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Hear one, respond in other, happily converse

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  • Don Osborn
    I ve a really basic linguistic question (I think): what does one call the situation where two speakers communicate each in their own tongue but understand each
    Message 1 of 14 , Feb 13, 2007
      I've a really basic linguistic question (I think): what does one call
      the situation where two speakers communicate each in their own tongue
      but understand each other's speech? It's not codeswitching as I
      understand the term, since each speaker is more or less consistently
      using one tongue.

      Over the years I often ran into situations where people would say that
      they understood ("hear") another tongue, but couldn't speak it. I have
      only rarely witnessed exchanges on this basis (at least where I could
      identify that each conversants was pretty much consistently using
      something different from the other), but read about it in the case of
      Ndonga and Kwanyama in Namibia (these are very close, like dialects of
      the same language, Oshiwambo).

      TIA for any info.

      Don Osborn
    • Marian Sloboda
      Dear Don, Einar Haugen s 1996 paper dealt with this kind of communication between the Danes, Swedes and Norwegians, who can and do mutually communicate in
      Message 2 of 14 , Feb 14, 2007
        Dear Don,

        Einar Haugen's 1996 paper dealt with this kind of communication
        between the Danes, Swedes and Norwegians, who can and do mutually
        communicate in their own respective languages yet understand each
        other, given a certain amount of good will. Haugen probably did not
        name that kind of communication, but that article of his is well-
        known for the notion of 'semicommunication' which he defined as
        a 'trickle of messages through a rather high level of code 'noise''.
        The code noise can be due to differences between languages, which is
        actualised precisely in the kind of bilingual interlingual
        communication you have described. It is often termed 'receptive
        bilingualism' (or 'receptive multilingualism'), and it has been
        dealt with also with Romance and Slavonic languages (here namely
        Czech and Slovak, or Czech-Slovak-Polish, and marginally Belarusian-
        Russian), and very possibly with other languages as well. I can
        recommend these papers:

        Haugen, E. (1996): Semicommunication: the language gap in
        Scandinavia. Sociological Inquiry, 36 (2), 280-297.

        Braunmüller, K. (2002): Semicommunication and accommodation:
        observations from the linguistic situation in Scandinavia.
        International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 12 (1), 1-23.



        --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com, "Don Osborn" <dzo@...> wrote:
        >
        > I've a really basic linguistic question (I think): what does one
        call
        > the situation where two speakers communicate each in their own
        tongue
        > but understand each other's speech? It's not codeswitching as I
        > understand the term, since each speaker is more or less
        consistently
        > using one tongue.
        >
        > Over the years I often ran into situations where people would say
        that
        > they understood ("hear") another tongue, but couldn't speak it. I
        have
        > only rarely witnessed exchanges on this basis (at least where I
        could
        > identify that each conversants was pretty much consistently using
        > something different from the other), but read about it in the case
        of
        > Ndonga and Kwanyama in Namibia (these are very close, like
        dialects of
        > the same language, Oshiwambo).
        >
        > TIA for any info.
        >
        > Don Osborn
        >
      • Marian Sloboda
        Sorry the Haugen s paper was published in 1966 (not 1996)! Marian ... not ... code noise . ... is ... Belarusian- ... say ... I ... case
        Message 3 of 14 , Feb 14, 2007
          Sorry the Haugen's paper was published in 1966 (not 1996)!
          Marian

