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Re: [code-switching] determination of codeswitched and borrowed items

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  • salman riaz
    Hi Mostari,Zoubir and Jim,   Thank you so much for your help, for which I am highly indebted to you all. Undoubtedly, Poplack s ‘purely linguistic’
    Message 1 of 7 , Feb 27, 2009
      Hi Mostari,Zoubir and Jim,
       
      Thank you so much for your help, for which I am highly indebted to you all. Undoubtedly, Poplack's ‘purely linguistic’ approach is illuminating. However, the deeper I delve into it the graver the matter appears. The yardstick of phonological integration is especially problematic, rather unconvincing. And as for morphological integration, we know that only a few loan items receive morphological integration. But what of the huge bulk of those items which do not undergo morphological modification – most of which are treated as instances of borrowing, rather than codeswitching, in bilingual literature?
       
      Let’s turn to another point. In Poplack’s approach, there are three levels of integration that a loan item must pass to be considered a case of borrowing: phonological, morphological, and syntactic. I fail to understand what syntactic integration refers to. Is it something related to a loan item’s falling in a different word-order in the recipient language? If this is so, every loan item finding its way in a varying word-order must be considered a case of borrowing. Please let me know if I am wrong.
      Regards,
      Muhammad Salman Riaz
      salman.riaz@...



      ________________________________
      From: mostari hind <hmostari@...>
      To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
      Sent: Friday, February 27, 2009 4:46:50 AM
      Subject: Re: [code-switching] determination of codeswitched and borrowed items



      hi Muhamed ,
      of course Poplack's work on Nonce borrowing vs borrowing is of great interest and the most
      agreed among linguists ; when a word is neither phonologically or morphologically integrated , it is regarded as CS not borrowing , but here again , it depends on its frequency
      some linguists classify a non integrated word as borrowing if  it occurs frequently  in the recipient language .
      From French/English : we have : il presente one man show : ( He presents a one man show) here one man show is frequently used in the french speech , it is a borrowed expression , also , it is phonologically integrated in the french language since it is pronounced with a french accent .
       
       
      hope it helps
      best regards
      Mostari
      --- On Thu, 2/26/09, Zoubir Dendane <zdendane@yahoo. com> wrote:

      From: Zoubir Dendane <zdendane@yahoo. com>
      Subject: Re: [code-switching] determination of codeswitched and borrowed items
      To: code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
      Date: Thursday, February 26, 2009, 8:26 PM

      Salaam Muhammad,
      I've just read your message and an example of borrowing (I think) crossed my mind:
      In Canadian French, they say 'Je vais crosser la rue'; this is a morohologically adapted borrowing as the verb 'to cross' is used with the French {- er} suffix morpheme for the infinitive, instrad of the French verb traverser. (Meaning: I'm going to cross the street). Here in Algeria Aeabic, we have a great number of borrowings of all types.
      Hopr this will help. Good luck.
      Zoubir    

      --- On Mon, 2/23/09, salman riaz <salman.riaz@ yahoo.com> wrote:

      From: salman riaz <salman.riaz@ yahoo.com>
      Subject: [code-switching] determination of codeswitched and borrowed items
      To: code-switching@ yahoogroups. com
      Date: Monday, February 23, 2009, 12:52 PM

      Hi all,

      it has been a long-standing issue as to how to determine whether a loan item is a codeswitched or a borrowed item. over time, several opinions have surfaced, one of the most influential being Shana Poplack's approach, which states that if a loan item is morpho-syntacticall y and phonologically integrated into recipient language it should be considered an instance of borrowing, whereas one that does not that of codeswitching. i wonder whether some of you would kindly explain to me the idea of morpho-syntactic integration. examples from English or Urdu would be of immense help.

      regards,

      Muhammad Salman Riaz

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    • mostari hind
      hi salman  , But what of the huge bulk of those items which do not undergo morphological modification – most of which are treated as instances of borrowing,
      Message 2 of 7 , Mar 13, 2009
        hi salman  ,
        But what of the huge bulk of those items which do not undergo morphological modification – most of which are treated as instances of borrowing, rather than codeswitching, in bilingual literature?

        The answer is the freqeuncy criterion : if the item is repeatedly used by the recipient speech community , so generally , it is a loan word .
        if it is aoccaionally  used ; here it is considered as CS
        I focus -word- not expression or long streches of words , which are considered as cases of
        inter or intra sentential CS .
         
        - for your second question : syntactic intergration means that the word order changes
        for example if the word belongs to Fr where the order is : SVO
        and is adapted syntactically to another language where the order let's  say OVS ( for instance ) here , there is a synatctic intergration , but the word need not to be ' morphologicaly and synatctically and phonologically adapted , to call it loan word ,  if it is only phonologically and/or morphologically and/or syntactically intergrated , so, it is a loan word .
        But here again, there are # approaches and criteria for these terminologies , so you have to adopt one , to be precise .
         
        best regards
        hope it helps
        Mostari
        ALGERIA

        --- On Sat, 2/28/09, salman riaz <salman.riaz@...> wrote:





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