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US "Non Lethal" Chemical (and Biochemical) Weapons Research: A Collection of Documents Detailing a Dangerous Program

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  • norgesen
    US Non Lethal Chemical (and Biochemical) Weapons Research: A Collection of Documents Detailing a Dangerous Program Non-Lethal Artillery Structural Firing
    Message 1 of 1 , Sep 2, 2005
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      US "Non Lethal" Chemical (and Biochemical) Weapons Research:
      A Collection of Documents Detailing a Dangerous Program
       
       
       
      Non-Lethal Artillery Structural Firing (FY04) Purchase Order Contract In Support of the FY04 155MM Non-Lethal Artillery Projectile Program (PDF)
      US Army Picatinny Arsenal (Solicitation W15QKN-04-M-0328)
      September 2004

      Comment:This contract is for General Dynamics to provide support for US Army development of a 155mm "non-lethal" chemical anti-personnel round with a range of 15 to 20 kilometers. The round, called the XM1063, is a modification of the M864 "cargo munition", which is presently in the US arsenal and which usually carries grenade clusters. General Dynamics has also been a major contrator in the US "non-lethal" mortar program. The fiscal 2005 and 2006 work includes (comment in brackets, emphasis added):

      "Conduct target human effects risk characterization, complete prototype design & fabrication, conduct component and sub system tests, develop liquid payload dissemination system [i.e. aerosol generation technology] , conduct a non-lethal simulant payload delivery feasibility flight test demonstration using the 155mm M864 common projectile cargo round at a range of at least 15km (TRL= 5)... Conduct target effects verification for selected payload material in lab environment with initial dissemination technique assessment (TRL= 4).... Compile data for legal and compliance review, conduct a NL personnel suppression payload delivery full up demonstration using the final projectile design with impact energy mitigated submunitions at 20 km (TRL= 6). Complete NL personnel suppression M&S with AMSAA and USAFAS. Complete vehicle area denial nano particle payload analysis, conduct component and dissemination tests. Conduct preliminary target effects determination."

      Also see:
      Liquid Payload Dispensing Concept Studies Techniques for the 81mm Non-Lethal Mortar Cartridge (2001)


      Airburst Non-Lethal Munition (ANLM) Design Improvements (PDF)
      US Army Picatinny Arsenal (Solicitation W15QKN-04-Q-0416)
      July 2004

      Comment:This contract is for improvements to a "non-lethal" round for chemical payloads, most likely in 40mm and/or 20mm variants. The contract is lengthy. Information about the work occurs beginning on page 56. This project appears to build upon that described by Picatinny in August 2001 (see below).

      Also see:
      Non-Lethal Airburst Munition(s)for Objective Individual Combat Weapon (2001)


      NEW
      Rapid Development of an LTL System Based on a Multishot RAP Launcher and Advanced Segmented Projectiles
      (PDF)
      US Department of Justice / Vanek Prototype Company
      May 2004

      Comment:This contract is to "Continue development of RAP [Ring Airfoil Projectile] as agent carrier" (sic). Specifically, the contract includes production of a modified launcher and a test quantity of 200 "agent-carrier" rounds, called "ASRAPs" (Advanced Segmented Ring Airfoil Projectiles). The ASRAP is designed to be more accurate over longer ranges than its predecessors. The contract is silent on the chemical payload, however, a 2002 RAP development contract between Vanek and DOJ states "Payloads of incapacitants, irritants, malodorants, and marking agents would be of first interest".

      The chemical ASRAP is being tested by the Institute for Non-Lethal Defense Technologies at Pennsylvania State University under DOJ contract 2004-IJ-CX-K013. This is the same Penn State team that is headed by the former commander of JNLWD, which prepared the Advantages and Limitations of Calmatives as a Non-Lethal Technique report, and which has extensive other contracts with the US Marine Corps.