          --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com, "Marian Sloboda" <maslo@...>
          wrote:
          >
          > Dear Don,
          >
          > Einar Haugen's 1996 paper dealt with this kind of communication
          > between the Danes, Swedes and Norwegians, who can and do mutually
          > communicate in their own respective languages yet understand each
          > other, given a certain amount of good will. Haugen probably did
          not
          > name that kind of communication, but that article of his is well-
          > known for the notion of 'semicommunication' which he defined as
          > a 'trickle of messages through a rather high level of
          code 'noise''.
          > The code noise can be due to differences between languages, which
          is
          > actualised precisely in the kind of bilingual interlingual
          > communication you have described. It is often termed 'receptive
          > bilingualism' (or 'receptive multilingualism'), and it has been
          > dealt with also with Romance and Slavonic languages (here namely
          > Czech and Slovak, or Czech-Slovak-Polish, and marginally
          Belarusian-
          > Russian), and very possibly with other languages as well. I can
          > recommend these papers:
          >
          > Haugen, E. (1996): Semicommunication: the language gap in
          > Scandinavia. Sociological Inquiry, 36 (2), 280-297.
          >
          > Braunmüller, K. (2002): Semicommunication and accommodation:
          > observations from the linguistic situation in Scandinavia.
          > International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 12 (1), 1-23.
          >
          >
          >
          > --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com, "Don Osborn" <dzo@> wrote:
          > >
          > > I've a really basic linguistic question (I think): what does one
          > call
          > > the situation where two speakers communicate each in their own
          > tongue
          > > but understand each other's speech? It's not codeswitching as I
          > > understand the term, since each speaker is more or less
          > consistently
          > > using one tongue.
          > >
          > > Over the years I often ran into situations where people would
          say
          > that
          > > they understood ("hear") another tongue, but couldn't speak it.
          I
          > have
          > > only rarely witnessed exchanges on this basis (at least where I
          > could
          > > identify that each conversants was pretty much consistently using
          > > something different from the other), but read about it in the
          case
          > of
          > > Ndonga and Kwanyama in Namibia (these are very close, like
          > dialects of
          > > the same language, Oshiwambo).
          > >
          > > TIA for any info.
          > >
          > > Don Osborn
          > >
          >
        • Harold F. Schiffman
          I ve always used the term mutual passive bilingualism for this kind of thing. It s very common in immigrant families, with children answering their parents
          Message 4 of 14 , Feb 14, 2007
            I've always used the term "mutual passive bilingualism" for this kind of
            thing. It's very common in immigrant families, with children answering
            their parents in English when the parents speak to them in their home
            language. I've had students who swear they can't speak a word of Yoruba or
            whatever, to save their lives, but they understand everything, and always
            reply in English..

            Hal S.


            On Wed, 14 Feb 2007, Don Osborn wrote:

            > I've a really basic linguistic question (I think): what does one call
            > the situation where two speakers communicate each in their own tongue
            > but understand each other's speech? It's not codeswitching as I
            > understand the term, since each speaker is more or less consistently
            > using one tongue.
            >
            > Over the years I often ran into situations where people would say that
            > they understood ("hear") another tongue, but couldn't speak it. I have
            > only rarely witnessed exchanges on this basis (at least where I could
            > identify that each conversants was pretty much consistently using
            > something different from the other), but read about it in the case of
            > Ndonga and Kwanyama in Namibia (these are very close, like dialects of
            > the same language, Oshiwambo).
            >
            > TIA for any info.
            >
            > Don Osborn
            >
            >
            >
            > To Post a message: code-switching @ yahoogroups.com
            > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
            > code-switching-unsubscribe @ yahoogroups.com
            > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
            > Yahoo! Groups Links
            >
            >
            >
            >
          • mkv1@york.ac.uk
            In immigrant family situations where second or third generation children and their (grand)parents do not share the same language in their interaction the
            Message 5 of 14 , Feb 14, 2007
              In immigrant family situations where second or third generation children
              and their (grand)parents do not share the same language in their
              interaction the children do not respond to their (grand)parents in the
              language in which they receive the message.In sociolinguistic research this
              has been characterised as 'non-reciprocal response'.

