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30 May

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  • ambrós
    Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
    Message 1 of 14 , May 28, 2002
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      Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
      * St. Walstan the Generous
      * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


      St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
      -----------------------------------------------------------

      In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
      to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
      and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
      House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
      his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

      From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
      studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
      implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
      be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
      disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
      from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Ælred, the
      parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
      to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
      of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
      eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
      anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
      nobility.

      Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
      must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
      renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
      son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
      for him and they consented to his wish(3).

      Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
      he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
      northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
      parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
      village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
      rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
      labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

      Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
      developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
      giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
      Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
      shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
      food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
      beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
      were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
      providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
      than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
      at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
      of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
      Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
      thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
      this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
      Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
      crown of thorns'.

      Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
      fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
      approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
      were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
      his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
      prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
      poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
      he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
      only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
      good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
      be their son.

      So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
      to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
      True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
      this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
      service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
      and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
      fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

      In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
      labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
      third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
      Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
      village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
      midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
      of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
      bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
      angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
      Trinity.

      Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
      was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
      amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
      whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
      English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
      authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
      take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
      sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
      his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
      shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
      kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
      he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
      the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
      on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
      take communion.

      Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
      Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
      until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
      to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
      their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
      he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
      there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
      and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
      calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
      labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
      that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
      heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
      Come from thy labours and rest'

      With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
      upwards.

      As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
      wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
      banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
      the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
      followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
      came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
      gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

      The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
      mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
      land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
      and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
      the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
      which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
      afternoon when Bishop Ælfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
      service.

      The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
      childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
      him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
      enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
      relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
      effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

      The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
      church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
      became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
      bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
      sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
      particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
      and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
      in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
      church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Æthelmar of Elmham
      to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

      The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
      English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
      Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediæval churches with other
      'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
      St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
      border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
      St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
      screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
      depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
      white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
      East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
      site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
      Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
      chapel destroyed in 1538.

      However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
      people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
      from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
      give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
      'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
      Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
      Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
      at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
      hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
      taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
      at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
      seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
      blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
      of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
      Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
      (8).

      Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

      (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
      veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
      Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
      half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
      appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
      versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
      its retelling here mediæval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
      communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
      confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
      usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
      tradition).

      (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
      Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
      fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
      Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
      Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
      martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
      only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
      beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
      the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
      was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
      the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
      1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
      name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
      Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
      buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
      Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

      (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
      Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
      commemorated on 17 March.

      (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
      figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
      transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
      Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Ælfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
      Æthelmar from 1047 to 1070.

      (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
      St Walstan - since lost.

      (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
      difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
      'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
      confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
      existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
      that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
      The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
      Ages.

      (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

      (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
      England, Vol 2, No 3.

      http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

      In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
      scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
      (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
      ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
      area (Husenbeth).

      Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
      http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

      Icon of St Walstan
      http://www.odox.net/Icons-Walstan.htm



      St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
      ------------------------------------------------------------
      Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
      French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
      (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
      Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
      Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


      Sources:
      ========

      Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
      Penguin Books.

      Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
      P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

      Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
      (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

      Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
      Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
      Green & Co.

      Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
      Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
      London: Virtue & Co.

      Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
      Regnery.

      For All the Saints:
      http://users.erols.com/saintpat/ss/ss-index.htm

      Celtic Orthodox Christianity Home Page
      http://www.orthodoxireland.com/celtic.htm

      These Lives are archived at:
      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
      *****************************************
    • ambrós
      Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
      Message 2 of 14 , May 30, 2003
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        Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
        * St. Walstan the Generous
        * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


        St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
        -----------------------------------------------------------

        In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
        to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
        and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
        House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
        his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

        From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
        studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
        implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
        be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
        disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
        from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Ælred, the
        parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
        to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
        of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
        eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
        anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
        nobility.

        Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
        must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
        renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
        son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
        for him and they consented to his wish(3).

        Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
        he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
        northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
        parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
        village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
        rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
        labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

        Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
        developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
        giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
        Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
        shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
        food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
        beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
        were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
        providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
        than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
        at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
        of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
        Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
        thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
        this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
        Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
        crown of thorns'.

        Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
        fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
        approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
        were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
        his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
        prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
        poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
        he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
        only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
        good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
        be their son.

        So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
        to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
        True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
        this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
        service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
        and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
        fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

        In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
        labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
        third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
        Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
        village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
        midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
        of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
        bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
        angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
        Trinity.

        Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
        was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
        amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
        whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
        English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
        authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
        take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
        sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
        his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
        shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
        kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
        he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
        the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
        on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
        take communion.

        Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
        Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
        until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
        to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
        their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
        he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
        there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
        and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
        calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
        labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
        that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
        heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
        Come from thy labours and rest'

        With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
        upwards.

        As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
        wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
        banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
        the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
        followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
        came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
        gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

        The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
        mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
        land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
        and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
        the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
        which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
        afternoon when Bishop Ælfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
        service.

        The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
        childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
        him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
        enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
        relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
        effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

        The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
        church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
        became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
        bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
        sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
        particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
        and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
        in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
        church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Æthelmar of Elmham
        to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

        The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
        English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
        Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediæval churches with other
        'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
        St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
        border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
        St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
        screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
        depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
        white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
        East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
        site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
        Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
        chapel destroyed in 1538.

        However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
        people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
        from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
        give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
        'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
        Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
        Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
        at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
        hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
        taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
        at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
        seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
        blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
        of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
        Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
        (8).

        Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

        (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
        veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
        Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
        half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
        appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
        versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
        its retelling here mediæval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
        communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
        confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
        usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
        tradition).

        (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
        Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
        fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
        Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
        Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
        martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
        only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
        beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
        the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
        was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
        the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
        1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
        name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
        Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
        buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
        Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

        (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
        Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
        commemorated on 17 March.

        (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
        figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
        transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
        Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Ælfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
        Æthelmar from 1047 to 1070.

        (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
        St Walstan - since lost.

        (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
        difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
        'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
        confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
        existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
        that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
        The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
        Ages.

        (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

        (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
        England, Vol 2, No 3.

        http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

        In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
        scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
        (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
        ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
        area (Husenbeth).

        Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
        http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

        Icon of St Walstan
        http://www.odox.net/Icons-Walstan.htm



        St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
        ------------------------------------------------------------
        Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
        French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
        (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
        Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
        Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


        Sources:
        ========

        Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
        Penguin Books.

        Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
        P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

        Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
        (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

        Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
        Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
        Green & Co.

        Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
        Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
        London: Virtue & Co.

        Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
        Regnery.

        For All the Saints:
        http://users.erols.com/saintpat/ss/ss-index.htm

        Celtic Orthodox Christianity Home Page
        http://www.orthodoxireland.com/celtic.htm

        These Lives are archived at:
        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
        *****************************************
      • emrys@globe.net.nz
        Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
        Message 3 of 14 , May 28, 2004
        • 0 Attachment
          Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
          * St. Walstan the Generous
          * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


          St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
          -----------------------------------------------------------

          In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
          to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
          and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
          House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
          his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

          From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
          studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
          implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
          be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
          disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
          from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Жlred, the
          parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
          to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
          of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
          eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
          anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
          nobility.

          Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
          must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
          renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
          son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
          for him and they consented to his wish(3).

          Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
          he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
          northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
          parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
          village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
          rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
          labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

          Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
          developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
          giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
          Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
          shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
          food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
          beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
          were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
          providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
          than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
          at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
          of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
          Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
          thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
          this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
          Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
          crown of thorns'.

          Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
          fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
          approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
          were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
          his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
          prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
          poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
          he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
          only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
          good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
          be their son.

          So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
          to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
          True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
          this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
          service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
          and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
          fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

          In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
          labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
          third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
          Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
          village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
          midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
          of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
          bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
          angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
          Trinity.

          Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
          was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
          amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
          whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
          English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
          authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
          take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
          sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
          his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
          shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
          kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
          he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
          the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
          on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
          take communion.

          Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
          Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
          until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
          to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
          their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
          he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
          there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
          and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
          calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
          labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
          that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
          heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
          Come from thy labours and rest'

          With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
          upwards.

          As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
          wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
          banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
          the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
          followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
          came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
          gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

          The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
          mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
          land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
          and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
          the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
          which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
          afternoon when Bishop Жlfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
          service.

          The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
          childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
          him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
          enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
          relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
          effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

          The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
          church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
          became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
          bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
          sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
          particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
          and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
          in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
          church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Жthelmar of Elmham
          to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

          The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
          English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
          Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediжval churches with other
          'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
          St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
          border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
          St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
          screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
          depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
          white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
          East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
          site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
          Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
          chapel destroyed in 1538.