      Also see:
      Multi-Shot Launcher with Advanced Less-Than-Lethal Ring Airfoil Projectiles (2002)

      Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program: Non-Lethal Mortar Cartridge (NLMC) (PDF)
      US Army Picatinny Arsenal
      October 2003

      Comment: Presentation by Robert Hegarty at National Defense Industry Association 2003 Picatinny Chapter/PEO Mortars Conference. [More comment to follow]

      Also see:
      A Technical Assessment of the 81mm Non-Lethal Mortar Munition (81NLMM)
      Liquid Payload Dispensing Concept Studies Techniques for the 81mm Non-Lethal Mortar Cartridge
      81mm Frangible Case Cartridge
      Fabrication of Composite Mortar Components and Investigation of mortar Cartridge
      Overhead Liquid Dispersal System (OLDS) Non-Lethal Demonstration Program (Final Report)

      Front End Analysis for Non-Lethal Chemicals (PDF - JPG version here)
      Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate
      Early 2003

      Comment: Despite JNLWD's oft-reiterated denials that it is developing incapacitating chemical weapons, this brief item appeared on JNLWD's website in early 2003 (and was quickly removed). It describes the Directorate's program to categorize and assess drug weapons, in part by "identifying advances in the pharmaceutical industry." This work is conducted with the US Army's Soldier Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM, now called RDECOM), at Aberdeen/Edgewood, Maryland.

      Also see:
      The US Department of Defense Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program: Program Overview
      The Advantages and Limitations of Calmatives for Use as a Non-Lethal Technique (Penn State's 'bid' for work on this contract.)


      Multi-Shot Launcher with Advanced Less-Than-Lethal Ring Airfoil Projectiles
      Proposal by Vanek Prototype Co. (2002-90-CA-IZ) to the US Department of Justice
      March 2002

      Comment: The ring airfoil projectile (RAP) is a "non-lethal" weapon with both kinetic and chemical variants in its original design. It is an aerodynamic, circular-shaped munition that can "sting" with blunt force, or discharge a chemical on impact - or both. The original RAP was produced by the US Army in response to domestic unrest in the 1970s, as an alternative to bullets, following the shootings at Kent State University in May, 1970. The original Army RAP, of which 500,000 were produced, was attached to the end of an M-16 barrel and fired much like a rifle grenade. The original RAP was probably never used and rapidly became obsolete due modifications to the M-16 barrel design.

      Under this 2002 contract with the US Department of Justice, Vanek will manufacture protoypes of a new RAP launcher and projectile, concentrating on improvement of chemical delivery and manufacturing a launcher (gun) that can rapidly discharge up to 8 chemical rounds. According to the proposal, these will accurately deliver chemicals up to 50 meters, and the work will "concentrate on the delivery of a chemical payload on and about the target. Payloads of incapacitants, irritants, malodorants, and marking agents would be of first interest..." The proposal was approved in the amount of $339,000.

      Also see:
      Assessment Report: US/UK Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW)/Urban Operations Executive Seminar
      (on relationship between DOJ and JNLWD)

      Warning: This document is large (1 mb).

      A Technical Assessment of the 81mm Non-Lethal Mortar Munition (81NLMM)
      US Marine Corps contract M67004-99-D-0037, purchase request number M9545002RCR2BC6
      January 2002

      Comment: This document is a contract between the Marine Corps Research University (MCRU, at the Applied Research Laboratory of Pennsylvania State University) and the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate (JNLWD).

      See other documents below about MCRU work:
      The Advantages and Limitations of Calmatives for Use as a Non-Lethal Technique

      Non-Lethal Weapons: Acquisitions, Capabilities, Doctrine, & Strategy: A Course of Instruction
      .

      To The Future: Non-Lethal Capabilities Technologies in the 21st Century (excerpts)
      JNLWD
      November 2001

      Comment: This document consists of slides extracted from a presentation by the JNLWD commander to the University of New Hampshire's Non-lethal Technology and Academic Research III symposium in November 2001. The slides discuss JNLWD's work on calmatives, microencapsulation and long range delivery devices in their combined context, providing details that are specific to JNLWD's 'non-lethal' mortar program. A slide notes the Chemical Weapons Convention as a "challenge" to the work. The final slide indicates that "non-lethal counter-personnel capabilities will attack a target's senses or cognitive/motor abilities" (also note sidebar) and reiterates the desire for long-range delivery capabilities.

