boussofara Omar 2003).

                                  - An opposition between content and system morphemes yields its place
                                  to a more sophisticated 4-M model. The need for such a model was
                                  called for by the fact that there were system morphemes of Embedded
                                  language that did not meet one of the basic principles of the model,
                                  viz. not to appear in mixed constituents. The crucial point of the new
                                  model is a more detailed classification of morphemes that is based on
                                  the parameters that are in no way related to contact phenomena. The
                                  cornerstone opposition of this new classification is [+/- conceptually
                                  activated] distinction of morphemes. The first group of morphemes
                                  embraces those morphemes that ''are salient at the level of the mental
                                  lexicon''. Lemmas underlying these ''types of morpheme are more
                                  directly linked to speaker's intention'' (74); in other words, such
                                  elements have semantic content'' (76). Content morphemes and early
                                  system morphemes belong to this group, the lemmas underlying the
                                  latter kind of morphemes are, as it were, extracted by the lemmas of
                                  underlying content morphemes, as they are activated on earlier stages
                                  of sentence production. The other group encompasses two types of late
                                  system morphemes that serve syntactic relations, within and outside
                                  the Maximal Projection of Head, correspondingly. These morphemes are
                                  activated at the later stages of utterance production. One of the main
                                  objectives of the book is to demonstrate that these two groups of
                                  morphemes behave differently in contact situations.

                                  Two other points must be emphasized. 1) The very term 'morpheme' is
                                  used to convey two different meaning in Myers-Scotton's book, namely,
                                  for the actual surface-level morphemes, but also for the lemmas that
                                  support them, abstract entities in the mental lexicon
                                  (106). Accordingly, several 'underlying' morphemes may correspond to a
                                  single 'surface' one. This is of particular importance when dealing
                                  with inflexional languages (see below). 2) 'Early' and 'late'
                                  morphemes may be mixed within one grammatical category;
                                  e.g. 'semantic' case morphemes (such as locative and the like) are
                                  'early' morphemes, while syntax-oriented case morphemes belong to the
                                  'late' type of morphemes.

                                  - Another important achievement is an introduction of the Abstract
                                  Level theory claiming ''that there are three levels of abstract
                                  grammatical structure in any lexical item... [:] (i) the level of
                                  lexical- conceptual structure...; (ii) the level of predicate-argument
                                  structure..; (iii) the level of morphological realization
                                  patterns...'' (96). Two domains in which this model is at work are
                                  discussed at some length. On the one hand, in classic codeswitching
                                  (see above for the term) a morpheme of the embedded language that
                                  'pretend' to be uttered must be checked for congruence with its
                                  ''Matrix language counterparts''. If this congruence fails at a
                                  certain level, the elements of the embedded language are included in a
                                  not fully integrated form (bare forms or Embedded Language islands;
                                  see Chapter 4 for these problems). On the other hand, the Abstract
                                  Level model neatly accounts for the convergence phenomena (to be
                                  discussed in Chapter 5).

                                  4. CONSIDERING PROBLEMATIC CODESWITCHING DATA AND OTHER APPROACHES
                                  (108-163) views the 'behavior' of morphemes of Embedded Language, when
                                  they do not meet the requirement of congruence (imposed by the
                                  Abstract Level model). One option is the incorporation of bare
                                  forms. It is shown that the incongruence of the NP structures in
                                  Embedded and Matrix Languages leads to the intrusion of a lexical
                                  morpheme in its bare form; on the contrary, if the early system
                                  morphemes of the NP (e.g., determiners) show the full congruency with
                                  the corresponding elements of the Matrix language they may be used
                                  with their content morphemes.

                                  Another topic of this chapter is Embedded Language Islands. A number
                                  of important theoretical issues are touched upon here. These include
                                  triggering (Myers-Scotton is rather skeptical with respect to the role
                                  of this phenomenon), pragmatic and grammatical motivation of Embedded
                                  Language Islands use, Embedded Language islands and proficiency. As
                                  regards the latter, Myers-Scotton makes a rather witty remark: a wide
                                  use of Embedded Language Islands is indicative of high proficiency in
                                  Embedded Language. On the other hand, ''when speakers are nearly
                                  equally at home in both languages, almost ironically, Embedded
                                  Language Islands lose their importance. Instead, switching between
                                  CPs becomes very frequent as well as switching between sentences''
                                  (149). (Could not it be the case that in this situation one may rather
                                  speak about a short-term poise between the two languages without clear
                                  domination of one of them?)