              Mahendra Verma
              Dept. of Language & Linguistic Science
              University of York
              York, UK


              On Feb 14 2007, Don Osborn wrote:

              >I've a really basic linguistic question (I think): what does one call
              >
              >the situation where two speakers communicate each in their own tongue
              >
              >but understand each other's speech? It's not codeswitching as I
              >
              >understand the term, since each speaker is more or less consistently
              >
              >using one tongue.
              >
              >
              >Over the years I often ran into situations where people would say that
              >
              >they understood ("hear") another tongue, but couldn't speak it. I have
              >
              >only rarely witnessed exchanges on this basis (at least where I could
              >
              >identify that each conversants was pretty much consistently using
              >
              >something different from the other), but read about it in the case of
              >
              >Ndonga and Kwanyama in Namibia (these are very close, like dialects of
              >
              >the same language, Oshiwambo).
              >
              >
              >TIA for any info.
              >
              >
              >Don Osborn
              >
              >
              >
            • Celso Alvarez Cáccamo
              Don, Here are some (old) labels for this pattern of language choices which I can think of now, from some major works: Gal (1979) called the phenomenon
              Message 6 of 14 , Feb 14, 2007
                Don,

                Here are some (old) labels for this pattern of language choices which I can
                think of now, from some major works:

                Gal (1979) called the phenomenon "unreciprocal [sic] language choices".
                Woolard (1989) called it the "Bilingual Norm" of conversation. In
                psycho-sociolinguistics (e.g. Scherer & Giles 1979) it has been called
                "divergence" or "divergent choices", contrary to "convergent" choices or
                "accommodation".

                To me, "mutual passive bilingualism", as Hal calls it, refers to general
                language competence, not to usage patterns. Moreno Cabrera (2000) uses
                "sesquilinguismo" for this type of competence. "Semilingualism" is a
                related term: being fully competent in only language, partially so in another.

                -celso

                =======
                REFS:

                Gal, Susan. 1979. _Language shift. Social determinants of linguistic change
                in bilingual Austria_. New York: Academic Press.

                Moreno Cabrera, Juan Carlos. 2000. _La dignidad e igualdad de las lenguas.
                Crítica de la discriminación lingüística_. Madrid: Alianza.

                Scherer, Klaus R. and Howard G. Giles, eds. 1979. _Social markers in
                speech_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

                Woolard, Kathryn A. 1989. _Double talk: Bilingualism and the politics of
                ethnicity in Catalonia_. Stanford: Stanford University Press.


                At 00:46 14-02-2007 +0000, you wrote:
                >I've a really basic linguistic question (I think): what does one call
                >the situation where two speakers communicate each in their own tongue
                >but understand each other's speech? It's not codeswitching as I
                >understand the term, since each speaker is more or less consistently
                >using one tongue.
                >
                >Over the years I often ran into situations where people would say that
                >they understood ("hear") another tongue, but couldn't speak it. I have
                >only rarely witnessed exchanges on this basis (at least where I could
                >identify that each conversants was pretty much consistently using
                >something different from the other), but read about it in the case of
                >Ndonga and Kwanyama in Namibia (these are very close, like dialects of
                >the same language, Oshiwambo).
                >
                >TIA for any info.
                >
                >Don Osborn
              • James_L._Fidelholtz
                Hi, Don, Just a couple of personal experiences to add to the bibliography and theoretical comments you have already been given: On sabbatical in the States, I
                Message 7 of 14 , Feb 15, 2007
                  Hi, Don,

                  Just a couple of personal experiences to add to the bibliography and
                  theoretical comments you have already been given:

                  On sabbatical in the States, I met an Italian linguist invited to Vanderbilt
                  U. We began communicating in English, but I had (a little) trouble
                  understanding his rather accented English, and he had (some) trouble
                  understanding (even) my leveled, Mid-Western English. I am fluent in Spanish
                  (which he had studied a little bit in Italy), and had traveled some in Italy
                  (I knew how to say 'due cinquanta' (sp?), since when I was there that was
                  what everything seemed to cost). So I spoke in Spanish and he spoke in
                  Italian, and we only rarely had to stop to clarify some misunderstanding.

                  On another occasion, I was in Poland on a Fulbright. After two years there I
                  was pretty fluent in Polish, and went to teach English for two weeks in
                  Czechoslovakia (this was the 70s). I found that Polish was almost adequate
                  for communicating with shopkeepers there (Prague & Olomouc). I was even able
                  to buy 'menaszki' (3-tiered [usually porcelainized] metal lunch containers)
                  which were a necessity in Poland, but which I had been unable to find there,
                  all the negotiation carried out in Polish (by me--aided by a dictionary and
                  possibly a Berlitz manual) and Czech (by the monolingual shopkeepers).