      Slide 2 exhibits two disturbing themes common in many JNLWD presentations: a) a desire for indiscriminate weapons and b) a tendency to closely relate peaceful political dissent with acts of terrorism. An equation is evidently drawn between peaceful protest (a photo of Serbian children protesting NATO air strikes) to] and violent terrorism (bombing of the USS Cole). The slide reads that non-lethal weapons provide "assistance in target discrimination"; but this should not be misunderstood to mean that calmatives would be used discriminately. Much the opposite. JNLWD uses "discrimination" here to mean sorting out the (unconscious... or worse) people it wants from those that it doesn't want, and not in the way that "discriminate" is used with respect to legality of weapons. In JNLWD's conception, calmatives would be used on large numbers of people, combatants and non-combatants, and then US forces would sort through a multitude incapacitated by gas to identify the "bad guys". In JNLWD's wargaming (see below), it was noted that soldiers would probably have to be trained to refrain from killing persons already incapacitated with chemical weapons.

      Warning: This document is large (1.4 mb).


      Presentation for the Airline Pilot Association
      JNLWD
      October 2001

      Comment: This is JNLWD's "Narco Airways" presentation, made by then-Commander Col. George Fenton to the Airline Pilots Association shortly after September 11, 2001. The presentation begins with several slides that are standard JNLWD promotional material, including photos from the "non-lethal" mortar and Objective Individual Combat Weapon rounds programs, both of which involve chemical payloads. Starting with Slide 11, the presentation moves to discussing the use of incapacitating agents on commercial airliners. Initially, a number of technologies are initially mentioned, then a slide then focuses on so-called "calmatives". Two slides include diagrams of JNLWD's concepts, including placement of incapacitant (aerosol) generators onboard, as well as an "injectable pharmaceuticals" unit outside the cockpit door. The aerosol generator would disperse a drug throughout the passenger cabin. A slide identifies a "benefit" of incapacitants as that they can be "tailored" to adjust for duration and effects including paralysis and sleep. The same slide asserts that pharmaceutical industry data and JNLWD's "Front End Analysis" program provide supporting data for these applications of drugs. Under risks, the slide lists "permanent injury/death to the infirm".

      The Marine Corps FOIA office took 15 months to release this document.

      Also see Front End Analysis for Non-Lethal Chemicals (above).

      Warning: Due to many greyscale scans, this document is very large (4.4 mb)

      Less-Than-Lethal Program
      Office of Science and Technology, National Institute of Justice
      US Department of Justice
      January 2002

      Comment: This office of the US Justice Department (DOJ) participates in JNLWD. Slide 14 of this document describes the National Institute of Justice's contract to the Marine Corps Research University (aka Pennsylvania State University's Applied Research Lab, see above and below) to assess a mixture of pepper gas (OC) and unidentified 'calmative' chemical agents. The slide indicates that the chemical weapons mixture was reviewed by a US Department of Justice liability panel. Under FOIA, however, DOJ contradictorily asserts that no such review took place.

      This document is particularly interesting when read together with Assessment Report: US/UK Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW)/Urban Operations Executive Seminar (see below), in which JNLWD officials are said to admit that development of "calmative" chemical weapons would violate US Department of Defense regulations; but indicate that they will nonetheless seek to develop such weapons through relationships with the US Departments of Justice and Energy.

      This presentation was made at the University of New Hampshire's Non-lethal Technology and Academic Research III symposium in November 2001. There is a discrepancy in the date on the document, which was presented on 18 Jan 2002.

      See Delivery of Chemicals by Microcapsules (below) for more from the University of New Hampshire's work with JNLWD.

      Warning: This document is large (1.8 mb).

