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Indonesia

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  • prihantoro2001
    Dear All I read leoni s mail about code switching in south africa where there are many languages used in the daily conversation. It is the same case in my
    Message 1 of 5 , Jan 15, 2008
      Dear All

      I read leoni's mail about code switching in south africa where there
      are many languages used in the daily conversation. It is the same case
      in my country, Indonesia. Our official language is Indonesian.
      However, every provinces have their own vernacular languages. One of
      the vernacular language that are largely spoken is Javanese. It is
      very interesting since Javanese has speech levels (Standard-Honorific).
      Now, consider the example of code switching. Ahmad, my friend, is not
      a javanese. The first time he went to traditional market, he bought
      something very expensive, let us say Rp. 150.000 or $ 15. He spoke to
      the salesperson Indonesian. One year after that, Ahmad began to be
      able to speak Javanese clearly, even in Honorific style. Then, he went
      to the same store, with the same salesperson, bought the same thing
      and the price get much cheaper! Rp.30.000 or only $3. After i
      confirmed him, he told me that he used Javanese in honorific style. So
      you see, Ahmad got advantage of doing code switching. Because when he
      used javanese, the salesperson will think that they are in similar
      group. As an analogy, for a boat ride in Sanur Bali, foerign tourists
      are charged more expensive than domestic ones. That was just the same
      cas as Ahmad's

      Prihantoro
    • cdnilep
      Leoni Kotzé: As you suggest, analysts determination of motivation can be problematic. I find the Markedness Model, probably the most widely used theory of
      Message 2 of 5 , Jan 16, 2008
        Leoni Kotzé:

        As you suggest, analysts' determination of motivation can be
        problematic. I find the Markedness Model, probably the most widely
        used theory of code switching motivation, somewhat unsatisfactory,
        though it is quite robust and well developed.

        According to the Markedness Model (Myers-Scotton 1993), code switching
        is a rational choice, motivated by negotiations over social role, what
        the theory terms Rights and Obligations Sets. Speakers choose an
        appropriate language for the communication setting, in order to index
        their role in that situation. Code switching is then used "to make
        alternate exploratory choices as candidates for an unmarked choice" (142).

        According to this model, your grandchild may be acting rationally to
        index her own rights and obligations relative to her Africaans
        speaking family, or making exploratory choices. In the former case,
        she may be positioning herself in the same role, relative to her older
        relatives, that she does relative to her English-speaking teachers. In
        the latter, she may be exploring her own linguistic possibilities
        within the home.

        As I said at the outset, however, I'm personally uncomfortable
        assuming that code switching (or other language behavior) is
        necessarily rational, as most discussions of 'motivation' do.

        I would submit that your grandchild may be exploring her communicative
        possibilities by trying out various languages with various
        interlocutors. This could be rational and intentional, but it is not
        necessary to assume that it is, nor to see a bid for new or different
        rights in the behavior.

        Or maybe not. Since I've never actually seen you grandchild, my
        speculation should, of course, be taken with a generous grain of salt.

        -Chad Nilep

        Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1993. Social Motivations for Codeswitching:
        Evidence from Africa. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

        --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com, Leoni Kotzé <leoni@...> wrote:

        > I am also
        > particularly interested in the MOTIVATION for this type of
        codeswitching,
        > although I read the other day that the motivation for
        > language/dialect/whatever code one uses, cannot really be
        determined, as it
        > is in most cases a subconscious choice.
        >
        >
        >
        > In the light of the above, I'd like to share the following with you:
        >
        > I have an Afrikaans speaking grandchild, who went to nursery school
        at the
        > age of 2-1/2 last year in January. As there was no place available
        in the
        > Afrikaans class, they put her in the English class. For the first three
        > months, she did not really participate in any speech events (Krashen's
        > silent period, I guess :-)), but thereafter she started speaking in
        English
        > as well as in Afrikaans.
        >
        >
        >
        > She is now 3-12 years old and she now codeswitches and this is what
        I find
        > interesting. What would her MOTIVATION be for codeswitching with her
        family
        > members who are all Afrikaans speaking? I have an idea that her
        > codeswitching is promted by `association' (i.e. when she is at play)
        rather
        > than any identification of negotiation purpose(s),.
      • Leoni Kotzé
        Thanks for your reply, Chad. I feel exactly the way you do about the Markedness Model. The problem with the motivation part, as you so aptly point out, is that
        Message 3 of 5 , Jan 17, 2008
          Thanks for your reply, Chad.



          I feel exactly the way you do about the Markedness Model.



          The problem with the motivation part, as you so aptly point out, is that we
          simply don’t know. It remains a problem.

          Back to the drawing board . . .



          Leoni Kotze


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          01:40



          [Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
        • Celso Alvarez Cáccamo
          Hello, Just a thought about this discussion on motivation in language alternation and choices . I wouldn t say that language usages are all automatic and
          Message 4 of 5 , Jan 21, 2008
            Hello,

            Just a thought about this discussion on "motivation" in language
            alternation and "choices". I wouldn't say that language usages are all
            automatic and subconscious. There are clearly cases of planned language
            choice. But "motivation" is a psychological notion (such as
            "accommodation") which asks about a 'Why', whereas discourse and
            conversation analysts ask about a conversational 'What for'. This 'What
            for' is not psychological, though, but discursive and interactional. And
            whereas we can claim that the What for (the conversational "orientation" or
            disposition to do this or that in terms of tasks at hand) also lies somehow
            in the speaker's mind (in the speaker's cognitive context about
            conversation itself, where else could it be?), one thing is to search for
            it as if it resided there prior to conversation and in the form of
            determining factors, and another thing is to *reach* this context and
            achieve its reconstruction after having examined discourse-in-itself.

            I think it's and old story, and the stance one takes depends on the
            explanatory power we assign (or prefer to assign, on the basis of
            specialization and other disciplinary routines) to Mind, to Discourse, or
            to Society, the three elements present, for example, in Teun A. Van Dijk's
            models of ideology, discourse, and context(s).

            -celso
            Celso Alvarez Cáccamo

            At 21:05 17-01-2008 +0200, you wrote:
            >Thanks for your reply, Chad.
            >
            >
            >
            >I feel exactly the way you do about the Markedness Model.
            >
            >
            >
            >The problem with the motivation part, as you so aptly point out, is that we
            >simply don’t know. It remains a problem.
            >
            >Back to the drawing board . . .
            >
            >
            >
            >Leoni Kotze
            >
            >
            >No virus found in this outgoing message.
            >Checked by AVG Free Edition.
            >Version: 7.5.516 / Virus Database: 269.19.4/1227 - Release Date: 16/01/2008
            >01:40
            >
            >
            >
            >[Non-text portions of this message have been removed]
            >
            >
            >
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