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inter-language and mixed code

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  • Kanthimathi K
    Dear Friends Can anyone please clarify the difference between inter-language and mixed code. --K. Kanthimathi Research Scholar Dept. of Humanities and Social
    Message 1 of 12 , May 29, 2008
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      Dear Friends

      Can anyone please clarify the difference between inter-language and mixed
      code.

      --K. Kanthimathi
      Research Scholar
      Dept. of Humanities and Social Sciences
      Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
      Chennai-600036
      India
    • James L. Fidelholtz
      Hi, K, I can t remember ever seeing the term interlanguage outside of second/foreign language learning contexts. Now, second-language learning/acquisition
      Message 2 of 12 , Jun 5, 2008
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        Hi, K,

        I can't remember ever seeing the term 'interlanguage' outside of
        second/foreign language learning contexts. Now, second-language
        learning/acquisition has lots in common with native-language acquisition
        (indeed, second/foreign language researchers no longer even use the term
        'learning' in this context, it seems to me, thus emphasizing the many
        similarities between the two processes). One big difference between the two,
        especially in the earlier stages of SLA/FLA, is a fairly heavy influence of
        the 'learner's native language on the foreign/2nd one, in their productions.
        For us innatist Chomskyans, this is explicable (especially when certain
        misproductions turn into fossilizations) partially by the fact that adult
        2nd lg acquirers no longer have full access to the innate aspects of
        language learning, which, among other things, tend to smoothe out individual
        differences from the ambient language practice (thus, eg, taking kiddie
        forms like 'goed' *back* [NB] to 'went' when young children acquiring
        English spontaneously produce such forms at a certain point in their
        development).

        Bottom line for interlanguage: it is basically a temporary 'stage' of adult
        language learners, on their way to a 'better' (ie, more native-like) grammar
        of the L2. It is also constantly changing, getting closer and closer to the
        native L2 grammar (depending in part on the amount of exposure of the
        subject to the L2).

        The term 'mixed code' or 'mixed language' is, at least for me, an extremely
        ill-defined concept. Many people use such terms to refer to (usually, a
        fairly heavy) use of borrowings from some L2 in the L1. Others (sometimes
        the same people) would use these terms to refer to, for example, pidgins
        and/or creole languages. Unfortunately, the field this list is associated
        with has many such ill-defined aspects, and even when people offer
        definitions of terms like these, they are not always mutually compatible
        between researchers. One subarea of 'code-switching' which is particularly
        rife with such problems is the so-called phenomenon of 'Spanglish', whose
        definitions absolutely run the gamut from one end of the gradient to the
        other, touching all possible points in between. [End (temporarily) of rant.]

        Optimally, the notion of 'mixed language' (if such a thing really exists,
        which, by the way, I do not necessarily deny) would be defined in some way
        such as the following: a linguistic system based on one or more languages,
        where the system makes use of *structures* identifiable as from one of the
        languages within the same sentence in which the basic structure is from
        another language. [Note that this would be quite different from the simple
        use of lexical borrowings {of any degree of assimilation} from L2 within
        structures otherwise purely from L1.] What I am trying to get at here is
        some sort of 'grammatical intertwining' of two or more languages, not just
        simple 'code-switching', which I understand as simply switching over from
        one language to another in mid-stream (usually at a fairly major structural
        break within the sentence).

        There are a number of books on code-switching (Auer, ...), bilingualism,
        etc. of which many have been mentioned on this list at different times, so
        you might want to check out the archives here (they should be accessible
        through linguistlist.org).

        Perhaps one of the members a bit more knowledgeable than I am can give you
        more specific indications.

        Good luck.

        Jim




        On 5/29/08, Kanthimathi K <kanthi@...> wrote:
        >
        >
        > Dear Friends
        >
        > Can anyone please clarify the difference between inter-language and mixed
        > code.
        >
        > --K. Kanthimathi
        > Research Scholar
        > Dept. of Humanities and Social Sciences
        > Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
        > Chennai-600036
        > India
        >
        >
        >

        --
        James L. Fidelholtz
        Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje
        Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y
        Humanidades
        Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de
        Puebla, MÉXICO