       

      Non-Lethal Weapons: Acquisitions, Capabilities, Doctrine, & Strategy: A Course of Instruction
      US Marine Corps contract M67004-99-D-0037, purchase request number M9545002RCR2BA7
      December 2001

      Comment: This late 2001 contract between JNLWD and the Marine Corps Research University (MCRU, at Pennsylvania State Univ.) is for preparation of a training course on non-lethal weapons. Page 3 of this report indicates "classified: SECRET" briefings by JNLWD officers on 'non-lethal' anti-personnel chemical weapons. The course was given to officers at the Marine Corps Command and Staff College sometime after March 2002.

       

      Liquid Payload Dispensing Concept Studies Techniques for the 81mm Non-Lethal Mortar Cartridge
      US Army contract DAAE-30-01-M-1444
      September 2001

      Comment: This is a JNLWD-funded contract between General Dynamics Aerospace Solid Propellant Systems Group (Redmond, WA, formerly named Primex Aerospace) and the US Army's Picatinny Arsenal (NJ). This contract is for work on the aerosol-generating cannister for 'non-lethal' crowd control, which was developed for JNLWD by Primex in 1999-2000. (See final report of that project below, Overhead Liquid Dispersal System (OLDS) Non-Lethal Demonstration Program).

      This more recent contract calls for General Dynamics to to use the knowledge gained in the OLDS program to help develop a "gas dispersion generator" (aerosolizing payload cannister) for an 81mm mortar round, and to "research and identify analytical tools that can be used in follow-on design/performance modeling of droplet formation and dynamics." and to perform "Preliminary parametric estimates of ground area coverage versus payload volume and height of burst."

      Warning: This document is a Microsoft Word file compressed in ZIP format. It is large (1.4 mb).



      Non-Lethal Airburst Munition(s) for Objective Individual Combat Weapon
      (PDF)
      US Army Picatinny Arsenal
      August 2001

      Also see: Airburst Non-Lethal Munition (ANLM) Design Improvements (July 2004, above)

      81mm Frangible Case Cartridge
      US Army Contract DAAE-30-01-C-1077
      June 2001

      Comment: This document is a JNLWD-funded contract between M2 Technologies (West Hyannisport, MA) and the US Army's Picatinny Arsenal (NJ). This contract is for M2 to provide engineering and assembly services for a 'non-lethal' chemical mortar round, culminating in a 2.5 km range live fire demonstration with a "generic payload for visual effect".

      Warning: This document is a Rich Text Format (.rtf) word processing file compressed in ZIP format. It is large (1.2 mb).

      Fabrication of Composite Mortar Components and Investigation of mortar Cartridge
      Kinetic Energy Mitigation Technique for the 81mm Non-Lethal Mortar Cartridge

      US Army Contract DAAE-30-01-M-1289
      June 2001

      Comment: This document is a JNLWD-funded contract between United Defense LP (UDLP, Minneapolis, MN) and the US Army's Picatinny Arsenal (NJ). This contract is a follow-on of JNLWD-UDLP contract M67854-99-C1031, which called for the company to demonstrate a "non-lethal" 81mm mortar round with 1.5km range. This newer contract is for UDLP to re-engineer and manufacture new components for a 2.5km range round. The work was scheduled to be completed in April 2002.

      A related contract (under solicitation number DAAE30-02-Q-0314), also funded by JNLWD, was awarded to Armtec Defense Products of Coachella, CA. This contract is not available on the US Army's online procurement network and has been requested by the Sunshine Project under FOIA.

      Warning: This document is a Microsoft Word file compressed in ZIP format. It is large (2.1 mb).

       

      Overview of Legal Issues Affecting Non-Lethal Weapons
      International and Operational Law Branch, Headquarters, US Marine Corps
      April 2001

      Comment: This document stems from a 2001 attempt by the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate (JNLWD) to obtain endorsement from the US National Academies of Science (NAS) for development of chemical weapons including incapacitants, malodorants, and possibly convulsants. The most important aspects of this presentation - the Marine Corps discussion of the Chemical Weapons Convention - can be found in pages 16 through 25. The document format (overhead slides) can be difficult to interpret. It is best to read this item in conjunction with the US Navy Judge Advocate General's Legal Review of Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) Pepper Spray (see below), which clarifies the Pentagon lawyers' meaning when using phrases such as "not for toxic effect".