                                  Finally, in the last section of the chapter, Myers-Scotton tackles the
                                  question of distinguishing between borrowing and codeswitching, the
                                  topic that has been already discussed in some detail as early as in
                                  Myers-Scotton 1993a. This section is primarily based on the dispute
                                  with those researchers whose views go contrary to those of Myers-
                                  Scotton. These are first of all Susanne Polack and her associates as
                                  well the adherents of the Government and Binding theory or Minimalist
                                  Program. Myers-Scotton points at fundamental similarity between
                                  borrowing and codeswitching, at least on a synchronic level.

                                  There are some other crucial points in this chapter that seem to be
                                  relevant for the whole theory of Myers-Scotton. 1) The problem of
                                  different patterns of behavior of verbs resp. nouns in language
                                  contacts. This problem has been attracting researchers' attention for
                                  many years (see e.g. a special section on bilingual verbs in Muysken
                                  2000). This topic is prevailing throughout the book. There are
                                  several remarks that are worth mentioning in this respect. - Unlike
                                  nouns, verbs ''are [+thematic role assigner] and therefore carry more
                                  'syntactic baggage' than nouns, meaning their fit with the recipient
                                  language may be harder to make'' (76); - The reason for the frequently
                                  attested use of Embedded Language verbs in do-constructions in Matrix
                                  Language could be ''a conflict of branching requirements between the
                                  Matrix language and the Embedded Language'' (162). - Infrequency of
                                  adapted verb forms' use may be accounted for by the ''lack of
                                  congruence across tense/aspect systems'' (138).

                                  2) As regards Embedded Language Islands, Myers-Scotton dwells on the
                                  notion of ''internal Embedded Language Island'', that is, a
                                  constituent which is ''part of larger constituent in which they
                                  constitute a sister to a Matrix language element under N-bar...''
                                  (149). In some cases, such an island is in fact just an inflected
                                  wordform of Embedded Language, e.g. a plural forms (ghost-s).
                                  Elsewhere, arguing against (although partially agreeing with) Ad
                                  Backus, Myers-Scotton advances an important observation, according to
                                  which ''[i]dioms, like irregular plurals and irregular past tenses in
                                  English (and other languages), may well be contained in single lemmas
                                  and therefore are not compositionally assembled'' (141). It is not,
                                  however, completely clear whether the units of this kind that are
                                  reproduced by rote are Embedded Language Islands (probably not?). This
                                  problem is very important for the understanding of the essence of
                                  codeswitching in inflexional languages; I'll touch upon it once again
                                  in the last part of the review.

                                  5. CONVERGENCE AND ATTRITION (164-232) discusses convergence as
                                  outcome as having ''two distinctive features: (i) all surface
                                  morphemes come from one language; (ii) the abstract lexical structure
                                  projecting these morphemes no longer comes from one language, but
                                  includes some abstract structure from another language'' (164). These
                                  features are characteristic for the attrition as well. The difference
                                  between these phenomena has a sociolinguistic rather purely linguistic
                                  sense: the convergence is characteristic for the given speech
                                  community as a whole (or for the part of speech community); the
                                  attrition is an individual feature. Besides It may be passingly
                                  remarked that the distinction between convergence and attrition is
                                  drawn less straightforwardly than is usually typical of Myers-Scotton.

                                  In this chapter several key notions of contact linguistics are
                                  discussed, such as convergence areas (=Sprachbund). It is emphasized
                                  that ''such areas result from past instances of asymmetrical
                                  relationships'' (230). Existing studies of language attrition are
                                  inquired into in much detail. In this discussion, Myers- Scotton
                                  appears to be rather skeptical towards the notion of markedness
                                  (following Thomason and Kaufman 1988 in this respect).

                                  Central for this chapter are theoretical assumptions of Myers-Scotton
                                  herself. Being based on the studies of individual attrition (belonging
                                  to both Myers-Scotton and other researchers), these assumptions are,
                                  of course, valid with respect to convergence as well.

