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Re: [code-switching] Re: Instruction using code-switching

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  • Harold F. Schiffman
    Well, I can give you an example of an institution that wouldn t allow code-switching in the classroom. I taught English for a while (decades ago), in a
    Message 1 of 10 , Oct 18, 2004
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      Well, I can give you an example of an institution that wouldn't allow
      code-switching in the classroom. I taught English for a while (decades
      ago), in a Berlitz school in Germany, and we weren't allowed to use German
      ever, at all, in the classroom. The rooms were even wired (bugged) so
      that they could listen in and see if we were switching. So I finally just
      learned to write German on the board if I needed to use it.

      Hal Schiffman

      On Mon, 18 Oct 2004, FIDELHOLTZ_DOOCHIN_JAMES_LAWRENCE wrote:

      >
      > Hi, all,
      >
      > Dan's answer is apropos and good. But one point remains (I assume no one on
      > this list is going to support non-code-switching in L2 classes!): Zoe says,
      > 'If it is not prohibited by the institution, ...' Aside from the
      > pedagogical idiocy such a policy would imply, wouldn't this impinge on
      > academic freedom? Does anyone know of an institution anywhere with any such
      > policy? (at any level) I would be aghast and/or horrified if that were the
      > case (but not necessarily surprised; after all, apparently about half of US
      > voters are going to vote for Bush, so anything is possible).
      >
      > Jim
      >
      > dvilla@... escribió:
      >
      > >
      > >
      > > Zoe Brown wrote:
      > >
      > >>
      > >> If it is not prohibited by the institution, here is my general
      > >> question: If we want to teach a subject (e.g., English) through the
      > >> medium of another language (e.g., Spanish) can the instruction be in
      > >> Spanish and the target words/sounds/letters be in English.
      > >> Here's an example.
      > >>
      > ...
      >
      >
      > James L. Fidelholtz
      > Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje
      > Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla MÉXICO
      >
      >
      >
      >
      > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
      > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
      > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
      > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
      > Yahoo! Groups Links
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
      >
    • dvilla@nmsu.edu
      Jim s point is very well taken. I should mention that here in New Mexico it is constitutionally mandated that English _or_ Spanish will and can be used in
      Message 2 of 10 , Oct 18, 2004
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        Jim's point is very well taken. I should mention that here in New Mexico
        it is constitutionally mandated that English _or_ Spanish will and can be
        used in certain state governmental contexts (thanks to Tom Mason on a fine
        paper on this at the last LASSO conference), and we of course are a state
        institution. However, except for Hawai'i, we are the only state w/ such a
        mandate (and the only one to specify Spanish as the "other" language). I
        can only repeat Jim's request, has anyone has run across such repressive
        practices in other regions.

        Daniel

        On Mon, 18 Oct 2004, FIDELHOLTZ_DOOCHIN_JAMES_LAWRENCE wrote:

        >
        > Hi, all,
        >
        > Dan's answer is apropos and good. But one point remains (I assume no one on
        > this list is going to support non-code-switching in L2 classes!): Zoe says,
        > 'If it is not prohibited by the institution, ...' Aside from the
        > pedagogical idiocy such a policy would imply, wouldn't this impinge on
        > academic freedom? Does anyone know of an institution anywhere with any such
        > policy? (at any level) I would be aghast and/or horrified if that were the
        > case (but not necessarily surprised; after all, apparently about half of US
        > voters are going to vote for Bush, so anything is possible).
        >
        > Jim
        >
        > dvilla@... escribió:
        >
        > >
        > >
        > > Zoe Brown wrote:
        > >
        > >>
        > >> If it is not prohibited by the institution, here is my general
        > >> question: If we want to teach a subject (e.g., English) through the
        > >> medium of another language (e.g., Spanish) can the instruction be in
        > >> Spanish and the target words/sounds/letters be in English.
        > >> Here's an example.
        > >>
        > ...
        >
        >
        > James L. Fidelholtz
        > Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje
        > Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla MÉXICO
        >
        >
        >
        >
        > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
        > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
        > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
        > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
        > Yahoo! Groups Links
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
        >
      • cuneo9999
        In my experience in language teaching at public institutions and one private institution there has often been a departmental prohibition expressed against
        Message 3 of 10 , Oct 18, 2004
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          In my experience in language teaching at public institutions and one
          private institution there has often been a departmental prohibition
          expressed against using the non-target language in the classroom. One
          of the evaluation criteria for instructors teaching Spanish and
          Portuguese at a large public university in California, for example,
          was: "Conducts class entirely in Spanish/Portuguese." At a private
          school where I taught ESL, most of my students spoke an L1 in which I
          had no proficiency, but even with those few who were Spanish-speakers
          it was understood that I would only speak English. But I'm not sure
          language teaching per se was the point of the original posting.
          Laura Callahan