                  Also, always remember what someone mentioned: accommodation is *always* a
                  very natural and strong human tendency in communication, be it
                  interdialectal or interlingual, and of course this is especially true when
                  the interlocutors have *some* knowledge of the other language.

                  Jim


                  Don Osborn escribió:

                  > I've a really basic linguistic question (I think): what does one call
                  > the situation where two speakers communicate each in their own tongue
                  > but understand each other's speech? It's not codeswitching as I
                  > understand the term, since each speaker is more or less consistently
                  > using one tongue.
                  >
                  > Over the years I often ran into situations where people would say that
                  > they understood ("hear") another tongue, but couldn't speak it. I have
                  > only rarely witnessed exchanges on this basis (at least where I could
                  > identify that each conversants was pretty much consistently using
                  > something different from the other), but read about it in the case of
                  > Ndonga and Kwanyama in Namibia (these are very close, like dialects of
                  > the same language, Oshiwambo).

                  ...

                  James L. Fidelholtz
                  Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje, ICSyH
                  Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla MÉXICO
                • James_L._Fidelholtz
                  ... James L. Fidelholtz Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje, ICSyH Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla MÉXICO
                  Message 8 of 14 , Feb 15, 2007
                    Don Osborn escribió:

                    > I've a really basic linguistic question (I think): what does one call
                    > the situation where two speakers communicate each in their own tongue
                    > but understand each other's speech? It's not codeswitching as I
                    > understand the term, since each speaker is more or less consistently
                    > using one tongue.
                    >
                    > Over the years I often ran into situations where people would say that
                    > they understood ("hear") another tongue, but couldn't speak it. I have
                    > only rarely witnessed exchanges on this basis (at least where I could
                    > identify that each conversants was pretty much consistently using
                    > something different from the other), but read about it in the case of
                    > Ndonga and Kwanyama in Namibia (these are very close, like dialects of
                    > the same language, Oshiwambo).
                    >
                    > TIA for any info.
                    >
                    > Don Osborn
                    >
                    >
                    >
                    > To Post a message: code-switching @ yahoogroups.com
                    > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
                    > code-switching-unsubscribe @ yahoogroups.com
                    > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
                    > Yahoo! Groups Links
                    >
                    >
                    >



                    James L. Fidelholtz
                    Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje, ICSyH
                    Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla MÉXICO
                  • sergio pasquandrea
                    I had a similar experience this summer in Denmark, where I met a guy from Chile that had many troubles in speaking and understanding English: so I spoke
                    Message 9 of 14 , Feb 15, 2007
                      I had a similar experience this summer in Denmark, where I met a guy from Chile that had many troubles in speaking and understanding English: so I spoke Italian and he spoke Spanish and we could easily understand each other.


                      "James_L._Fidelholtz" <jfidel@...> ha scritto:
                      Hi, Don,

                      Just a couple of personal experiences to add to the bibliography and
                      theoretical comments you have already been given:

                      On sabbatical in the States, I met an Italian linguist invited to Vanderbilt
                      U. We began communicating in English, but I had (a little) trouble
                      understanding his rather accented English, and he had (some) trouble
                      understanding (even) my leveled, Mid-Western English. I am fluent in Spanish
                      (which he had studied a little bit in Italy), and had traveled some in Italy
                      (I knew how to say 'due cinquanta' (sp?), since when I was there that was
                      what everything seemed to cost). So I spoke in Spanish and he spoke in
                      Italian, and we only rarely had to stop to clarify some misunderstanding.