       

      The US Department of Defense Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program: Program Overview (exerpts)
      JNLWD (VA)
      April 2001

      Comment: This document consists of extracts from a longer presentation. Of particular note is the bottom slide on page 3 (page 8 of the original presentation), which details the technologies in which JNLWD is investing.

      The FY 99/00 program on microencapsulation of chemical weapons included work by the Advanced Polymer Laboratory of the University of New Hampshire (see below, Delivery of chemicals by microcapsules.)

      The FY 01/02 program on "Front End Analysis of RCAs" is particularly worrisome and follows on the microencapsulation work of 1999 and 2000. Information about this program has been difficult to obtain. JNLWD officials have described it as secret. Public documents, however, indicate that a major contractor in this program is the US Army Soldier Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM) at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. (See: Front End Analysis for Non-Lethal Chemicals above.)

      In addition to the "Front End Analysis of RCAs" program, SBCCOM is helping JNLWD develop the "non-lethal" 81mm mortar round (see below, Design and Development of an 81mm Non-Lethal Mortar Cartridge).

      Little has been made public about the FY 00/01 program on a "NL Loitering Submunition", which centered around the notion of an unmanned aerial vehicle equiped with a crowd control payload, including chemical weapons in some conceptions. Much of the work on this program was conducted on US military bases in Maryland, Virginia, and possibly Texas. (See below, Liquid/Aerosol Dispersant Module for Short Range UAV Platform.)

      US Marine Corps Non-Lethal Weapons Requirements
      Marine Corps Combat Development Command (VA)
      c. late 2000 or early 2001

      Comment: Two items are particularly notable in this report. The first is the indication of a change in the reasons why the Marines are intersted in non-lethal weapons. Initial interest was in weapons for specific situations such as riot control and "military operations other than war" ("MOOTW"), i.e. fallout from the Pentagon's Mogadishu experience. In this document, a shift is signaled toward broader interest in NLW as weapons "effective in the full spectrum of warfare", in other words, use of non-lethal weapons as a 'force multipier', a dangerous strategy that has historically contributed to escalation and geater use of lethal weapons, including weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Examples include the Vietnam War (police tear gas -> urban warfare & other uses) and World War I (obscurants -> mustard gas). Second, this report includes a very strong emphasis on USMC acquisition of incapacitating weapons.

      Assessment Report: US/UK Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW)/Urban Operations Executive Seminar
      (Report apparently authored by JNLWD)
      November 2000

      Comment: The most interesting aspects of this report relate to a) United Kingdom's position that the "calmative" chemical weapons (see last page, and passages through the text) of interest to JNLWD violate the Chemical Weapons Convention and b) JNLWD's claim that it can do an end-around of treaty controls by contracting work out to the US Departments of Justice and Energy. Circumstances suggest JNLWD is proceding with the plan articulated here: The National Institute of Justice, a unit of the US Department of Justice, is currently funding calmatives research (a mix of OC and drug agents) by the Marine Corps Research University at Pennsylvania State University (see Justice document above). (Also see The Advantages and Limitations of Calmatives for Use as a Non-Lethal Technique, below, a report which predates current DOJ-funded calmatives development.)

      Warning: This document is large (840 kb).

      81mm Non-Lethal Mortar: Joint RDT&E Pre-Milestone 0 & Concept Exploration Program
      US Army Picatinny Arsenal (NJ)
      Report to JNLWD (VA)
      20 November 2000

      Warning: This document is large (2.2 mb).


      The Advantages and Limitations of Calmatives for Use as a Non-Lethal Technique

      Available in Two Formats:
      1)
      Original Document as Released to the Sunshine Project from the National Academies of Science
      2) Penn State's PDF Version of this report (omits chemical diagram of fentanyl on the cover.)