                                  An essential notion of composite matrix language is introduced, i.e.
                                  of a language that has undergone convergence (''[b]oth convergence and
                                  codeswitching necessarily involve a composite Matrix language'',
                                  165). It is noticed below, however, that convergence merely ''often
                                  involves codeswitching''. The major part of the section is devoted to
                                  the discussion of whether Abstract Level model and 4- M model are
                                  applicable in the analysis of attrition and convergence. A number of
                                  hypotheses are put forward; these could be briefly summarized in the
                                  two following hierarchies of susceptibility of alteration under
                                  attrition: (i) Predicate-argument structure < morphological
                                  realization patterns < lexical-conceptual structure (ii) Late system
                                  morphemes < early system morphemes < content morphemes

                                  It remains unclear, however, with respect to the first of these two
                                  clines, whether it is arrived at deductively or based on a
                                  quantitative analysis of empirical data. In the latter case, it must
                                  be noticed that statistical data reported in the monograph (p. 200)
                                  are not themselves convincing enough for the hierarchy proposed.

                                  6. LEXICAL BORROWING, SPLIT (MIXED) LANGUAGES, AND CREOLE FORMATION
                                  (233-294) is one of the most substantial chapters in the book; it
                                  concentrates on a topic, which is in fact essential for the whole
                                  monograph, namely, on the discrepant behavior of lexical elements and
                                  ''those signaling grammatical relations''.

                                  Speaking about lexical borrowings, Myers-Scotton traditionally
                                  distinguishes between cultural borrowed forms and core borrowed forms;
                                  the former may ''begin life'' ''in the monolingual speech of either
                                  bilinguals or monolinguals .... [as well as] in the codeswitching of
                                  bilinguals'' (239), while the latter may do so as code switches
                                  only. It is further argued that there is a crucial difference in the
                                  mechanism of borrowing content and system morphemes (first of all,
                                  late system morphemes), the latter may ''come into a language when its
                                  morphosyntactic frame undergoes a reconfiguration'', that is, after
                                  convergence has come into play. Borrowing of such morphemes ''is a
                                  sign of a Matrix Language Turnover''. It is noteworthy that
                                  Myers-Scotton does not comment on the borrowing hierarchy of the
                                  different structural types of grammatical morphemes (auxiliaries,
                                  agglutinative affixes, flexions), although this topic is quite popular
                                  in the literature on language contacts.

                                  The following section of the chapter is devoted to the mixed
                                  languages, for which Myers-Scotton prefers the label of 'split
                                  languages'. Two definitions of split languages are given, a strong one
                                  (''[a] split language shows all - or almost all - of its
                                  morphosyntactic frame from a different source language from large
                                  portions of its lexicon; this frame includes all - or almost all - of
                                  its late system morphemes from the language of the morphosyntactic
                                  frame'') and a less stringent one (''[a] split language shows a major
                                  constituent with its system morphemes and major parts of the
                                  morphosyntactic frame from a different source language from that of
                                  most of the lexicon and the morphosyntactic frame of other
                                  constituents'', 249).

                                  The three most commonly known cases of split languages are discussed,
                                  namely, Michif, Mednyj Aleut and Ma'a (Mbugu). The basic mechanism
                                  giving rise to split languages is the Matrix Language
                                  turnover. Convergence is a prerequisite for this mechanism, while
                                  codeswitching is a favored although not completely obligatory
                                  requirement. The Matrix Language turnover may trigger a number of
                                  different scenarios of development: (i) it might be arrested at a
                                  certain stage; such a scenario is assumed for Mednyj Aleut, based
                                  largely on Golovko's (1996, 1999) point of view; (ii) it might be
                                  (almost) completed: ''a complete turnover of all the late system
                                  morphemes with or without a turnover in at least some of the lexicon''
                                  (248); an example of such development is Ma'a; (iii) finally, Matrix
                                  Language turnover may lead to a language shift. As far as Michif is
                                  concerned, Matrix language turnover is not, as far as I can
                                  understand, postulated in its development; rather we deal with a
                                  peculiar combination of fossilized codeswitching and convergence. A
                                  distinct pattern of behavior of lexical and grammatical elements is
                                  typical of all instances of split languages.

                                  It is worth emphasizing that while Myers-Scotton assumes common
                                  structural pattern of development for all split languages, she
                                  acknowledges the difference in direction of such development in
                                  individual languages depending on particular sociolinguistic
                                  circumstances. Discussing conscious effort on speakers' part
                                  (constructing, inventing) as a possible factor in the formation of
                                  split languages, Myers-Scotton notices that ''[s]peakers can
                                  consciously decide they want to change the way they speak, but this is
                                  not the same thing as deciding how to change it'' (253).