          However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
          people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
          from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
          give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
          'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
          Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
          Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
          at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
          hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
          taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
          at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
          seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
          blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
          of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
          Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
          (8).

          Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

          (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
          veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
          Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
          half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
          appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
          versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
          its retelling here mediжval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
          communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
          confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
          usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
          tradition).

          (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
          Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
          fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
          Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
          Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
          martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
          only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
          beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
          the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
          was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
          the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
          1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
          name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
          Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
          buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
          Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

          (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
          Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
          commemorated on 17 March.

          (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
          figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
          transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
          Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Жlfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
          Жthelmar from 1047 to 1070.

          (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
          St Walstan - since lost.

          (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
          difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
          'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
          confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
          existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
          that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
          The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
          Ages.

          (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

          (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
          England, Vol 2, No 3.

          http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

          In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
          scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
          (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
          ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
          area (Husenbeth).

          Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
          http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

          Icon of St Walstan
          http://www.odox.net/Icons-Walstan.htm



          St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
          ------------------------------------------------------------
          Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
          French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
          (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
          Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
          Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


          Sources:
          ========

          Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
          Penguin Books.

          Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
          P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

          Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
          (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

          Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
          Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
          Green & Co.

          Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
          Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
          London: Virtue & Co.

          Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
          Regnery.

          For All the Saints:
          http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

          Orthodox Ireland Saints
          http://www.orthodoxireland.com/saints/

          An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
          http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

          These Lives are archived at:
          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
          *****************************************
        • emrys@globe.net.nz
          Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
          Message 4 of 14 , May 29, 2005
          • 0 Attachment
            Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
            * St. Walstan the Generous
            * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


            St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
            -----------------------------------------------------------

            In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
            to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
            and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
            House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
            his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

            From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
            studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
            implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
            be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
            disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
            from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Ælred, the
            parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
            to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
            of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
            eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
            anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
            nobility.

            Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
            must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
            renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
            son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
            for him and they consented to his wish(3).

            Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
            he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
            northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
            parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
            village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
            rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
            labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

            Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
            developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
            giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
            Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
            shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
            food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
            beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
            were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
            providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
            than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
            at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
            of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
            Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
            thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
            this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
            Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
            crown of thorns'.

            Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
            fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
            approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
            were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
            his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
            prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
            poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
            he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
            only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
            good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
            be their son.

            So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
            to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
            True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
            this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
            service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
            and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
            fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

            In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
            labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
            third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
            Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
            village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
            midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
            of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
            bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
            angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
            Trinity.

            Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
            was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
            amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
            whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
            English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
            authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
            take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
            sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
            his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
            shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
            kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
            he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
            the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
            on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
            take communion.

            Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
            Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
            until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
            to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
            their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
            he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
            there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
            and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
            calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
            labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
            that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
            heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
            Come from thy labours and rest'

            With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
            upwards.

            As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
            wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
            banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
            the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
            followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
            came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
            gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

            The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
            mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
            land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
            and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
            the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
            which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
            afternoon when Bishop Ælfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
            service.

            The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
            childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
            him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
            enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
            relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
            effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

            The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
            church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
            became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
            bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
            sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
            particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
            and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
            in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
            church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Æthelmar of Elmham
            to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

            The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
            English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
            Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediæval churches with other
            'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
            St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
            border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
            St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
            screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
            depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
            white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
            East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
            site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
            Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
            chapel destroyed in 1538.

            However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
            people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
            from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
            give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
            'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
            Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
            Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
            at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
            hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
            taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
            at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
            seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
            blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
            of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
            Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
            (8).

            Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

            (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
            veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
            Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
            half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
            appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
            versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
            its retelling here mediæval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
            communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
            confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
            usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
            tradition).

            (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
            Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
            fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
            Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
            Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
            martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
            only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
            beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
            the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
            was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
            the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
            1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
            name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
            Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
            buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
            Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

            (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
            Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
            commemorated on 17 March.

            (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
            figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
            transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
            Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Ælfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
            Æthelmar from 1047 to 1070.

            (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
            St Walstan - since lost.

            (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
            difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
            'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
            confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
            existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
            that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
            The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
            Ages.

            (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

            (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
            England, Vol 2, No 3.

            http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

            In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
            scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
            (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
            ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
            area (Husenbeth).

            Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
            http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

            Icon of St Walstan
            http://www.odox.net/Icons-Walstan.htm



            St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
            ------------------------------------------------------------
            Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
            French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
            (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
            Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
            Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


            Sources:
            ========

            Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
            Penguin Books.

            Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
            P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

            Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
            (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

            Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
            Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
            Green & Co.

            Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
            Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
            London: Virtue & Co.

            Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
            Regnery.

            For All the Saints:
            http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

            An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
            http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

            These Lives are archived at:
            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
            *****************************************
          • emrys@globe.net.nz
            Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
            Message 5 of 14 , May 29, 2006
            • 0 Attachment
              Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
              * St. Walstan the Generous
              * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
              =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


              St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
              -----------------------------------------------------------

              In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
              to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
              and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
              House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
              his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

              From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
              studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
              implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
              be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
              disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
              from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Ælred, the
              parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
              to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
              of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
              eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
              anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
              nobility.

              Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
              must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
              renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
              son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
              for him and they consented to his wish(3).

              Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
              he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
              northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
              parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
              village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
              rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
              labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

              Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
              developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
              giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
              Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
              shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
              food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
              beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
              were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
              providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
              than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
              at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
              of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
              Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
              thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
              this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
              Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
              crown of thorns'.

              Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
              fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
              approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
              were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
              his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
              prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
              poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
              he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
              only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
              good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
              be their son.

              So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
              to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
              True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
              this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
              service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
              and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
              fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

              In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
              labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
              third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
              Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
              village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
              midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
              of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
              bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
              angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
              Trinity.

              Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
              was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
              amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
              whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
              English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
              authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
              take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
              sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
              his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
              shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
              kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
              he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
              the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
              on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
              take communion.

              Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
              Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
              until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
              to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
              their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
              he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
              there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
              and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
              calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
              labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
              that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
              heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
              Come from thy labours and rest'

              With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
              upwards.

              As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
              wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
              banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
              the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
              followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
              came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
              gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

              The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
              mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
              land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
              and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
              the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
              which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
              afternoon when Bishop Ælfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
              service.

              The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
              childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
              him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
              enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
              relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
              effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

              The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
              church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
              became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
              bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
              sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
              particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
              and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
              in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
              church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Æthelmar of Elmham
              to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

              The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
              English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
              Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediæval churches with other
              'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
              St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
              border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
              St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
              screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
              depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
              white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
              East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
              site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
              Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
              chapel destroyed in 1538.

              However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
              people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
              from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
              give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
              'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
              Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
              Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
              at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
              hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
              taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
              at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
              seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
              blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
              of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
              Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
              (8).

              Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

              (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
              veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
              Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
              half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
              appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
              versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
              its retelling here mediæval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
              communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
              confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
              usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
              tradition).

              (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
              Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
              fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
              Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
              Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
              martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
              only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
              beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
              the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
              was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
              the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
              1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
              name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
              Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
              buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
              Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

              (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
              Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
              commemorated on 17 March.

              (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
              figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
              transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
              Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Ælfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
              Æthelmar from 1047 to 1070.

              (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
              St Walstan - since lost.

              (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
              difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
              'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
              confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
              existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
              that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
              The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
              Ages.

              (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

              (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
              England, Vol 2, No 3.

              http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

              In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
              scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
              (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
              ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
              area (Husenbeth).

              Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
              http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

              Icon of St Walstan
              http://www.odox.net/Icons-Walstan.htm



              St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
              ------------------------------------------------------------
              Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
              French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
              (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
              Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
              Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


              Sources:
              ========

              Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
              Penguin Books.

              Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
              P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

              Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
              (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

              Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
              Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
              Green & Co.

              Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
              Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
              London: Virtue & Co.

              Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
              Regnery.

              For All the Saints:
              http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

              An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
              http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

              These Lives are archived at:
              http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
              *****************************************
            • emrys@globe.net.nz
              Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
              Message 6 of 14 , May 29, 2007
              • 0 Attachment
                Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                * St. Walstan the Generous
                * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
                =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
                -----------------------------------------------------------

                In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
                to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
                and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
                House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
                his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

                From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
                studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
                implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
                be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
                disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
                from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Ælred, the
                parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
                to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
                of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
                eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
                anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
                nobility.

                Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
                must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
                renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
                son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
                for him and they consented to his wish(3).

                Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
                he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
                northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
                parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
                village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
                rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
                labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

                Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
                developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
                giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
                Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
                shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
                food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
                beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
                were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
                providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
                than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
                at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
                of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
                Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
                thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
                this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
                Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
                crown of thorns'.

                Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
                fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
                approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
                were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
                his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
                prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
                poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
                he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
                only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
                good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
                be their son.

                So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
                to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
                True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
                this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
                service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
                and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
                fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

                In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
                labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
                third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
                Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
                village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
                midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
                of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
                bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
                angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
                Trinity.

                Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
                was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
                amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
                whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
                English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
                authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
                take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
                sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
                his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
                shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
                kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
                he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
                the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
                on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
                take communion.

                Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
                Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
                until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
                to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
                their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
                he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
                there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
                and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
                calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
                labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
                that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
                heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
                Come from thy labours and rest'

                With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
                upwards.

                As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
                wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
                banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
                the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
                followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
                came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
                gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

                The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
                mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
                land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
                and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
                the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
                which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
                afternoon when Bishop Ælfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
                service.

                The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
                childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
                him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
                enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
                relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
                effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

                The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
                church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
                became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
                bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
                sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
                particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
                and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
                in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
                church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Æthelmar of Elmham
                to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

                The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
                English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
                Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediæval churches with other
                'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
                St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
                border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
                St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
                screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
                depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
                white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
                East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
                site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
                Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
                chapel destroyed in 1538.

                However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
                people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
                from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
                give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
                'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
                Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
                Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
                at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
                hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
                taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
                at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
                seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
                blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
                of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
                Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
                (8).

                Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

                (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
                veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
                Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
                half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
                appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
                versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
                its retelling here mediæval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
                communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
                confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
                usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
                tradition).

                (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
                Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
                fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
                Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
                Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
                martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
                only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
                beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
                the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
                was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
                the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
                1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
                name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
                Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
                buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
                Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

                (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
                Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
                commemorated on 17 March.

                (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
                figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
                transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
                Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Ælfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
                Æthelmar from 1047 to 1070.

                (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
                St Walstan - since lost.

                (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
                difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
                'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
                confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
                existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
                that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
                The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
                Ages.

                (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

                (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
                England, Vol 2, No 3.

                http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

                In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
                scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
                (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
                ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
                area (Husenbeth).

                Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
                http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

                Icon of St Walstan
                http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Walstan.htm



                St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
                ------------------------------------------------------------
                Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
                French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
                (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
                Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
                Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


                Sources:
                ========

                Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                Penguin Books.

                Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

                Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
                Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
                Green & Co.

                Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                London: Virtue & Co.

                Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                Regnery.

                For All the Saints:
                http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                These Lives are archived at:
                http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                *****************************************
              • emrys@globe.net.nz
                Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
                Message 7 of 14 , May 29, 2008
                • 0 Attachment
                  Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

                  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                  * St. Walstan the Generous
                  * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
                  =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                  St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
                  -----------------------------------------------------------

                  In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
                  to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
                  and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
                  House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
                  his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

                  From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
                  studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
                  implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
                  be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
                  disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
                  from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Ælred, the
                  parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
                  to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
                  of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
                  eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
                  anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
                  nobility.

                  Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
                  must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
                  renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
                  son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
                  for him and they consented to his wish(3).

                  Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
                  he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
                  northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
                  parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
                  village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
                  rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
                  labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

                  Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
                  developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
                  giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
                  Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
                  shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
                  food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
                  beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
                  were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
                  providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
                  than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
                  at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
                  of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
                  Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
                  thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
                  this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
                  Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
                  crown of thorns'.

                  Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
                  fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
                  approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
                  were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
                  his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
                  prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
                  poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
                  he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
                  only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
                  good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
                  be their son.

                  So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
                  to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
                  True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
                  this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
                  service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
                  and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
                  fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

                  In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
                  labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
                  third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
                  Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
                  village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
                  midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
                  of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
                  bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
                  angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
                  Trinity.

                  Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
                  was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
                  amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
                  whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
                  English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
                  authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
                  take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
                  sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
                  his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
                  shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
                  kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
                  he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
                  the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
                  on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
                  take communion.

                  Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
                  Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
                  until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
                  to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
                  their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
                  he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
                  there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
                  and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
                  calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
                  labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
                  that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
                  heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
                  Come from thy labours and rest'

                  With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
                  upwards.