      Marine Corps Research University (Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University)
      October 2000

      Comment: The biochemical weapons proposed in this shocking report are of major concern. They violate the federal Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989, the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention, and the Chemical Weapons Convention. The lead author of this report recently left Penn State to become a Dean at the University of Pittsburgh. The other authors, including a medical doctor, remain at Penn State and continue to work in the development of "non-lethal" weapons.

      As indicated in the report, the Penn State team prepared a database on calmative agents which it submitted to JNLWD in electonic format (a zip disk). Under FOIA, JNLWD initially claimed that this database is exempt from release because it constitutes part of a commercial offer to the government. After more intense questioning, JNLWD then decided that the database is not exempt from disclosure; but now claims that the database cannot be located and, therefore, cannot be released.

      Why two versions? Months after the Sunshine Project scanned and placed this document on its website, the authors released an altered version of the report. This version deletes the chemical diagram of fentanyl (the agent reportedly used by Russian Special Forces in October 2002 in the Moscow Theater) found on the original report's cover.

      A more detailed comparison of the different report versions is planned. The text of the Penn State version is searchable within Adobe Acrobat.

      See Sunshine Project publication(s):
      The MCRU Calmatives Study and JNLWD: A Summary of (Public) Facts
      Pentagon Program Pushes Psychopharmacological Warfare

      Warning: This document is large (1.2 mb).

      Double Steal: The use of the Non-Lethal Bio-Weapons in Offensive Operations
      World Wide Chemical Conference, US Army Chemical School, Ft. Leonard Wood, MO
      June 2000

      Comment: This bizarre presentation by the (now deceased) historian of the US Army Chemical School describes the author's fictional scenario in which China and North Korea team up to overrun Taiwan and South Korea by using "non-lethal" anti-personnel and anti-material weapons. The presentation begins with discussion of the Plague in Europe and the 1918 Spanish Flu. Using a metaphor from US baseball, the presentation then describes how Chinese and North Korean use of 'non-lethal' weapons might create a situation where, for the United States, "surrender is our only option." The author argues that "these new types of weapons can reduce America's military from the best technological force in the world, to using bows and arrows."

      While it would be tempting to relegate such perspectives to an irrelevant lunatic fringe, in fact, others with similarly bizarre perspectives on science and politics have played a major role in shaping the US 'non-lethal' weapons program. Another US military 'non-lethal' weapons thinker, Col. John Alexander, is an active investigator of unidentified flying objects and promotes gathering military intelligence by employing psychics who use 'remote visioning'. Alexander's National Institute of Discovery Science in Las Vegas, Nevada, describes itself as "a privately funded science institute engaged in research of aerial phenomena, animal mutilations, and other related anomalous phenomena". Among its unusual interests, the Institute investigates and publishes papers on cases of livestock deaths that are purportedly attributable to activity by extraterrestrials. Alexander's other responsibilities have included directing a 'non-lethal' weapons research team at New Mexico's Los Alamos National Lab, representing the US at NATO, and serving on the National Academies of Science Panel on Non-Lethal Weapons.

      This document is in Microsoft Powerpoint format.

      Overhead Liquid Dispersal System (OLDS) Non-Lethal Demonstration Program (Final Report)
      Primex Aerospace Company (WA), a subsidiary of General Dynamics (FL)
      Now doing business as General Dynamics Aerospace Solid Propellant Systems Group
      April 2000

      Comment: This document is the final report of the company's initial effort to develop an aerosol device for crowd control weapons. The report notes that the "OLDS" system can be adapted for a mortar round and that initial experiments to do this were conducted. This report includes photographs of field tests. In 2001, JNLWD asked General Dynamics to continue this work, by developing a "gas dispersion generator" for use in the longer-range 81mm "non-lethal" mortar round (see above, Liquid Payload Dispensing Concept Studies Techniques for the 81mm Non-Lethal Mortar Cartridge).