                                  The last section of the chapter deals with creoles. Myers-Scotton does
                                  not draw a distinction between pidgins and creoles assuming that
                                  nativization (or its absence) is not related to the structure of these
                                  languages and thus is not relevant for the approach adopted in the
                                  monograph. Generally, Myers-Scotton adheres to ''the subtratist''
                                  position and substantiates this position within her general
                                  theoretical framework. Myers-Scotton's views on the structural
                                  development of creoles are represented in five basic hypotheses that
                                  can be briefly summarized as follows: (i) ''[t]he substrate varieties
                                  contribute to creole formation by supplying the 'invisible'
                                  morphosyntactic frame of the creole'' (277); (ii) ... [s]uperstrate-
                                  content morphemes are much more frequent in the creole than substrate
                                  ones'' (281); (iii) ''[c]ontent morphemes from the superstrate can be
                                  reconfigured as system morphemes'' in creoles (283; curiously,
                                  Myers-Scotton does not mention the notion of grammaticalization at any
                                  point of the discussion of such examples); (iv) ''[e]arly system
                                  morphemes from the superstrate are only available to satisfy creole
                                  requirements when they are accessed along with their heads'' (286,
                                  numerous cases of the use of superstrate words with their determiners
                                  are meant; it seems more appropriate to view these as single units
                                  resulting from 'incorrect analysis' of the noun phrases of superstrate
                                  language); (v) ''[l]ate system morphemes from the superstrate are not
                                  available to satisfy the requirements of the creole morphosyntactic
                                  frame'' due to the difficulty of access to the frame of the
                                  superstrate language (287).

                                  7. CONCLUDING REMARKS: THE OUT OF SIGHT IN CONTACT LINGUISTICS
                                  (295-310), which concludes this monograph, elegantly recapitulates its
                                  main ideas as a set of 'hypotheses for further testing'. These
                                  hypotheses are grouped around two basic theoretical themes: (i)
                                  ''[t]he asymmetry between participating languages in contact phenomena
                                  and the press forward of the abstract frame of one language to
                                  prevail'' (297), and (ii) ''[t]he inherent lack of parity between
                                  different types of morphemes within the abstract frame of all
                                  languages in terms of their patterns of distribution'' (297). Another
                                  crucial point is putting forward some basic assumptions that link
                                  together the various contact phenomena discussed in the book. A
                                  summary of basic assumptions reads as follows: ''If there is language
                                  shift, the mechanisms involved follow this hierarchy: Classic
                                  codeswitching < convergence < composite codeswitching (i.e. shift most
                                  likely with composite codeswitching)'' (299).

                                  EVALUATION

                                  It must be clear from what has been said above that the new book of
                                  Myers-Scotton is one of the most important contributions to the study
                                  of codeswitching and language contacts that has been published in the
                                  recent years both because of the width of issues discussed and
                                  theoretical depth of treating these issues. It seems, however, that
                                  the very striving for an all-embracing and uncontroversial global
                                  theory is the reason why some points remain somewhat unclear. Due to
                                  space limitations, I will dwell at some length on those issues only
                                  that are of special interest to me.

                                  1. Composite codeswitching and congruent lexicalisation. According to
                                  Myers-Scotton, composite matrix language, that is, matrix language
                                  that has undergone convergence, is a prerequisite for composite
                                  codeswitching. Grammatical frame incorporates elements of the abstract
                                  structure of embedded language. Thus, incorporation of the elements
                                  from the embedded language is facilitated, as it becomes easier for
                                  these elements to be checked for congruence on all of the three levels
                                  of the Abstract Level model. Basically, the phenomenon at issue is
                                  reminiscent of what Pieter Muysken calls congruent lexicalisation
                                  (Muysken 2000: 153). There is, however, an important distinction
                                  between the two. Muysken does not confine himself to the instances of
                                  assimilation between grammatical structures of two languages as a
                                  result of convergence, treating under the same label those cases when
                                  ''[t]he languages share the grammatical structure of the sentence''
                                  (Muysken 2000: 122) due to other reasons (e.g., by virtue of their
                                  close cognation). In other words, Muysken approaches this phenomenon
                                  from a purely synchronic point of view, not taking into consideration
                                  its potentially different origins, while Myers-Scotton, on the
                                  contrary, views it, as it were, from a developmental point of view;
                                  however, she sticks to discussing one particular scenario of
                                  development not inquiring other possible variants. The question
                                  arises, whether Myers-Scotton views as composite codeswitching any
                                  codeswitching occurring between the languages whose grammatical and
                                  conceptual structures are similar. Most likely, the answer is
                                  negative.