                  As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
                  wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
                  banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
                  the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
                  followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
                  came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
                  gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

                  The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
                  mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
                  land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
                  and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
                  the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
                  which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
                  afternoon when Bishop Ælfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
                  service.

                  The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
                  childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
                  him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
                  enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
                  relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
                  effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

                  The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
                  church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
                  became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
                  bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
                  sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
                  particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
                  and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
                  in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
                  church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Æthelmar of Elmham
                  to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

                  The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
                  English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
                  Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediæval churches with other
                  'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
                  St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
                  border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
                  St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
                  screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
                  depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
                  white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
                  East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
                  site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
                  Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
                  chapel destroyed in 1538.

                  However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
                  people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
                  from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
                  give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
                  'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
                  Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
                  Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
                  at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
                  hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
                  taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
                  at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
                  seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
                  blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
                  of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
                  Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
                  (8).

                  Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

                  (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
                  veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
                  Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
                  half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
                  appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
                  versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
                  its retelling here mediæval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
                  communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
                  confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
                  usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
                  tradition).

                  (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
                  Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
                  fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
                  Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
                  Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
                  martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
                  only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
                  beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
                  the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
                  was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
                  the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
                  1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
                  name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
                  Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
                  buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
                  Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

                  (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
                  Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
                  commemorated on 17 March.

                  (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
                  figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
                  transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
                  Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Ælfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
                  Æthelmar from 1047 to 1070.

                  (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
                  St Walstan - since lost.

                  (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
                  difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
                  'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
                  confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
                  existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
                  that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
                  The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
                  Ages.

                  (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

                  (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
                  England, Vol 2, No 3.

                  http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

                  In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
                  scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
                  (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
                  ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
                  area (Husenbeth).

                  Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
                  http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

                  Icon of St Walstan
                  http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Walstan.htm



                  St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
                  ------------------------------------------------------------
                  Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
                  French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
                  (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
                  Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
                  Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


                  Sources:
                  ========

                  Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                  Penguin Books.

                  Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                  P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                  Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                  (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

                  Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
                  Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
                  Green & Co.

                  Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                  Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                  London: Virtue & Co.

                  Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                  Regnery.

                  For All the Saints:
                  http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                  An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                  http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                  These Lives are archived at:
                  http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                  *****************************************
                • emrys@globe.net.nz
                  Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
                  Message 8 of 14 , May 28, 2009
                  • 0 Attachment
                    Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

                    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                    * St. Walstan the Generous
                    * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
                    =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                    St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
                    -----------------------------------------------------------

                    In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
                    to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
                    and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
                    House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
                    his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

                    From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
                    studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
                    implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
                    be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
                    disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
                    from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Жlred, the
                    parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
                    to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
                    of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
                    eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
                    anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
                    nobility.

                    Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
                    must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
                    renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
                    son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
                    for him and they consented to his wish(3).

                    Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
                    he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
                    northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
                    parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
                    village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
                    rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
                    labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

                    Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
                    developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
                    giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
                    Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
                    shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
                    food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
                    beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
                    were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
                    providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
                    than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
                    at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
                    of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
                    Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
                    thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
                    this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
                    Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
                    crown of thorns'.

                    Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
                    fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
                    approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
                    were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
                    his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
                    prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
                    poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
                    he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
                    only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
                    good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
                    be their son.

                    So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
                    to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
                    True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
                    this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
                    service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
                    and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
                    fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

                    In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
                    labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
                    third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
                    Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
                    village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
                    midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
                    of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
                    bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
                    angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
                    Trinity.

                    Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
                    was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
                    amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
                    whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
                    English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
                    authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
                    take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
                    sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
                    his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
                    shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
                    kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
                    he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
                    the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
                    on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
                    take communion.

                    Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
                    Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
                    until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
                    to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
                    their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
                    he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
                    there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
                    and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
                    calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
                    labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
                    that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
                    heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
                    Come from thy labours and rest'

                    With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
                    upwards.

                    As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
                    wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
                    banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
                    the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
                    followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
                    came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
                    gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

                    The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
                    mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
                    land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
                    and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
                    the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
                    which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
                    afternoon when Bishop Жlfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
                    service.