        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
      • samsoki
        ... une étape de la langue en plein processus de changement. Mais c est aussi une forme intermédiaire dans le processus d acquisition d une langue. L aspect
        Message 3 of 12 , Jun 6, 2008
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          --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com, "Kanthimathi K" <kanthi@...>
          wrote:
          >
          > Je pense pour ma part que la différence est que l'interlangue est
          une étape de la langue en plein processus de changement. Mais c'est
          aussi une forme intermédiaire dans le processus d'acquisition d'une
          langue. L'aspect est ici diachronique. Le mélange linguistique est un
          phénomène du discour. Et donc il est synchronique. Il consiste en
          l'utilisatio des éléments d'une langue dans une autre pendant le
          dicours actuel. L'interlangue à mon sens est permanent tandis que le
          mélange de langue ne l'est pas. Voir aussi SELINKER avec la notion de
          fossilisation.
          > Dear Friends
          >
          > Can anyone please clarify the difference between inter-language and
          mixed
          > code.
          >
          > --K. Kanthimathi
          > Research Scholar
          > Dept. of Humanities and Social Sciences
          > Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
          > Chennai-600036
          > India
          >
        • Leoni Kotzé
          I understand it like this: Mixed code: lexical items of two or more languages are used within one sentence (intra-sentencially) or across sentences
          Message 4 of 12 , Jun 6, 2008
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            I understand it like this:



            Mixed code: lexical items of two or more languages are used within one
            sentence (intra-sentencially) or across sentences (inter-sentencially).

            Interlanguae: term used to describe various stages in second language
            learners’ acquisition of target language. Learners achieve different levels
            of proficiency of the target language, moving towards ‘correct’ grammar of
            target language.



            Hope I am right, and hope it is of help.



            Regards

            Leoni


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            Checked by AVG.
            Version: 7.5.524 / Virus Database: 269.24.6/1486 - Release Date: 05/06/2008
            18:29



            [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
          • James L. Fidelholtz
            Hi, all, When I was composing my previous reply, the name of Larry Selinker just wouldn t come to me. I wanted to mention, aside from the issue of
            Message 5 of 12 , Jun 6, 2008
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              Hi, all,

              When I was composing my previous reply, the name of Larry Selinker just
              wouldn't come to me. I wanted to mention, aside from the issue of
              fossilization, that, to the best of my knowledge, he's the one who invented
              the term interlanguage, way back when (?in the 60s or at least the early
              70s), and is not often credited with this. (Maybe somebody here knows of
              some earlier use than Selinker's? I certainly don't, although I'm not very
              current with the SLA literature.) Thanks to Samsoki for jogging my memory.

              Jim

              2008/6/6 samsoki <samsoki@...>:

              > --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com <code-switching%40yahoogroups.com>,
              > "Kanthimathi K" <kanthi@...>
              > wrote:
              > >
              > > Je pense pour ma part que la différence est que l'interlangue est
              > une étape de la langue en plein processus de changement. Mais c'est
              > aussi une forme intermédiaire dans le processus d'acquisition d'une
              > langue. L'aspect est ici diachronique. Le mélange linguistique est un
              > phénomène du discour. Et donc il est synchronique. Il consiste en
              > l'utilisatio des éléments d'une langue dans une autre pendant le
              > dicours actuel. L'interlangue à mon sens est permanent tandis que le
              > mélange de langue ne l'est pas. Voir aussi SELINKER avec la notion de
              > fossilisation.
              > ...
              > ...
              > .
              >
              >
              >



              --
              James L. Fidelholtz
              Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje
              Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y
              Humanidades
              Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de
              Puebla, MÉXICO


              [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            • soodeh bordbar
              Hi Can u make distinction between Code-mixing and Code-switching? In my idea u should revise ur definition on mixed-code. Leoni Kotz�
              Message 6 of 12 , Jun 7, 2008
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                Hi

                Can u make distinction between Code-mixing and Code-switching?
                In my idea u should revise ur definition on mixed-code.



                Leoni Kotz� <leoni@...> wrote:
                I understand it like this:

                Mixed code: lexical items of two or more languages are used within one
                sentence (intra-sentencially) or across sentences (inter-sentencially).

                Interlanguae: term used to describe various stages in second language
                learners� acquisition of target language. Learners achieve different levels
                of proficiency of the target language, moving towards �correct� grammar of
                target language.

                Hope I am right, and hope it is of help.