                                  A possible cue to this problem could have been a comparison of
                                  codeswitching in those situations when grammatical structures of two
                                  languages are similar due to convergence and in those situations when
                                  there is a pre-established structural affinity; however, such a
                                  comparison is not undertaken.

                                  Another remarks pertains to Myers-Scotton's discussion of composite
                                  matrix language, which is characterized as a deviation from ''desired
                                  target language'', that is accounted for by the lack of ''sufficient
                                  access'' to the latter. This explanation is suitable, it seems, for
                                  the cases of individual attrition. Things get more complicated if the
                                  history of individual languages is concerned, such as e.g. the
                                  development of Romani dialects almost all of which have undergone
                                  convergence, although with different languages and to a different
                                  extent. On the one hand, the very existence of target language is
                                  doubtful in this case. On the other hand, a study of the real
                                  functioning of Romani dialects shows that speakers of these dialects
                                  have sufficient access to their native language in every particular
                                  moment of time. It's quite another matter that this very language has
                                  changed and the functional range of its use has narrowed under the
                                  influence of the surrounding population (which usually dominates).

                                  2. A tendency to follow rigidly the System morpheme principle leads to
                                  unnecessary, as it seems, formalization of the notion of Embedded
                                  Language island. It is particularly so with respect to the so-called
                                  internal Embedded Language islands (see above), that are sometimes in
                                  fact just isolated word forms of embedded language. As an example of
                                  this the ''unadapted'' Russian verb forms in the North Russian Romani
                                  dialect (NRRD, cf. Rusakov 2001) may be given, that are used in this
                                  dialect along with the adapted nominal forms. (Curiously enough,
                                  these Russian verb forms and nominal forms are treated uniformly in
                                  metalinguistic comments of the speakers of this dialect; see Rusakov
                                  2001 for more detail). From a purely formal point of view, nothing
                                  prevents treating these forms as instances of Embedded Language
                                  islands. Moreover, the reasons of the use of these forms fit nicely
                                  into Myers-Scotton's theoretical assumptions, namely, the lack of
                                  congruence with the corresponding Russian forms (most likely, on the
                                  level of morphological realization patterns, according to the Abstract
                                  Level model). It appears, however, that under such a purely
                                  formalistic approach, the difference between isolated ''islands'' of
                                  this type and those islands that are relatively long stretches of text
                                  gets unnoticed or underestimated. And still, this difference, however
                                  difficult it is to formalize it, seems to be crucial, and crucial for
                                  the processes of speech production that are generally essential for
                                  Myers-Scotton's approach. Here a reference to Pieter Muysken's
                                  conception could be of some help as he distinguishes between the two
                                  mechanisms o codeswitching (code-mixing, in Muysken's terminology),
                                  that is, between insertion and alternation. In Muysken's view,
                                  internal Embedded Language islands would be undoubted instances of
                                  insertion, while a vast majority of 'longer' Embedded Language islands
                                  would be treated as alternation. It must be admitted for the sake of
                                  objectivity, however, that the difference between alternation and
                                  insertion is less amenable to formalization.

