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Snapshot Of The Citrus Industry: 1936

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  • thecitrusbelt
    The text below is from the San Bernardino County SUN newspaper of February 23, 1936. The on-line link is: http://www.newspapers.com/newspage/49151543/
    Message 1 of 2 , Aug 11 7:38 AM
    • 0 Attachment

      The text below is from the San Bernardino County SUN newspaper of February 23, 1936.  The on-line link is:

       

      http://www.newspapers.com/newspage/49151543/

       

      The optical character recognition (OCR) translation of the original newspaper text into plain text had a number of errors.  I was able to correct most, but not all, of these.

       

      Bob Chaparro

      Moderator

      ++++

       

      Transportation Major Development of Fruit Industry

       

      The nation's appetite for orange juice and breakfast grapefruit has made the citrus industry the major contributor to the welfare of the railroads of the West and, consequently, an important factor in the development of "railroad cities" like San Bernardino. Benefits of raising oranges are not confined to the rancher, although hundreds of thousands of dollars find their way into trade channels in San Bernardino County alone through direct returns to the growers themselves. Every business man in San Bernardino County is dependent to one extent on the "yellow gold" which falls from trees before the picker's clippers.

       

      MOVE 16,000 CARS

      But so far as the railroads are concerned, the citrus industry is the "backbone" of their development. In San Bernardino County, more than 30 per cent of the entire freight haulage out of California is citrus. Over the state, the total runs nearly 25 per cent. San Bernardino County last year shipped approximately 16,000 cars of oranges, grapefruit and lemons, with the Santa Fe, Southern Pacific, Pacific Electric and Union Pacific sharing in the business in the order named. Not only is a portion of this rev- ????

       

      ????…individual number of oranges which can be packed into a box. These sizes are 100s, 126s, 150s, 176s, 200s, ???, 252s, 288s, 344s and 392s.

       

      PAID BY BOX

      Packers, with the regular boxes in which the fruit is shipped, stand beside the bins, ready to wrap each orange individually and place it under the brand of the packing house. As rapidly as they fill a box, It is carried away and another brought up on an elevator from another part of tha packing house, where it is made. Ths number of boxes which the average packer can fill each day depends, of course, on the size of the fruit, and may vary from 45 to 100 boxes. The average is about 75, for which the packing house pays five cents a box. On the smaller sizes, the packer gets 10 cents a box. This year, with medium sizes running almost altogether, the average box will be 200s or 220s, far above last year, when, with big sizes, the average box was only about 100s.

       

      AUTOMATIC CHECKER

      After the boxes leave the packers, they are taken to the nailing machine, where tops are put on. These machines, entirely automatic, nail the strip tops on the boxes with uncanny skill, seldom, if ever, damaging an orange. Because, in many instances, the Iruit is heaped above the level of the box, it is necessary for the top to be flexed in an arc from one end of the box to the other. This the machine does without cutting oranges which may be near the end pr without breaking the strips. Boxes are taken from this machine and loaded directly into freight cars standing on sidings next to the packing houses. A few hours later, the fruit is ready for market. One new development, worthy of separate mention has contributed greatly to both the speed and accuracy of handling the fruit. This is an automatic checker a sort of glorified adding machine which tells exactly how many oranges are in each run and divides them into sizes. Operated by electrical impulse, the device consists of individual ????

       

      …???? enue, returned to railroad employes in the county, but in San Bernardino, Santa Fe shops workers benefit greatly through the necessity of reconditioning equipment used in hauling the oranges. Recognizing the importance of orange shipments, the Santa Fe has made detailed arrangements for Required to Crop of Valley tallys in each bin. As the fruit rolls from the sizer and into the bin, it trips this counter, registering on a master machine. When each lot of fruit has been run through the "sizers," the head grader signals the packing house foreman. Simply by pushing levers on the master machine, he can get the amount of fruit in an individual run stamped on the grower's card an infallible record assuring accuracy both for the rancher and the packing house. In addition, it saves the waste of time of checking each bin when a run was completed and estimating the amount of fruit, as was necessary before, handling the fruit to eastern markets.