          --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com, dvilla@n... wrote:
          >
          > Jim's point is very well taken. I should mention that here in New
          Mexico
          > it is constitutionally mandated that English _or_ Spanish will and
          can be
          > used in certain state governmental contexts (thanks to Tom Mason on
          a fine
          > paper on this at the last LASSO conference), and we of course are a
          state
          > institution. However, except for Hawai'i, we are the only state w/
          such a
          > mandate (and the only one to specify Spanish as the "other"
          language). I
          > can only repeat Jim's request, has anyone has run across such
          repressive
          > practices in other regions.
          >
          > Daniel
          >
          > On Mon, 18 Oct 2004, FIDELHOLTZ_DOOCHIN_JAMES_LAWRENCE wrote:
          >
          > >
          > > Hi, all,
          > >
          > > Dan's answer is apropos and good. But one point remains (I
          assume no one on
          > > this list is going to support non-code-switching in L2
          classes!): Zoe says,
          > > 'If it is not prohibited by the institution, ...' Aside from the
          > > pedagogical idiocy such a policy would imply, wouldn't this
          impinge on
          > > academic freedom? Does anyone know of an institution anywhere
          with any such
          > > policy? (at any level) I would be aghast and/or horrified if
          that were the
          > > case (but not necessarily surprised; after all, apparently about
          half of US
          > > voters are going to vote for Bush, so anything is possible).
          > >
          > > Jim
          > >
          > > dvilla@n... escribió:
          > >
          > > >
          > > >
          > > > Zoe Brown wrote:
          > > >
          > > >>
          > > >> If it is not prohibited by the institution, here is my general
          > > >> question: If we want to teach a subject (e.g., English)
          through the
          > > >> medium of another language (e.g., Spanish) can the instruction
          be in
          > > >> Spanish and the target words/sounds/letters be in English.
          > > >> Here's an example.
          > > >>
          > > ...
          > >
          > >
          > > James L. Fidelholtz
          > > Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje
          > > Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla MÉXICO
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
          > > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
          > > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
          > > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
          > > Yahoo! Groups Links
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
          > >
        • ada espinoza
          Hi Zoe, I m english teacher, and i consider you can teach english or whatever subject using code-switching if you see it as communicative strategy, i mean it
          Message 4 of 10 , Oct 20, 2004
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            Hi Zoe, I'm english teacher, and i consider you can teach english or whatever subject using code-switching if you see it as communicative strategy, i mean it is used to reach a goal: create the conditions to make the students less anxious to release their tonge and make them talk.
            Try to use it just in case, but make your group paraphrase instead of switch.


            Marian Sloboda <maslo@...> wrote:
            ----- Original Message -----
            From: "paradisebythebay" <paradisebythebay@...>
            To: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
            Sent: Wed, 13 Oct 2004 18:35:00 -0000
            Subject: Instruction using code-switching


            Hi, I am new to this group and am wondering about what the
            literature says about the use of codeswitching while teaching.Please
            excuse me if you have already discussed this matter.

            If it is not prohibited by the institution, here is my general
            question: If we want to teach a subject (e.g., English) through the
            medium of another language (e.g., Spanish) can the instruction be in
            Spanish and the target words/sounds/letters be in English.
            Here's an example.


            Abren sus libros a la pagina 50. Hoy vamos a estudiar la palabra
            FALL. Esta palabra quiere decir cosas diferentes. Por ejempl0o:

            Don't fall down the stairs.

            En este caso, FALL quiere decir, callerse.

            Otro ejemplo:

            In the fall, the leaves turn different colors.

            En este caso, FALL quiere decir, el otonio.