                                  3. Explicit rejection of the distinction between codeswitching and
                                  borrowings on the synchronic level highlights the problem of borrowing
                                  of grammatical morphemes (first of all, of late system morphemes
                                  according to Myers-Scotton). Myers-Scotton convincingly observes that
                                  the mechanism behind such borrowings is quite different from that
                                  behind lexical borrowings. An explanation of these phenomena as
                                  instances of arrested (after having begun) Matrix Language turnover,
                                  that is, as a first step towards a formation of mixed (split) language
                                  seems convincing and far-reaching as well. However, in order to avoid
                                  a possibility of degrading the notion of 'arrested Matrix Language
                                  turnover' to a mere synonym of high level of interference (in the
                                  spirit of Thomason and Kaufmann), it is vital to understand what
                                  properties are indeed shared (if there are such properties) by
                                  relatively infrequent but non-unique cases of borrowing of grammatical
                                  morphemes from another language (e.g. borrowing of the Russian
                                  prefixes to the NRRD, of Slavic verb prefixes and suffixes to
                                  Megleno-Rumanian, of Turkish verbal affixes to Asia Minor Greek). It
                                  may be noticed that a similar problem arises with respect to the rise
                                  of ''classical'' mixed (split) languages. Existing theories, among
                                  which Myers-Scotton's is one the most deeply grounded, provide
                                  convincing general patterns of their development; however, none of
                                  them is able to explain why has a particular very unusual
                                  configuration of the elements from the two languages emerged in this
                                  or that particular place and in this or that particular period of
                                  time. This situation is generally typical of historical linguistics,
                                  though.

                                  4. The theoretical model advanced by Myers-Scotton is undoubtedly
                                  universal in nature. However, a question arises to what extent are the
                                  properties of the postulated processes dependent on the typological
                                  characteristics of the languages involved. An example of such
                                  dependence is provided by Myers-Scotton herself who relates frequent
                                  use of bare forms in codeswitching with left-branching character of
                                  the Matrix Language. There are, however, some problems of typological
                                  nature. As has been already mentioned above, Myers-Scotton uses the
                                  term 'morpheme' for both ''the actual surface-level morphemes'' and
                                  ''the lemmas that support them''. Thus, several abstract morphemes
                                  may correspond to a single surface one; this situation is first of all
                                  typical of inflexional languages. Myers-Scotton introduces a ''pull
                                  down'' principle for those cases when surface morpheme corresponds to
                                  ''abstract'' morphemes of different types (early and late). According
                                  to that principle ''the entire element shows distribution patterns as
                                  if it were a late system morpheme'' (305). Empirical data in support
                                  of this principle are provided in (Myers-Scotton & Jake 2001). The
                                  question, however, arises how does this principle work in case of
                                  inflexional languages.

                                  As mentioned above, Myers-Scotton assumes that some word forms (of
                                  inflexional languages - A.R.) ''may well be contained in single lemmas
                                  and therefore are not compositionally assembled''. It is obvious that
                                  these cases are viewed as rather peripheral. It must be kept in mind,
                                  however, that there is no unanimity among linguists as to what forms
                                  are produced by rote resp. by rule in inflexional languages. The
                                  problem is even more complicated with respect to the second language
                                  (naturally, Embedded language is usually though not necessarily always
                                  a second language of a speaker). In any case, it is clear that the
                                  problem of holistic processing of inflected wordforms in codeswitching
                                  exists and needs further investigation. It may be also mentioned that
                                  wordforms of inflectional languages are not only characterized by the
                                  cumulative character of expressing morphological meanings, but also by
                                  the blurriness of morpheme boundaries, etc. It seems in this
                                  connection that intrusion of the Embedded language elements into the
                                  Matrix Language frame may cause additional troubles when checking on
                                  the level of morphological realization patterns. For instance,
                                  adaptation of the Russian verbs for their intrusion into the NRRD
                                  grammatical frame requires elicitation of the Russian verb stem, which
                                  is an intricate operation itself, especially if one takes into account
                                  the tangled character of the Russian morphonology.

                                  5. Speaking about word order in the chapter devoted to convergence
                                  (Myers-Scotton points out that word order is an early system morpheme
                                  in some cases) Myers-Scotton almost does not touch upon the
                                  possibility of contact-induced changes that take place on superficial
                                  level, that is, changes of analogical character (syntactic
                                  calques). However, some scholars consider these to be a major type of
                                  contact-induced syntactic changes (see e.g. Joseph 1998). In any case,
                                  changes of this type must play a key role in the assimilation of
                                  syntactical frames of languages involved in contacts. Myers-Scotton
                                  notices on p. 202 that ''abstract specifications for word orders at
                                  all levels of syntax also represent the level of morphological
                                  realization patterns''. It remains, however, somewhat unclear what
                                  role do superficial changes play in Myers-Scotton's theory.

                                  All what has been said above is not to be understood as criticism;
                                  rather, it was thought of as pointing out some problems, further
                                  elaboration of which could have been useful in my opinion. Some minor
                                  remarks and considerations are also scattered in Synopsis.