       

      Citrus schedules are observed as carefully as passenger schedules, although they naturally are considerabiy slower. Citrus and other perishables take precedence in routing over all other forms of freight, G. E. Harrison, division freight and passenger agent of the road, explained. Pickup trains, which visit packing houses throughout the county, and other parts of Southern California, bring the fruit to San Berardino during the day and night, where it is assembled into trains. The first "fruit block" leaves every morning at 7 a. m., with other sections following as needed. Following their exacting schedule, the fruit trains reach Kansas City on the sixth morning out of San Bernardino, Chicago on the seventh and New York on the ninth. During the height of the navel and Valencia seasons, approximately 150 cars daily move eastward.

       

      CARS ARE ICED

      An Important unit in the Santa Fe's citrus shipping system is the pre-cooling plant located south of Rialto Avenue on the west side of Lytle Creek. There, at the growers' option, fruits may be cooled and iced. It is taken to the plant immediately upon pickup, and is subjected to the cooling for from four to eight hours. The method used is to fill the car with air starting at a temperature of 24 degrees and gradually working upward. Ice is placed in compartments at the end and the car sealed to keep the fruit cool throughout its journey eastward.

       

      From about March 1, in an ordinary year, to the end of the navel season, approximately 90 per cent of the cars shipped eastward are pre-cooled. Prior to that time, unless eastern weather is unusually warm, no such steps are taken Practically all Valencias are treated. It is necessary for the Santa Fe to keep a close check on weather conditions in the east to advise growers with regard to the need for pre-cooling. During mid-winter, however, the railroad must provide some means of keeping the fruit from freezing as it passes through districts with sub-zero temperature. Heaters are set in bunkers in all refrigerator cars and are placed in use when the outside temperature reaches the danger point.

    • Ed Workman
      Thanks Bob I m especially glad to see the long list of sizes On Mon, Aug 11, 2014 at 7:38 AM, thecitrusbelt@yahoo.com [citrusmodeling]
      Message 2 of 2 , Aug 11 9:14 AM
      • 0 Attachment
        Thanks Bob
        I'm especially glad to see the long list of sizes


        On Mon, Aug 11, 2014 at 7:38 AM, thecitrusbelt@... [citrusmodeling] <citrusmodeling@yahoogroups.com> wrote:
         

        The text below is from the SanBernardino County SUN newspaper of February 23, 1936.  The on-line link is:

         

        http://www.newspapers.com/newspage/49151543/

         

        The optical character recognition (OCR) translation of the original newspaper text into plain text had a number of errors.  I was able to correct most, but not all, of these.

         

        Bob Chaparro

        Moderator

        ++++

         

        Transportation Major Development of Fruit Industry

         

        The nation's appetite for orange juice and breakfast grapefruit has made the citrus industry the major contributor to the welfare of the railroads of the West and, consequently, an important factor in the development of "railroad cities" like San Bernardino. Benefits of raising oranges are not confined to the rancher, although hundreds of thousands of dollars find their way into trade channels in San Bernardino County alone through direct returns to the growers themselves. Every business man in San Bernardino County is dependent to one extent on the "yellow gold" which falls from trees before the picker's clippers.

         

        MOVE 16,000 CARS

        But so far as the railroads are concerned, the citrus industry is the "backbone" of their development. In San Bernardino County, more than 30 per cent of the entire freight haulage out of California is citrus. Over the state, the total runs nearly 25 per cent. San Bernardino County last year shipped approximately 16,000 cars of oranges, grapefruit and lemons, with the Santa Fe, Southern Pacific, Pacific Electric and Union Pacific sharing in the business in the order named. Not only is a portion of this rev- ????

         

        ????…individual number of oranges which can be packed into a box. These sizes are 100s, 126s, 150s, 176s, 200s, ???, 252s, 288s, 344s and 392s.