                      On another occasion, I was in Poland on a Fulbright. After two years there I
                      was pretty fluent in Polish, and went to teach English for two weeks in
                      Czechoslovakia (this was the 70s). I found that Polish was almost adequate
                      for communicating with shopkeepers there (Prague & Olomouc). I was even able
                      to buy 'menaszki' (3-tiered [usually porcelainized] metal lunch containers)
                      which were a necessity in Poland, but which I had been unable to find there,
                      all the negotiation carried out in Polish (by me--aided by a dictionary and
                      possibly a Berlitz manual) and Czech (by the monolingual shopkeepers).

                      Also, always remember what someone mentioned: accommodation is *always* a
                      very natural and strong human tendency in communication, be it
                      interdialectal or interlingual, and of course this is especially true when
                      the interlocutors have *some* knowledge of the other language.

                      Jim

                      Don Osborn escribió:

                      > I've a really basic linguistic question (I think): what does one call
                      > the situation where two speakers communicate each in their own tongue
                      > but understand each other's speech? It's not codeswitching as I
                      > understand the term, since each speaker is more or less consistently
                      > using one tongue.
                      >
                      > Over the years I often ran into situations where people would say that
                      > they understood ("hear") another tongue, but couldn't speak it. I have
                      > only rarely witnessed exchanges on this basis (at least where I could
                      > identify that each conversants was pretty much consistently using
                      > something different from the other), but read about it in the case of
                      > Ndonga and Kwanyama in Namibia (these are very close, like dialects of
                      > the same language, Oshiwambo).

                      ...

                      James L. Fidelholtz
                      Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje, ICSyH
                      Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla MÉXICO





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                    • Ian Wilson
                      Sorry for responding so late to this thread. I don t check the list very often but just noticed the question now. I believe the term for this phenomenon is
                      Message 10 of 14 , Feb 25, 2007
                        Sorry for responding so late to this thread. I don't check the list
                        very often but just noticed the question now. I believe the term for
                        this phenomenon is "dilingual discourse". Carolyn Johnson and I used
                        the term in our 2002 IJB paper ("Phonetic evidence for early language
                        differentiation: Research issues and some preliminary data".
                        International Journal of Bilingualism 6: 271-289). At that time, we
                        didn't know the term had been used before by Saville-Troike in her
                        1987 Linguistics paper ("Dilingual discourse: The negotiation of
                        meaning without a common code". Linguistics 25: 81-106).

                        Note, however, that the term "dilingual" is not very common. A Google
                        search on the word yields only about 100 websites that contain it.
                        Compare that to the word "bilingual", which yields 26,000,000 websites!

                        Sincerely,
                        Ian Wilson
                        University of Aizu
                        <http://www.u-aizu.ac.jp/~wilson>
                      • Marian Sloboda
                        The different prefixation of di-lingual reminded me that, in the Czechoslovak (later on Czech and Slovak) linguistics, there has been a special term used
                        Message 11 of 14 , Feb 26, 2007
                          The different prefixation of "di-lingual" reminded me that, in the
                          Czechoslovak (later on Czech and Slovak) linguistics, there has been a
                          special term used since the 1970s(?) for the type of bilingual
                          communication in which everyone uses their own respective language and yet
                          understand each other (it referred usually to communication between Czechs
                          and Slovaks in the Czechoslovak context). The term is "dvojjazykovost", in
                          contrast to "dvojjazycnost" (bilingualism). That is, different suffix is
                          used. The Slovak linguist Juraj Dolnik uses in correspondence to this the
                          German word "Bilingualismus" (in contrast to "Bilinguismus") in his 'Der
                          slowakisch-tschechische Bilingualismus' (in Stefanik, J. (ed.)
                          Bilingvizmus: minulost, pritomnost a buducnost. Bratislava: Academic
                          Electronic Press, 2002).
                          Best regards,
                          Marian Sloboda


                          ----- Original Message -----
                          From: "Ian Wilson" <wilson@...>
                          To: <code-switching@yahoogroups.com>
                          Sent: Monday, February 26, 2007 3:10 AM
                          Subject: [code-switching] Re:Hear one, respond in other, happily converse