      Design and Development of an 81mm Non-Lethal Mortar Cartridge
      United Defense LP (MN)
      US Army Soldier Biological Chemical Command (SBCCOM, MD)
      US Army Research Laboratory (ARL, MD)
      March 2000

      (Document added: 17 Sep 02)

      Comment: This document details the JNLWD-funded development and testing of the 81mm "mom-lethal" mortar round by a collaboration involving United Defense, a Minneapolis-based private company and US Army weapons developers based at Aberdeen Proving Ground in Maryland.

      Warning: This document is large (4.1 mb).


      Mobile Non-Lethal Disseminator
      (redacted)
      US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground
      June 1998

      Comment: This proposal calls for formulating "non-lethal" chemicals so that they can be released by a battlefield smoke generator. This document was redacted prior to release by the Marine Corps. Click here for more information on the M-56 smoke generator .

      Less-than-Lethal Systems: Situational Control by Olfactory Stimuli
      Science Applications International Corporation (CA)
      June 1998

      See Sunshine Project publications:
      Non-Lethal Weapons Research in the US: Calmatives & Malodorants
      US Tests Ethnically-Targeted Crowd Control Weapons

      Commercial Backpack Blower / Sprayer System
      US Army CBDCOM (MD)
      June 1998

      Legal Review of Oleoresin Capsicum (OC) Pepper Spray
      US Navy Judge Advocate General (VA)
      May 1998

      Warning: This document is large (732 kb).


      Contract DAAD13-98-M-0064: "Establish Odor Response Profiles"

      US Army CBDCOM (MD) / Monell Chemical Senses Center (PA)
      April 1998

      See Sunshine Project publications:
      Non-Lethal Weapons Research in the US: Calmatives & Malodorants
      US Tests Ethnically-Targeted Crowd Control Weapons


      Delivery of chemicals by microcapsules

      Advanced Polymer Laboratory, University of New Hampshire
      1998

      Comment: UNH is also a participant in JNLWD's mortar development efforts.

      Enhanced Degradation of Military Material
      Naval Research Laboratory (DC)
      1998

      Comment: The biological weapons development described in this proposal violates the federal Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989 and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.

      See Sunshine Project publication(s):
      US Armed Forces Press for Offensive Bioweapons
      Pentagon BW Proposals at US Attorney's Office
      Non-Lethal Weapons Research in the US: Genetically Engineered Anti-Material Weapons

      Anti-Material Biocatalysts and Sensors
      Armstrong Laboratory, Brooks Air Force Base (TX)
      1998

      Comment: The biological weapons development described in this proposal violates the federal Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989 and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.

      See Sunshine Project publication(s):
      US Armed Forces Press for Offensive Bioweapons
      Pentagon BW Proposals at US Attorney's Office
      Non-Lethal Weapons Research in the US: Genetically Engineered Anti-Material Weapons


      Odorous Substances
      (redacted)
      US Army Edgewood Research, Development, and Engineering Center
      July 1997

      Comment: This important document provides further information on the US Army's attempts to develop "non-lethal" chemical weapons that target particular cultures. The proposal calls for development of "An 'odor index' relating specific types of odors to specific population groups around the world. This index would also detail the chemicals required to duplicate those odors..."

      This document was redacted prior to release by the Marine Corps.

      See also: Contract DAAD13-98-M-0064: "Establish Odor Response Profiles"

      See Sunshine Project publications:
      Non-Lethal Weapons Research in the US: Calmatives & Malodorants
      US Tests Ethnically-Targeted Crowd Control Weapons


      Dose Safety Margin Enhancement for Chemical Incapacitation and Less-Than-Lethal Targeting

      Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (CA)
      January 1997

      Comment: This is the final report of a contract with the US Department of Justice. This report discusses testing of small arms ammunition delivering an opiate/DMSO mixture and the researchers' discussions with a pharmaceutical company concerning design of a further combination with naloxone (narcan). The report's Executive Summary mentions that the LLNL research team has conducted similar research for "special military operations and low intensity conflict". The report calls for further testing on animals, human skin, and human subjects.