            If we are teaching English phonics (sound to symbol relationships)
            is it okay to use codeswitching? For example:

            Hemos estudiado que el sonido de la letra G (say GEE - English
            letter) dice /G/ (hard g sound). Sabes que la letra G (English)
            tiene otro sonido? Bueno, cuando las letras e, i, and y (ENGLISH)
            siguen una letra G (English), el G suene como /j/. Este se
            llama "the soft sound" de la letra G.

            I truely appreciate your response.

            Zoe Brown



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          • Celso Alvarez Cáccamo
            Hal, that s an interesting case of so-called situational alternation connected to medium: code-and-medium-switching. Apart from the very specific
            Message 5 of 10 , Oct 20, 2004
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              Hal, that's an interesting case of so-called "situational" alternation
              connected to medium: code-and-medium-switching. Apart from the very
              specific constraints, it resembles pure diglossia ;-) . There's a paper by
              Auer (don't remember the title) that discusses the scope of "switching". It
              said something like (I'm reinterpreting wildly): must "c-s" be applied only
              to alternation between instances of "types of messages" using the same
              medium (or is that the "code"), and/or also between messages produced via
              two different types of media/channels? For example, is the alternation
              between kanji and Latin script in Japanese "code-switching" even when the
              expression in Latin orthography is usually not written otherwise (as in
              proper nouns)? More clearly, what about the letter-ideogram combination in

              I <Heart symbol>
              N Y

              in shirts?


              Oh, here is the paper reference:

              Peter Auer. (1989). A discussion paper on code alternation. Paper presented
              at the First Conference of the European Network on Code-Switching on
              Concepts, Methodology and Data. Bâle, January 1989.

              I'm afraid Auer may have not asked those things exactly, I should find and
              re-read his paper.

              -celso

              At 12:18 18-10-2004 -0400, you wrote:

              >Well, I can give you an example of an institution that wouldn't allow
              >code-switching in the classroom. I taught English for a while (decades
              >ago), in a Berlitz school in Germany, and we weren't allowed to use German
              >ever, at all, in the classroom. The rooms were even wired (bugged) so
              >that they could listen in and see if we were switching. So I finally just
              >learned to write German on the board if I needed to use it.
              >
              >Hal Schiffman
            • jrbloom13
              Can the strategic use of the L1 for the purpose of acquiring and L2 be considered as codeswitching? From my research there seems to be a trend that
              Message 6 of 10 , Nov 12, 2004
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                Can the strategic use of the L1 for the purpose of acquiring and L2
                be considered as codeswitching?

                From my research there seems to be a trend that codeswitching holds a
                more pragmatic or sociolinguistic function and not a pedagogical
                one. Gumprez (1982) suggested that codeswitching applies to
                competent bilingual speakers, that it is done unconsciously and that
                it holds a discourse function much like mono-lingual speakers use of
                stress, intonation, etc.

                Studies/articles on classroom based codeswitching tend to stress the
                power domination of the languages and Gumprez's We/They code
                inclusions-exclusions. These studies are not usually conducted on
                language acquisition classes but rather on classes where the L2 is
                used as the means of instruction.

                So I state my question again. Is it codeswitching to use it
                strategically for second langauge acquisition?