                          > Sorry for responding so late to this thread. I don't check the list
                          > very often but just noticed the question now. I believe the term for
                          > this phenomenon is "dilingual discourse". Carolyn Johnson and I used
                          > the term in our 2002 IJB paper ("Phonetic evidence for early language
                          > differentiation: Research issues and some preliminary data".
                          > International Journal of Bilingualism 6: 271-289). At that time, we
                          > didn't know the term had been used before by Saville-Troike in her
                          > 1987 Linguistics paper ("Dilingual discourse: The negotiation of
                          > meaning without a common code". Linguistics 25: 81-106).
                          >
                          > Note, however, that the term "dilingual" is not very common. A Google
                          > search on the word yields only about 100 websites that contain it.
                          > Compare that to the word "bilingual", which yields 26,000,000 websites!
                          >
                          > Sincerely,
                          > Ian Wilson
                          > University of Aizu
                          > <http://www.u-aizu.ac.jp/~wilson>
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          >
                          > To Post a message: code-switching @ yahoogroups.com
                          > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
                          > code-switching-unsubscribe @ yahoogroups.com
                          > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
                          > Yahoo! Groups Links
                          >
                          >
                          >
                        • Harold F. Schiffman
                          If this is the preferred term, where did I get mutual passive bilingualism? It s true that if I google this term, some of my own web pages come up near the
                          Message 12 of 14 , Feb 26, 2007
                            If this is the preferred term, where did I get "mutual passive
                            bilingualism?" It's true that if I google this term, some of my own web
                            pages come up near the top, but there are other, older ones that seem to
                            have used it earlier. Is the term passe?

                            Hal Schiffman


                            On Mon, 26 Feb 2007, Ian Wilson wrote:

                            > Sorry for responding so late to this thread. I don't check the list
                            > very often but just noticed the question now. I believe the term for
                            > this phenomenon is "dilingual discourse". Carolyn Johnson and I used
                            > the term in our 2002 IJB paper ("Phonetic evidence for early language
                            > differentiation: Research issues and some preliminary data".
                            > International Journal of Bilingualism 6: 271-289). At that time, we
                            > didn't know the term had been used before by Saville-Troike in her
                            > 1987 Linguistics paper ("Dilingual discourse: The negotiation of
                            > meaning without a common code". Linguistics 25: 81-106).
                            >
                            > Note, however, that the term "dilingual" is not very common. A Google
                            > search on the word yields only about 100 websites that contain it.
                            > Compare that to the word "bilingual", which yields 26,000,000 websites!
                            >
                            > Sincerely,
                            > Ian Wilson
                            > University of Aizu
                            > <http://www.u-aizu.ac.jp/~wilson>
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            > To Post a message: code-switching @ yahoogroups.com
                            > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
                            > code-switching-unsubscribe @ yahoogroups.com
                            > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
                            > Yahoo! Groups Links
                            >
                            >
                            >
                            >
                          • ianlwilson
                            According to Baetens Beardsmore (1986) Bilingualism: Basic principles (2nd edition) , the term receptive bilingualism is preferred over passive
                            Message 13 of 14 , Feb 27, 2007
                              According to Baetens Beardsmore (1986) "Bilingualism: Basic principles (2nd edition)", the
                              term "receptive bilingualism" is preferred over "passive bilingualism". The latter term "is
                              not favoured by specialists involved in language learning because it is felt that any
                              language decoding activity implies active neurological processes" (p.16). At any rate, these
                              terms (including "mutual passive bilingualism") seem to describe a person's/people's
                              bilingual ability, not the type of discourse that results.