                                  It is worth emphasizing once again that the book under review
                                  represents an extremely significant contribution to the study of
                                  language contacts.

                                  REFERENCES

                                  Boussofara-Omar, Naima (2003) Review of Contact Linguistics: Bilingual
                                  Encounters and Grammatical Outcomes, by Carol Myers-Scotton.
                                  http://linguistlist.org/issues/14/14-1077.html

                                  Golovko, Evgenij (1996) A Case of Nongenetic Development in the Arctic
                                  Area: The Contribution of Aleut and Russian to the Formation of Copper
                                  Island Aleut. In: Ernst H. Jahr and Ingvild Broch (eds.), Language
                                  Contact in the Arctic: Northern Pidgins and Contact Languages,
                                  63-77. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

                                  Golovko, Evgenij (2000) Language and Ethnic Identity: Sociolinguistic
                                  Conditions for the Emergence of Mixed Languages, Paper presented at
                                  the workshop on Mixed Languages, University f Manchester, 12/2000.

                                  Joseph, Brian D. (1998) Is Balkan Comparative Syntax Possible?
                                  http://www.ling.ohio-state.edu/~bjoseph/

                                  Levelt, Willem J.M. (1989) Speaking: From Intention to Articulation.
                                  Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

                                  Muysken, Pieter (2000) Bilingual Speech. A Typology of Code-
                                  Mixing. Cambridge: CUP.

                                  Myers-Scotton, Carol (1993a [1997]) Duelling Language. Grammatical
                                  Structure in Codeswitching. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

                                  Myers-Scotton, Carol (1993b) Social Motivations for Codeswitching:
                                  evidence from Africa. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

                                  Myers-Scotton, Carol (1997) Afterword. In: Myer-Scotton (1993b).

                                  Myers-Scotton, Carol (1998) A way to dusty death: the Matrix Language
                                  turnover hypothesis. In: Grenoble, Lenore A. & Lindsay J. Whaley
                                  (eds.) Endangered Languages. Cambridge: CUP, 289-316.

                                  Myers-Scotton, Carol (2001) The Matrix Language Frame Model:
                                  Developments and Responses. In: Rodolfo Jacobson (ed.), Codeswitching
                                  Worldwide II, 23-58. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

                                  Myers-Scotton, Carol and Jake, Janice (1995) Matching Lemmas in a
                                  Bilingual Language Production Model: Evidence from Intrasentential
                                  Codeswitching. Linguistics, 33: 981-1024.

                                  Myers-Scotton, Carol and Jake, Janice (2000) Four Types of Morpheme:
                                  Evidence from Aphasia, Codeswitching, and Second Language
                                  acquisition. Linguistics, 38: 6, 1053-100.

                                  Myers-Scotton, Carol and Jake, Janice (2001) Explaining Aspects of
                                  Codeswitching and Their Implications. In: Janet Nicol 9ed.), One Mind,
                                  Two Languages: Bilingual Language Processing, 84-116. Oxford:
                                  Blackwell.

                                  Myers-Scotton, Carol and Bolonyai, Agnes (2001) calculating Speakers:
                                  Codeswitching in a Rational Choice Model. Language in Society, 31/1:
                                  1-28.

                                  Rusakov, Alexander (2001) The North Russian Romani Dialect:
                                  Interference and Code Switching. // O.Dahl & M.Koptjevskaja-Tamm
                                  (eds.). Circum-Baltic languages. v.1,
                                  313-337. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.

                                  Thomason, Sarah and Kaufman, Terence (1988) Language Contact,
                                  Creolization, and Genetic Linguistics. Berkeley: University of
                                  California Press.