                JR

                pur--- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com, "cuneo9999"
                <lcallahan68@h...> wrote:
                >
                >
                > In my experience in language teaching at public institutions and
                one
                > private institution there has often been a departmental prohibition
                > expressed against using the non-target language in the classroom.
                One
                > of the evaluation criteria for instructors teaching Spanish and
                > Portuguese at a large public university in California, for example,
                > was: "Conducts class entirely in Spanish/Portuguese." At a private
                > school where I taught ESL, most of my students spoke an L1 in which
                I
                > had no proficiency, but even with those few who were Spanish-
                speakers
                > it was understood that I would only speak English. But I'm not sure
                > language teaching per se was the point of the original posting.
                > Laura Callahan
                >
                > --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com, dvilla@n... wrote:
                > >
                > > Jim's point is very well taken. I should mention that here in New
                > Mexico
                > > it is constitutionally mandated that English _or_ Spanish will
                and
                > can be
                > > used in certain state governmental contexts (thanks to Tom Mason
                on
                > a fine
                > > paper on this at the last LASSO conference), and we of course are
                a
                > state
                > > institution. However, except for Hawai'i, we are the only state
                w/
                > such a
                > > mandate (and the only one to specify Spanish as the "other"
                > language). I
                > > can only repeat Jim's request, has anyone has run across such
                > repressive
                > > practices in other regions.
                > >
                > > Daniel
                > >
                > > On Mon, 18 Oct 2004, FIDELHOLTZ_DOOCHIN_JAMES_LAWRENCE wrote:
                > >
                > > >
                > > > Hi, all,
                > > >
                > > > Dan's answer is apropos and good. But one point remains (I
                > assume no one on
                > > > this list is going to support non-code-switching in L2
                > classes!): Zoe says,
                > > > 'If it is not prohibited by the institution, ...' Aside from
                the
                > > > pedagogical idiocy such a policy would imply, wouldn't this
                > impinge on
                > > > academic freedom? Does anyone know of an institution anywhere
                > with any such
                > > > policy? (at any level) I would be aghast and/or horrified if
                > that were the
                > > > case (but not necessarily surprised; after all, apparently
                about
                > half of US
                > > > voters are going to vote for Bush, so anything is possible).
                > > >
                > > > Jim
                > > >
                > > > dvilla@n... escribió:
                > > >
                > > > >
                > > > >
                > > > > Zoe Brown wrote:
                > > > >
                > > > >>
                > > > >> If it is not prohibited by the institution, here is my
                general
                > > > >> question: If we want to teach a subject (e.g., English)
                > through the
                > > > >> medium of another language (e.g., Spanish) can the
                instruction
                > be in
                > > > >> Spanish and the target words/sounds/letters be in English.
                > > > >> Here's an example.
                > > > >>
                > > > ...
                > > >
                > > >
                > > > James L. Fidelholtz
                > > > Posgrado en Ciencias del Lenguaje
                > > > Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla MÉXICO
                > > >
                > > >
                > > >
                > > >
                > > > To Post a message: code-switching@yahoogroups.com
                > > > To Unsubscribe, send a blank message to:
                > > > code-switching-unsubscribe@yahoogroups.com
                > > > Web page: http//groups.yahoo.com/group/code-switching
                > > > Yahoo! Groups Links
                > > >
                > > >
                > > >
                > > >
                > > >
                > > >
                > > >
                > > >
              • cdnilep
                ... Several authors discuss codeswitching as a learning strategy or even a pedagogical tool. This work can be problematic, however. For example, Sandra Fotos
                Message 7 of 10 , Nov 15, 2004
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                  --- In code-switching@yahoogroups.com, "jrbloom13" <jrbloom13@y...>
                  wrote:
                  >
                  >
                  > Can the strategic use of the L1 for the purpose of acquiring and L2
                  > be considered as codeswitching?

                  Several authors discuss "codeswitching" as a learning strategy or
                  even a pedagogical tool. This work can be problematic, however.

                  For example, Sandra Fotos (2001) calls Japanese students using their
                  L1 as a "learning strategy" in the EFL classroom "codeswitching."
                  However, Fotos does not offer a working definition of codeswitching,
                  and it becomes difficult to see how the behaviors she cites are
                  selected.

                  As a rough guide for myself, I tend to separate so-called code
                  switching research into two groups: work using sociocultural/
                  functional definitions such as that proposed by Gumperz (1982, etc.),
                  and work that considers structural or formal aspects of language
                  alternation (e.g. Myers-Scotton 1993). Both types of work (and an
                  entire continuum extending through and beyond these scholars) tend to
                  use the word codeswitching (or code switching or code-switching), but
                  they don't always speak to one another.

                  That said, if you are prepared to accept Fotos's version of code
                  switching (which, as I said, is not explicitly formulated here), her
                  literature review points to a great number of studies that treat the
                  use of L1 in L2 classrooms as code switching.

                  Fotos, S. 2001. 'Codeswitching by Japan's unrecognized bilinguals:
                  Japanese university students' use of their native language as a
                  learning strategy.' In Noguchi and Fotos, Studies in Japanese
                  Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

                  Gumperz, J.J. 1982. Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge
                  University Press.

                  Myers-Scotton, C. 1993. Social motivations for codeswitching:
                  evidence from Africa. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
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