                Regards

                Leoni

                No virus found in this outgoing message.
                Checked by AVG.
                Version: 7.5.524 / Virus Database: 269.24.6/1486 - Release Date: 05/06/2008
                18:29


                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]







                [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
              • rina marnita
                ... From: James L. Fidelholtz To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com Sent: Friday, June 6, 2008 5:47:27 AM Subject: Re: [code-switching]
                Message 7 of 12 , Jun 8, 2008
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                  ----- Original Message ----
                  From: James L. Fidelholtz <fidelholtz@...>
                  To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                  Sent: Friday, June 6, 2008 5:47:27 AM
                  Subject: Re: [code-switching] inter-language and mixed code


                   
                  Thank you for your quite thorough explanian. It very helful for me as lecturer in sociolinguistics but now also a student. 

                   I've got the same impression for the use of the term 'code-switching'.  When I was an undergraduate student, it was very easy for me to differenciate code-mixing from code-switching since the criterias for each are explained by my lecturer in a very simple way  with very simple examples. But now, when I am  a Phd Student, I often find quite confusing uses of the two terms    I have just read an article in the Journal of Language in Society (published in 1990s). Let me quote  a sentence from the articel  : "this analysis adopts a general definition of code -switching  as an alternation of two languages  within the same discourse, sentence, or constituent.  Since the study aims at analysing the morpho-syntax of bilingual utterances, it focuses on examples of intrasentential code-switching' . If I refer to Peter Muskyen's explanation, it seems to me the writer uses a wrong term to what he intents to study. Am I correct?
                  I also get the same impression when reading many discussion on this mailing-list. The name of the mailing list is  code-switching@yahoogroup but often what people discuss here is what I understand as code-mixing.
                  Thank you,
                   Rina

                   
                   

                  On 5/29/08, Kanthimathi K <kanthi@iitm. ac.in> wrote:
                  >
                  >
                  > Dear Friends
                  >
                  > Can anyone please clarify the difference between inter-language and mixed
                  > code.
                  >
                  > --K. Kanthimathi
                  > Research Scholar
                  > Dept. of Humanities and Social Sciences
                  > Indian Institute of Technology, Madras
                  > Chennai-600036
                  > India
                  >
                  >
                  >

                  --
                  James L. Fidelholtz
                  Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje
                  Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y
                  Humanidades
                  Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de
                  Puebla, MÉXICO

                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]






                  [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                • samsoki
                  Hi all, Je pense pour ma que l on doit certainement revoir les choses. La littérature mentionne que la différence entre alternance de codes et mélange de
                  Message 8 of 12 , Jun 9, 2008
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                    Hi all,
                    Je pense pour ma que l'on doit certainement revoir les choses. La
                    littérature mentionne que la différence entre alternance de codes et
                    mélange de codes réside au fait que le mélange se fait à l'intérieur
                    de l'énoncé dans le syntagme par exemple tandis que l'alternance se
                    fait entre phrase. Mais l'on parle aussi d'alternance intraphrase ce
                    qui s'apparente avec la définition du mélange de langue. L'on sait
                    aussi que le terme mélange de langue s'applique aussi au pidgin, au
                    créole, ... Pourquoi ne pas réserver ce terme à ce genre de parler?
                    Il y a de plu en plus dans la littérature les auteurs qui emploient
                    comme terme couverture l'alternance de codes avec ses différents
                    types. Qui mettra de l'ordre dans cette affaire?
                    Sébastien Kitengye Sokoni - samsoki
                    Doctorant à l'Université de Kinshasa
                    Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com, soodeh bordbar
                    <bluesky7257@...> wrote:
                    >
                    > Hi
                    >
                    > Can u make distinction between Code-mixing and Code-switching?
                    > In my idea u should revise ur definition on mixed-code.
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > Leoni Kotz� <leoni@...> wrote:
                    > I understand it like this:
                    >
                    > Mixed code: lexical items of two or more languages are used within
                    one
                    > sentence (intra-sentencially) or across sentences (inter-
                    sentencially).
                    >
                    > Interlanguae: term used to describe various stages in second
                    language
                    > learners� acquisition of target language. Learners achieve
                    different levels
                    > of proficiency of the target language, moving towards
                    �correct� grammar of
                    > target language.
                    >
                    > Hope I am right, and hope it is of help.
                    >
                    > Regards
                    >
                    > Leoni
                    >
                    > No virus found in this outgoing message.
                    > Checked by AVG.
                    > Version: 7.5.524 / Virus Database: 269.24.6/1486 - Release Date:
                    05/06/2008
                    > 18:29
                    >
                    >
                    > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                  • Celso Alvarez Cáccamo
                    Sébastien, Qui mettra de l ordre dans cette affaire? The order is there already. The order is in the real data of speech. But perhaps it s not the type of
                    Message 9 of 12 , Jun 9, 2008
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                      Sébastien,

                      "Qui mettra de l'ordre dans cette affaire?"