                                  ABOUT THE REVIEWER

                                  Alexander Yu. Rusakov is assistant professor at the St. Petersburg
                                  State University, Department of General Linguistics. His research
                                  interests include language contacts, historical linguistics, Balkan
                                  linguistics, Albanian language, and Romani.Mail to author|Respond to list|Read more issues|LINGUIST home page|Top of issue


                                  --- En date de : Mar 16.6.09, sebastien kitengye <samsoki@...> a écrit :


                                  De: sebastien kitengye <samsoki@...>
                                  Objet: Re : Re : Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?
                                  À: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                                  Date: Mardi 16 Juin 2009, 0h31








                                  Bonjour Irène
                                  As-tu des documents en français sur le modèle 4-M de Scotton. Je viens de lire ce mail en retard. Puis-je attendre de toi ces documents?
                                  Merci d'avance.
                                  Sébastien
                                  l

                                  ____________ _________ _________ __
                                  De : ngoie irene <ngoie.irene@ yahoo.fr>
                                  À : code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                                  Envoyé le : Samedi, 13 Juin 2009, 20h57mn 18s
                                  Objet : Re : Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                                  BONJOUR
                                  effectivement noyers et poplack se diffère sur la contrainte de morphème et sur les emprunt pour  myers  l'insertion d'un seul lexique ou plusieurs suffit pour parler de l'alternance codique tandis que pour Poplack c'est le contraire. je fais une étude descriptive mon étude se fonde sur la methode (MLF) matrix language frame  et parfois quand je me retrouve devant un incongruence je fait recours au 4-M c'est justement l'un de modele du niveau abstrait Myers pour complete. 4-M pour dire 4morphème . ce modele vient compléter le MLF de (1993) à case des limites de ces derniers myers le completel'hypothè se de la ML. le modèle linéaire de Poplack est vraiment limité surtout surtout avec nos langue d'afrique ou l'insertion se fait n'importe quand  n'importe comment.   bref tout ces modele de myers consisteen   l'ident
                                  ification de la ML. Mais le 4-M va plus loin il est plus psycholinguistique et psychocognitif . c'est interessant pour celui qui étudie le CS de L'acquisition de langue

                                  merci
                                  --- En date de : Sam 13.6.09, sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr> a écrit :

                                  De: sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr>
                                  Objet: Re : Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?
                                  À: code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                                  Date: Samedi 13 Juin 2009, 14h15

                                  Je travaille sur l'alternance kisongye/franç ais. Et la thèse est en lecture depuis plusieurs mois. Je crois avoir dirigé une monographie sur l'alternance swahili/franç ais d'un certain Lukulunga Masudi.
                                  Quel est le titre exact de votre recherche? s'agit-il d'une étude  desciptive? Sociolinguistique (variation ou interaction? ) Qu'est-ce que  vous appelez 4-M? J'ai besoin des réponses pour répondre à votre question. Vous savez que Myers-Scotton avec son modèle de la langue matrice s'oppose nettement à Shana Poplack.  Pouvez-vous me répondre?
                                  Sébastien.

                                  ____________ _________ _________ __
                                  De : ngoie irene <ngoie.irene@ yahoo.fr>
                                  À : code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                                  Envoyé le : Samedi, 13 Juin 2009, 14h31mn 38s
                                  Objet : Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                                  BONJOUR Seba 
                                  est -ce qu'on peut travailler sur le code-switching avec la methode de Myers-Scotton sans faire allusion de 4-M
                                  merci

                                  --- En date de : Sam 13.6.09, sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr> a écrit :

                                  De: sebastien kitengye <samsoki@yahoo. fr>
                                  Objet: Re : Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?
                                  À: code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                                  Date: Samedi 13 Juin 2009, 9h26

                                  Hello Dr Sebba!
                                  Comment puis-je obtenir The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-switching, 2OO9?
                                  Pouvez-vous me faire parvenir votre article et celui de Myers-Scotton?
                                  Sébastien.

                                  ____________ _________ _________ __
                                  De : "Sebba, Mark" <m.sebba@lancaster. ac.uk>
                                  À : code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
                                  Envoyé le : Vendredi, 12 Juin 2009, 14h17mn 24s
                                  Objet : RE: Re : [code-switching] is there any explanation for this code switching ?

                                  I doubt that it will answer the question, but my chapter in the recent Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching discusses some of the complexities of this. The full reference is:

                                  Sebba, Mark "On the notions of congruence and convergence in code-switching" , in Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds) The Cambridge Handbook on Linguistic Code-Switching, pp. 40-57. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

                                  Mark

                                  Dr Mark Sebba
                                  Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact
                                  Department of Linguistics,
                                  Lancaster University
                                  Lancaster LA1 4YT
                                  Great Britain
                                  Tel. +44 1524 592453
                                  Fax +44 1524 843085
                                  e-mail: M.Sebba@lancaster. ac.uk

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