                              --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com, "Harold F. Schiffman" <haroldfs@...> wrote:
                              >
                              > If this is the preferred term, where did I get "mutual passive
                              > bilingualism?" It's true that if I google this term, some of my own web
                              > pages come up near the top, but there are other, older ones that seem to
                              > have used it earlier. Is the term passe?
                              >
                              > Hal Schiffman
                              >
                              >
                              > On Mon, 26 Feb 2007, Ian Wilson wrote:
                              >
                              > > Sorry for responding so late to this thread. I don't check the list
                              > > very often but just noticed the question now. I believe the term for
                              > > this phenomenon is "dilingual discourse". Carolyn Johnson and I used
                              > > the term in our 2002 IJB paper ("Phonetic evidence for early language
                              > > differentiation: Research issues and some preliminary data".
                              > > International Journal of Bilingualism 6: 271-289). At that time, we
                              > > didn't know the term had been used before by Saville-Troike in her
                              > > 1987 Linguistics paper ("Dilingual discourse: The negotiation of
                              > > meaning without a common code". Linguistics 25: 81-106).
                              > >
                              > > Note, however, that the term "dilingual" is not very common. A Google
                              > > search on the word yields only about 100 websites that contain it.
                              > > Compare that to the word "bilingual", which yields 26,000,000 websites!
                              > >
                              > > Sincerely,
                              > > Ian Wilson
                              > > University of Aizu
                              > > <http://www.u-aizu.ac.jp/~wilson>
                            • Harold F. Schiffman
                              If receptive bilingualism is preferred over passive bilingualism it extends the notion of bilingualism from that of highly-developed active skills in a
                              Message 14 of 14 , Feb 28, 2007
                                If "receptive bilingualism" is preferred over "passive bilingualism" it
                                extends the notion of bilingualism from that of highly-developed active
                                skills in a language to minimal or non-existent active skill or
                                proficiency, IMHO. I have had students in my classes who claim to
                                understand everything said to them by their parents speaking Yoruba,
                                Cantonese, or whatever, but claim to have no active ability in the
                                language whatsoever. I agree that passive cognition of another language is
                                not nothing, and I assume that if/when these students were to actively
                                study their parents' mother tongues, they'd rely on this passive cognition
                                and be able to learn active skills more readily and rapidly than rank
                                beginners.

                                So if it's specialists in language learning who are unhappy with "passive
                                bilingualism", why do they get to call the shots? There are other issues,
                                such as (as you mention) the type of discourse that results.

                                HS


                                On Wed, 28 Feb 2007, ianlwilson wrote:

                                > According to Baetens Beardsmore (1986) "Bilingualism: Basic principles
                                > (2nd edition)", the term "receptive bilingualism" is preferred over
                                > "passive bilingualism". The latter term "is not favoured by specialists
                                > involved in language learning because it is felt that any language
                                > decoding activity implies active neurological processes" (p.16). At any
                                > rate, these terms (including "mutual passive bilingualism") seem to
                                > describe a person's/people's bilingual ability, not the type of
                                > discourse that results.
                                >
                                > --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com, "Harold F. Schiffman" <haroldfs@...> wrote:
                                > >
                                > > If this is the preferred term, where did I get "mutual passive
                                > > bilingualism?" It's true that if I google this term, some of my own web
                                > > pages come up near the top, but there are other, older ones that seem to
                                > > have used it earlier. Is the term passe?
                                > >
                                > > Hal Schiffman
                                > >
                                > >
                                > > On Mon, 26 Feb 2007, Ian Wilson wrote:
                                > >
                                > > > Sorry for responding so late to this thread. I don't check the list
                                > > > very often but just noticed the question now. I believe the term for
                                > > > this phenomenon is "dilingual discourse". Carolyn Johnson and I used
                                > > > the term in our 2002 IJB paper ("Phonetic evidence for early language
                                > > > differentiation: Research issues and some preliminary data".
                                > > > International Journal of Bilingualism 6: 271-289). At that time, we
                                > > > didn't know the term had been used before by Saville-Troike in her
                                > > > 1987 Linguistics paper ("Dilingual discourse: The negotiation of
                                > > > meaning without a common code". Linguistics 25: 81-106).
                                > > >
                                > > > Note, however, that the term "dilingual" is not very common. A Google
                                > > > search on the word yields only about 100 websites that contain it.
                                > > > Compare that to the word "bilingual", which yields 26,000,000 websites!
                                > > >
                                > > > Sincerely,
                                > > > Ian Wilson
                                > > > University of Aizu
                                > > > <http://www.u-aizu.ac.jp/~wilson>
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >
                                >
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