                      The order is there already. The order is in the real data of speech. But
                      perhaps it's not the type of order that most code-switching scholars think
                      there is. I suggest we start instead from integrated linguistic and
                      communicative competence as the default order of speech, not from
                      pre-assumptions about different grammatical systems. Then, let's relate
                      speech signals to aspects of context (the mental construction of context,
                      of course). And, finally, let's try to see whether and how different
                      communicative (pragmatic, in a broad sense) codes organize these signals in
                      relation to context(s). If/When they do, we may have found CODE-switching.
                      If/When they don't, we may have found trivial alternations of speech
                      varieties, such as cette construction-ci which perhaps does not encode
                      quelque chose d'importante apart from the funny fact that des structures
                      linguistiques peuvent être combined (I'm not a native English-French mixer).

                      A language may be viewed as a "semantic code", fine. We still don't know
                      how this "encoding" works, but fine. But it turns out that once
                      code-switching became code-switching in the literature, it was always
                      conceived of as a *pragmatic* phenomenon. Therefore, it is pragmatic
                      contents that are encoded (somehow). Therefore bis, we have to look at
                      context, not at grammatical constraints. The fact that grammatical
                      co-occurence constraints exist for language combinations may be as trivial
                      as the fact that one cannot leave certain constructions incomplete, such as
                      *This house is made out of.

                      So, one should not distinguish "insertions" from "code-mixing" from
                      "code-switching" on the basis of the length of the language alternation. It
                      may be the case that a single lexical insertion DOES encode something
                      pragmatically meaningful. And, conversely, it may be the case that a long
                      stretch of alternating speech varieties does NOT encode anything
                      pragmatically salient. So? Should we focus on saliency, or on surface
                      linguistic form?

                      In summary, if one were to understand what code-switching is, one ought to:

                      1) Make sure one knows what a "code" is. What are the properties of a
                      code? What does a code do? Where? In discourse? In one's head? Are all
                      codes the same? Etc.
                      2) Decide whether one should call a language a "code".
                      3.1) If yes, proceed to
                      3.1.1) understand what "switching" is, and to
                      3.1.2) decide whether "switching" and "mixing" languages are different
                      procedures for combining languages. Why? On what basis?
                      (Hint: Since for this view language IS the code, inter-sentential
                      alternations should NOT be "switches", as there would be neither
                      grammatical constraints nor matrix-languages nor triggers within each
                      sentence, which is the highest-level structure possible generated by a
                      language. Therefore, if language is the code, the only possible switching
                      occurs internally, intrasententially: in "code-mixing". Strange. This is
                      called The Mixing-Switching Paradox).
                      3.2) If one should NOT call a language the code, then decide what IS the
                      code in communication, and then
                      3.2.1) try to understand what "switching codes" is, just as early scholars
                      understood it.
                      (Hint: If the code is not semantic, but pragmatic, then switching always
                      occurs intra-discursively, regardless of structural level. Therefore,
                      "code-mixing" doesn't exist. It never did. It's either code-switching, or
                      nothing, like in the good old times).

                      Oh, interlanguage: To my knowledge, an interlanguage is, as pointed out, an
                      "approximative system" (Selinker?, Richards?) between the source language
                      and the target language in L2-learning, particularly in formal
                      learning. It's a very specific phenomenon, which points again to one's
                      integrated competence. But I don't think it can be called "mixing" from the
                      3.1 view above, as the two supposed language-codes do not exist yet in the
                      speaker's mind (precisely, the learner is creating the second one: how can
                      you "mix" one code and half a code?). Uses of interlanguage might be
                      code-switching from the 3.2 view above, but not by virtue of their being
                      interlanguage (communicative competence barely knows what a language is).

