Re: [civilwarwest] Orders
Thanks hugely. Knowing of your previous posts, I assume that you
provided this abundance of information off the top of your head.
One reason that I'd be interested in the generals' original order
books is that they could provide the best chronologically-ordered
orders, in those cases where a time isn't noted. In the ORs, there
seems to be a number of instances where various orders with the same
date were printed in an incorrect order.
Other orders in the ORs may have incorrect timestamps; for
Chattanooga, one message to Reynolds has Granger, Sheridan, and Hazen
at Bragg's HQs on the ridge before the attack even started (maybe
they had been invited for tea).
Are these order books located at the LOC or the Archives and are they
available for public perusal?
--- In civilwarwest@y..., "Bob Huddleston" <adco12@m...> wrote:
> One question you only partially asked was How many copied were made?
> Then and now the number depended upon the material. A report would
> one for the recipient and one for the sender to retain. An order
> depend upon the necessary distribution. General Orders often were
> type and printed; Special Orders concerning leaves and detachments
> also be set in type and printed in the an abbreviated format, with
> subject receiving a couple of copies of the portion which concerned
> With only two types of orders (see the insertion below from the
> Army Regulations about the differences -- CS used identical
> Field Orders and attack orders were part of the Special Order
> Perhaps the most famous single order of the CW was Special Order
> Series of 1862, Headquarters, Army of Northern Virginia, the famous
> "Lost Order."
> Because it had to go out to various commands, the order was first
> drafter and then approved by Gen. Lee. Then clerks were gathered and
> they copied the order the necessary number of times. A copy was
> in an envelope, addressed and delivered. The messenger was
> for delivering it, and, as proof of delivery, having the recipient
> the envelope, which the messenger had to take back.
> Unlike modern practice, where copies of Top Secret documents are
> numbered, CW orders weren't. And I have never seen a log of
> orders: it was the responsibility of the adjutant general (Rawlins,
> USG's case) to make certain that all the messengers returned with
> signed envelopes -- which were tossed in the fire.
> The Antietam Group got into an argument (shocking, I know!) a few
> ago about the number of copies of SO 191 that were sent. No one
> for certain, but, at a minimum, there would have been:
> 1. Retained by HQ, ANV
> 2 & 3 to Longstreet and Jackson, the Wong Commanders
> 4 to Stuart the cavalry division commander.
> Here is where things got messed up: a fifth went to Harvey Hill,
> part of SO 191 detached him from Jackson's command and made Hill's
> division report directly to HQ, ANV.
> But, since the order did not have, as a modern one would, a
> list, Jackson copied the relevant portions and sent this to Hill.
> now part of the Hill papers at the UNC.
> Hill, having received a copy of SO 191, did not know that Lee had
> one to him. And the messenger never reported back to HQ, ANV with a
> signed envelope. Instead the envelope and the order ended up in the
> McClellan papers at the LoC.
> One difference between Grant and Lee was that the latter verbally
> drafted orders then Col. Marshall, Lee's AAG, would put them into
> written form. USG, OTOH, wrote the original copy, which the HQ
> would then in turn copy for distribution.
> Take care,
> Judy and Bob Huddleston
> 10643 Sperry Street
> Northglenn, CO 80234-3612
> 303.451.6376 Adco@F...
> 432. The orders of commanders of armies, divisions, brigades,
> regiments, are denominated orders of such army, division, &c., and
> either general or special. Orders are numbered, general and
> separate series, each beginning with the year.
> 433. General orders announce the time and place of issues and
> payments; hours for roll-calls and duties; the number and kind of
> orderlies, and the time when they shall be relieved; police
> and the prohibitions required by circumstances and localities;
> to be made, and their forms; laws and regulations for the army;
> promotions and appointments; eulogies or censures to corps or
> individuals, and generally, whatever it may be important to make
> to the whole command.
> 434. Special orders are such as do not concern the troops
> and need not be published to the whole command; such as relate to
> march of some particular corps, the establishment of some post, the
> detaching of individuals, the granting requests, &c., &c.