      Page 21 of this document contains a notable passage concerning use of a fentanyl-based agent: "The dry powder could be dispersed as a smoke during a hostage situation. Terrorists would be incapacitated by breathing anesthetic smoke injected into an air duct or office building air conditioning system." The idea bears a striking resemblance the disastrous events of 2002 in the Moscow theater, where more than 100 innocent hostages died.

      This document is all the more notable when read alongside of Assessment Report: US/UK Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW)/Urban Operations Executive Seminar (see above), in which JNLWD officials admit that development of "calmative" chemical weapons violates US Department of Defense regulations; but indicate that they will nonetheless develop such weapons through their relationships with the US Departments of Justice and Energy.

      Warning: This document is large (4.5 mb).

      NEW
      Non-Lethal Weapon Payload Demonstration with Hunter Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (video)
      TRW
      1997

      Comment: Click to view the video.

      Preliminary Legal Review of Proposed Chemical-Based Non-Lethal Weapons
      US Navy Judge Advocate General
      1997

      Nonlethal Delivery System for Nonlethal Mortar Payload
      US Army Research Laboratory, Aberdeen Proving Ground (MD)
      1997

      NEW
      Harassing, Annoying, and "Bad Guy" Identifying Chemicals
      (redacted)
      US Air Force Wright Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB (OH)
      June 1994

      Comment: This "non-lethal" chemical weapons proposal from the US Air Force proposes development of a variety of chemical weapons, such as: "One distasteful but completely non-lethal example would be strong aphrodisiacs, especially if the chemical also caused homosexual behaviour". Other chemicals proposed includes ones that "made personnel very sensitive to sunlight", and that "attract stinging and biting bugs, rodents, and larger animals" to enemy positions.

      This document was redacted prior to release by the Marine Corps.

      Depolymerization (Proposed Nonlethal Weapon Project)
      Los Alamos National Laboratory (NM)
      May 1994

      A White Paper for Catalytic Depolymerization of Rubber
      Department of Defense Programs, Los Alamos National Laboratory (NM)
      April 1994


      Antipersonnel Chemical Immobilizers: Synthetic Opiods

      US Army Edgewood Research, Development & Engineering Center (MD)
      April 1994


      Antipersonnel Calmative Agents

      US Army Edgewood Research, Development & Engineering Center (MD)
      April 1994


      Demonstration of Chemical Immobilizers

      US Army Edgewood Research, Development & Engineering Center (MD)
      April 1994

      Antipersonnel Chemical Immobilizers: Sedatives
      US Army Edgewood Research, Development & Engineering Center (MD)
      April 1994

      Role of Non-Lethal Chemical Irritants
      Naval Air Warfare Center, Weapons Division, China Lake (CA)
      April 1994

      Biofouling and Biocorrosion
      National Security Programs Office, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL)
      1994

      Comment: The biological weapons development described in this proposal violates the federal Biological Weapons Anti-Terrorism Act of 1989 and the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention. Another INEL document from the same research program titled "Metabolic Engineering" was requested under FOIA over a year ago. It has not been released.

      See Sunshine Project publication(s):
      US Armed Forces Press for Offensive Bioweapons
      Pentagon BW Proposals at US Attorney's Office
      Non-Lethal Weapons Research in the US: Genetically Engineered Anti-Material Weapons

      NEW
      Physiologically Incapacitating Device for Counterterrorism and Hostage Rescue
      (redacted)
      US Army Aberdeen Proving Ground
      1994

      Comment: This redacted document discusses the use of carbon dioxide, apparently introduced in the form of dry ice, as a means of incapacitating persons in a confined area.

      Contaminant Aerosol Munitions
      Defense Nuclear Agency (VA)
      1994

      Frontal Attack Anti-Vehicle Liquid or Aerosol Dispensing Mine
      DCS Corporation (NJ)
      1994

      Liquid/Aerosol Dispersant Module for Short Range UAV Platform
      DCS Corporation (NJ)
      1994

      Lubricant and Grease Additives for Immobilizing Machinery
      Sandia National Laboratory (NM)
      1994

      http://www.sunshine-project.org/incapacitants/jnlwdpdf/

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