                      Coda: In stable "mixed language" (="mixed code", for 3.1 proponents)
                      settings (creoles), same problem arises: how can you mix fragments of
                      codes? Logically, it should be called semi-code mixing! Anyone ready for
                      a new term? No, I think it's better not to call it mixing or mixed
                      language, but simply language. Whether or not speakers then code-switch
                      (view 3.2 above) is another issue.

                      Best,
                      -celso
                      Celso Alvarez Cáccamo


                      At 08:49 09-06-2008 +0000, you wrote:
                      >Hi all,
                      >Je pense pour ma que l'on doit certainement revoir les choses. La
                      >littérature mentionne que la différence entre alternance de codes et
                      >mélange de codes réside au fait que le mélange se fait à l'intérieur
                      >de l'énoncé dans le syntagme par exemple tandis que l'alternance se
                      >fait entre phrase. Mais l'on parle aussi d'alternance intraphrase ce
                      >qui s'apparente avec la définition du mélange de langue. L'on sait
                      >aussi que le terme mélange de langue s'applique aussi au pidgin, au
                      >créole, ... Pourquoi ne pas réserver ce terme à ce genre de parler?
                      >Il y a de plu en plus dans la littérature les auteurs qui emploient
                      >comme terme couverture l'alternance de codes avec ses différents
                      >types. Qui mettra de l'ordre dans cette affaire?
                      >Sébastien Kitengye Sokoni - samsoki
                      >Doctorant à l'Université de Kinshasa
                      >Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines


                      [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                    • James L. Fidelholtz
                      Hi, Samsoki et al., Well, it seems to me that there are situations which don t quite fit the theoretical definitions of terms, ie, at least I don t have a clue
                      Message 10 of 12 , Jun 9, 2008
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                        Hi, Samsoki et al.,

                        Well, it seems to me that there are situations which don't quite fit the
                        theoretical definitions of terms, ie, at least I don't have a clue what to
                        call them. I have mentioned this case here before, but I'll repeat it: once,
                        when I was driving in very southern Texas, a very excited man rushed into a
                        store I had stopped at, carrying his son. He had just come from the
                        emergency room of the local hospital, where they had set his son's broken
                        leg. I didn't have a recorder or anything, but this was after having lived
                        in Mexico for over 15 years. My *very* strong impression was that the man
                        was alternating between English and Spanish at *every single word*, and I
                        think the young women he was chatting with were doing the same thing in
                        their responses. (This was close to 15 years ago, in Del Río, TX.) This
                        situation was very striking to me, because it flew in the face of any
                        definitions of CS that I had ever heard, or any CS that I had ever
                        experienced (including my own) before that in central Mexico, where we live.
                        In fact, it almost seemed *too* regular an alternation (though not
                        respecting syntactic structure, seemingly, at all) to be called 'code
                        mixing' or 'language mixing' (the latter an apparently unused term among
                        linguists, probably for good reasons, although it is frequently found in
                        'lay' discussions).

                        Jim


                        On 6/9/08, samsoki <samsoki@...> wrote:
                        >
                        > Hi all,
                        > Je pense pour ma que l'on doit certainement revoir les choses. La
                        > littérature mentionne que la différence entre alternance de codes et
                        > mélange de codes réside au fait que le mélange se fait à l'intérieur
                        > de l'énoncé dans le syntagme par exemple tandis que l'alternance se
                        > fait entre phrase. Mais l'on parle aussi d'alternance intraphrase ce
                        > qui s'apparente avec la définition du mélange de langue. L'on sait
                        > aussi que le terme mélange de langue s'applique aussi au pidgin, au
                        > créole, ... Pourquoi ne pas réserver ce terme à ce genre de parler?
                        > Il y a de plu en plus dans la littérature les auteurs qui emploient
                        > comme terme couverture l'alternance de codes avec ses différents
                        > types. Qui mettra de l'ordre dans cette affaire?
                        > Sébastien Kitengye Sokoni - samsoki
                        > Doctorant à l'Université de Kinshasa
                        > Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com <code-switching%40yahoogroups.com>,
                        > soodeh bordbar
                        > <bluesky7257@...> wrote:
                        > >
                        > > Hi
                        > >
                        > > Can u make distinction between Code-mixing and Code-switching?
                        > > In my idea u should revise ur definition on mixed-code.
                        > >
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > Leoni Kotz� <leoni@...> wrote:
                        > > I understand it like this:
                        > >
                        > > Mixed code: lexical items of two or more languages are used within
                        > one
                        > > sentence (intra-sentencially) or across sentences (inter-
                        > sentencially).
                        > >
                        > > Interlanguae: term used to describe various stages in second
                        > language
                        > > learners� acquisition of target language. Learners achieve
                        > different levels
                        > > of proficiency of the target language, moving towards
                        > �correct� grammar of
                        > > target language.
                        > >
                        > > Hope I am right, and hope it is of help.
                        > >
                        > > Regards
                        > >
                        > > Leoni
                        > >
                        > > No virus found in this outgoing message.
                        > > Checked by AVG.
                        > > Version: 7.5.524 / Virus Database: 269.24.6/1486 - Release Date:
                        > 05/06/2008
                        > > 18:29
                        > >
                        > >
                        > > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        >
                        >