         

        PAID BY BOX

        Packers, with the regular boxes in which the fruit is shipped, stand beside the bins, ready to wrap each orange individually and place it under the brand of the packing house. As rapidly as they fill a box, It is carried away and another brought up on an elevator from another part of tha packing house, where it is made. Ths number of boxes which the average packer can fill each day depends, of course, on the size of the fruit, and may vary from 45 to 100 boxes. The average is about 75, for which the packing housepays five cents a box. On the smaller sizes, the packer gets 10 cents a box. This year, with medium sizes running almost altogether, the average box will be 200s or 220s, far above last year, when, with big sizes, the average box was only about 100s.

         

        AUTOMATIC CHECKER

        After the boxes leave the packers, they are taken to the nailing machine, where tops are put on. These machines, entirely automatic, nail the strip tops on the boxes with uncanny skill, seldom, if ever, damaging an orange. Because, in many instances, the Iruit is heaped above the level of the box, it is necessary for the top to be flexed in an arc from one end of the box to the other. This the machine does without cutting oranges which may be near the end pr without breaking the strips. Boxes are taken from this machine and loaded directly into freight cars standing on sidings next to the packing houses. A few hours later, the fruit is ready for market. One new development, worthy of separate mention has contributed greatly to both the speed and accuracy of handling the fruit. This is an automatic checker a sort of glorified adding machine which tells exactly how many oranges are in each run and divides them into sizes. Operated by electrical impulse, the device consists of individual ????

         

        …???? enue, returned to railroad employes in the county, but in San Bernardino, Santa Fe shops workers benefit greatly through the necessity of reconditioning equipment used in hauling the oranges. Recognizing the importance of orange shipments, the Santa Fe has made detailed arrangements for Required to Crop of Valley tallys in each bin. As the fruit rolls from the sizer and into the bin, it trips this counter, registering on a master machine. When each lot of fruit has been run through the "sizers," the head grader signals the packing house foreman. Simply by pushing levers on the master machine, he can get the amount of fruit in an individual run stamped on the grower's card an infallible record assuring accuracy both for the rancher and the packing house. In addition, it saves the waste of time of checking each bin when a run was completed and estimating the amount of fruit, as was necessary before, handling the fruit to eastern markets.

         

        Citrus schedules are observed as carefully as passenger schedules, although they naturally are considerabiy slower. Citrus and other perishables take precedence in routing over all other forms of freight, G. E. Harrison, division freight and passenger agent of the road, explained. Pickup trains, which visit packing houses throughout the county, and other parts of Southern California, bring the fruit to San Berardino during the day and night, where it is assembled into trains. The first "fruit block" leaves every morning at 7 a. m., with other sections following as needed. Following their exacting schedule, the fruit trains reach Kansas City on the sixth morning out of San Bernardino, Chicago on the seventh and New York on the ninth. During the height of the navel and Valencia seasons, approximately 150 cars daily move eastward.

         

        CARS ARE ICED

        An Important unit in the Santa Fe's citrus shipping system is the pre-cooling plant located south of Rialto Avenue on the west side of Lytle Creek. There, at the growers' option, fruits may be cooled and iced. It is taken to the plant immediately upon pickup, and is subjected to the cooling for from four to eight hours. The method used is to fill the car with air starting at a temperature of 24 degrees and gradually working upward. Ice is placed in compartments at the end and the car sealed to keep the fruit cool throughout its journey eastward.

         

        From about March 1, in an ordinary year, to the end of the navel season, approximately 90 per cent of the cars shipped eastward are pre-cooled. Prior to that time, unless eastern weather is unusually warm, no such steps are taken Practically all Valencias are treated. It is necessary for the Santa Fe to keep a close check on weather conditions in the east to advise growers with regard to the need for pre-cooling. During mid-winter, however, the railroad must provide some means of keeping the fruit from freezing as it passes through districts with sub-zero temperature. Heaters are set in bunkers in all refrigerator cars and are placed in use when the outside temperature reaches the danger point.


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