                        --
                        James L. Fidelholtz
                        Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje
                        Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y
                        Humanidades
                        Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de
                        Puebla, MÉXICO


                        [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                      • James L. Fidelholtz
                        Sorry, all, I sent the previous response before getting to Celso s reply. One thing I should have mentioned about English-Spanish or English-French CS is that
                        Message 11 of 12 , Jun 9, 2008
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                          Sorry, all, I sent the previous response before getting to Celso's reply.
                          One thing I should have mentioned about English-Spanish or English-French CS
                          is that the case I described is at all possible just because the superficial
                          structures of English, on the one hand, and French or Spanish, on the other
                          hand, are very similar; indeed, enough so that such every-other-word CS is
                          feasible without driving your interlocutors totally nuts. In pairs of
                          languages without such similar surface structures it might be much harder to
                          have such a situation.

                          Jim


                          On 6/9/08, James L. Fidelholtz <fidelholtz@...> wrote:
                          >
                          > Hi, Samsoki et al.,
                          >
                          > Well, it seems to me that there are situations which don't quite fit the
                          > theoretical definitions of terms, ie, at least I don't have a clue what to
                          > call them. I have mentioned this case here before, but I'll repeat it: once,
                          > when I was driving in very southern Texas, a very excited man rushed into a
                          > store I had stopped at, carrying his son. He had just come from the
                          > emergency room of the local hospital, where they had set his son's broken
                          > leg. I didn't have a recorder or anything, but this was after having lived
                          > in Mexico for over 15 years. My *very* strong impression was that the man
                          > was alternating between English and Spanish at *every single word*, and I
                          > think the young women he was chatting with were doing the same thing in
                          > their responses. (This was close to 15 years ago, in Del Río, TX.) This
                          > situation was very striking to me, because it flew in the face of any
                          > definitions of CS that I had ever heard, or any CS that I had ever
                          > experienced (including my own) before that in central Mexico, where we live.
                          > In fact, it almost seemed *too* regular an alternation (though not
                          > respecting syntactic structure, seemingly, at all) to be called 'code
                          > mixing' or 'language mixing' (the latter an apparently unused term among
                          > linguists, probably for good reasons, although it is frequently found in
                          > 'lay' discussions).
                          >
                          > Jim
                          >
                          >
                          > On 6/9/08, samsoki <samsoki@...> wrote:
                          >>
                          >> Hi all,
                          >> Je pense pour ma que l'on doit certainement revoir les choses. La
                          >> littérature mentionne que la différence entre alternance de codes et
                          >> mélange de codes réside au fait que le mélange se fait à l'intérieur
                          >> de l'énoncé dans le syntagme par exemple tandis que l'alternance se
                          >> fait entre phrase. Mais l'on parle aussi d'alternance intraphrase ce
                          >> qui s'apparente avec la définition du mélange de langue. L'on sait
                          >> aussi que le terme mélange de langue s'applique aussi au pidgin, au
                          >> créole, ... Pourquoi ne pas réserver ce terme à ce genre de parler?
                          >> Il y a de plu en plus dans la littérature les auteurs qui emploient
                          >> comme terme couverture l'alternance de codes avec ses différents
                          >> types. Qui mettra de l'ordre dans cette affaire?
                          >> Sébastien Kitengye Sokoni - samsoki
                          >> Doctorant à l'Université de Kinshasa
                          >> Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines
                          >> >
                          >> >
                          >> >
                          >> >
                          >> --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com <code-switching%40yahoogroups.com>,
                          >> soodeh bordbar
                          >> <bluesky7257@...> wrote:
                          >> >
                          >> > Hi
                          >> >
                          >> > Can u make distinction between Code-mixing and Code-switching?
                          >> > In my idea u should revise ur definition on mixed-code.
                          >> >
                          >> >
                          >> >
                          >> > Leoni Kotz� <leoni@...> wrote:
                          >> > I understand it like this:
                          >> >
                          >> > Mixed code: lexical items of two or more languages are used within
                          >> one
                          >> > sentence (intra-sentencially) or across sentences (inter-
                          >> sentencially).
                          >> >
                          >> > Interlanguae: term used to describe various stages in second
                          >> language
                          >> > learners� acquisition of target language. Learners achieve
                          >> different levels
                          >> > of proficiency of the target language, moving towards
                          >> �correct� grammar of
                          >> > target language.
                          >> >
                          >> > Hope I am right, and hope it is of help.
                          >> >
                          >> > Regards
                          >> >
                          >> > Leoni
                          >> >
                          >> > No virus found in this outgoing message.
                          >> > Checked by AVG.
                          >> > Version: 7.5.524 / Virus Database: 269.24.6/1486 - Release Date:
                          >> 05/06/2008
                          >> > 18:29
                          >> >
                          >> >
                          >> > [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                          >>
                          >>
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > --
                          > James L. Fidelholtz
                          > Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje
                          > Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y
                          > Humanidades
                          > Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de
                          > Puebla, MÉXICO
                          >



                          --
                          James L. Fidelholtz
                          Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje
                          Instituto de Ciencias Sociales y
                          Humanidades
                          Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de
                          Puebla, MÉXICO


                          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
                        • Sebba, Mark
                          My view is that we should spend our time, as Celso suggests, examining the phenomena rather than puzzling over labelling. That said, it would be useful to have
                          Message 12 of 12 , Jun 10, 2008
                          • 0 Attachment
                            My view is that we should spend our time, as Celso suggests, examining the phenomena rather than puzzling over labelling. That said, it would be useful to have some clear definitions of terms, even if these are linked to specific theoretical approaches. 'Code switching' itself has been applied to such a wide range of phenomena that it is really necessary to define it clearly for the purposes of each individual study.

                            Regarding 'language mixing', the term 'mixed language' has been used since the 90s in contact language studies / creolistics to refer to languages like Michif and Copper Island Aleut which have lexicons and grammatical structures drawn from two identifiable languages. Although code switching may have had something to do with the formation of these languages (or may not), it is clear that these languages are not 'code switching' as the speakers are not necessarily bilingual.

                            However, I have recently been using the term 'written mixed language' or 'written mixed-language discourse' to refer to writing which involves two or more languages/codes. This is (a) because the term 'code switching,' although not that well-defined even for spoken language is even less well defined for written language and (b) because I would include, under this heading, types of text which involve two languages at the level of the text as a whole but which dont involve anything that resembles spoken code-switching, e.g. web sites which are composed of items in several languages.

                            In case you are wondering what I mean, here are some examples:

                            http://mrra.gov.mt/
                            http://www.litnet.co.za/cgi-bin/giga.cgi
                            (the content of these pages varies day to day - currently there is less English than in the past)
                            also
                            http://www.spanglishtimes.com/

                            I would be interested to hear from anyone who shares my interest in this kind of 'mixing' and am also continually on the lookout for more such sites (in any language pair). They cannot be located in general through search engines.

                            Thanks for any help you can offer.


                            Mark Sebba
                            ____________________________________________>h
                            Dr Mark Sebba
                            Reader in Sociolinguistics and Language Contact
                            Department of Linguistics,
                            Lancaster University
                            Lancaster LA1 4YT
                            Great Britain
                            Tel. +44 1524 592453
                            Fax +44 1524 843085
                            e-mail: M.Sebba@...
                            http://www.ling.lancs.ac.uk/profiles/Mark-Sebba/
                            http://web.onetel.com/~marksebba/index.htm

                            *I shall not be using apostrophes from 1st January 2007.*


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