                    The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
                    childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
                    him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
                    enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
                    relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
                    effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

                    The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
                    church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
                    became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
                    bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
                    sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
                    particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
                    and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
                    in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
                    church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Жthelmar of Elmham
                    to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

                    The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
                    English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
                    Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediжval churches with other
                    'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
                    St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
                    border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
                    St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
                    screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
                    depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
                    white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
                    East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
                    site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
                    Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
                    chapel destroyed in 1538.

                    However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
                    people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
                    from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
                    give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
                    'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
                    Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
                    Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
                    at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
                    hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
                    taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
                    at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
                    seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
                    blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
                    of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
                    Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
                    (8).

                    Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

                    (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
                    veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
                    Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
                    half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
                    appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
                    versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
                    its retelling here mediжval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
                    communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
                    confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
                    usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
                    tradition).

                    (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
                    Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
                    fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
                    Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
                    Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
                    martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
                    only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
                    beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
                    the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
                    was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
                    the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
                    1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
                    name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
                    Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
                    buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
                    Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

                    (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
                    Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
                    commemorated on 17 March.

                    (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
                    figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
                    transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
                    Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Жlfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
                    Жthelmar from 1047 to 1070.

                    (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
                    St Walstan - since lost.

                    (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
                    difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
                    'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
                    confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
                    existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
                    that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
                    The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
                    Ages.

                    (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

                    (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
                    England, Vol 2, No 3.

                    http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

                    In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
                    scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
                    (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
                    ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
                    area (Husenbeth).

                    Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
                    http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

                    Icon of St Walstan
                    http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Walstan.htm



                    St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
                    ------------------------------------------------------------
                    Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
                    French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
                    (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
                    Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
                    Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


                    Sources:
                    ========

                    Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                    Penguin Books.

                    Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                    P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                    Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                    (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

                    Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
                    Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
                    Green & Co.

                    Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                    Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                    London: Virtue & Co.

                    Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                    Regnery.

                    For All the Saints:
                    http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                    An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                    http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                    These Lives are archived at:
                    1. http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints

                    2. The website of Kathleen Hanrahan - in monthly calendar format
                    http://celticsaints.org/

                    3. Mail Archive
                    http://www.mail-archive.com/celt-saints@yahoogroups.com/
                  • emrys@globe.net.nz
                    Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
                    Message 9 of 14 , May 29, 2010
                    • 0 Attachment
                      Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

                      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                      * St. Walstan the Generous
                      * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
                      =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                      St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
                      -----------------------------------------------------------

                      In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
                      to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
                      and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
                      House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
                      his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

                      From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
                      studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
                      implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
                      be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
                      disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
                      from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Жlred, the
                      parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
                      to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
                      of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
                      eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
                      anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
                      nobility.

                      Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
                      must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
                      renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
                      son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
                      for him and they consented to his wish(3).

                      Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
                      he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
                      northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
                      parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
                      village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
                      rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
                      labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

                      Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
                      developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
                      giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
                      Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
                      shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
                      food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
                      beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
                      were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
                      providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
                      than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
                      at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
                      of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
                      Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
                      thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
                      this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
                      Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
                      crown of thorns'.

                      Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
                      fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
                      approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
                      were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
                      his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
                      prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
                      poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
                      he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
                      only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
                      good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
                      be their son.

                      So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
                      to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
                      True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
                      this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
                      service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
                      and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
                      fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

                      In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
                      labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
                      third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
                      Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
                      village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
                      midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
                      of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
                      bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
                      angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
                      Trinity.

                      Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
                      was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
                      amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
                      whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
                      English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
                      authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
                      take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
                      sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
                      his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
                      shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
                      kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
                      he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
                      the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
                      on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
                      take communion.

                      Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
                      Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
                      until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
                      to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
                      their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
                      he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
                      there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
                      and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
                      calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
                      labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
                      that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
                      heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
                      Come from thy labours and rest'

                      With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
                      upwards.

                      As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
                      wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
                      banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
                      the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
                      followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
                      came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
                      gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

                      The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
                      mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
                      land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
                      and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
                      the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
                      which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
                      afternoon when Bishop Жlfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
                      service.

                      The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
                      childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
                      him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
                      enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
                      relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
                      effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

                      The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
                      church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
                      became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
                      bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
                      sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
                      particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
                      and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
                      in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
                      church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Жthelmar of Elmham
                      to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

                      The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
                      English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
                      Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediжval churches with other
                      'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
                      St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
                      border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
                      St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
                      screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
                      depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
                      white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
                      East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
                      site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
                      Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
                      chapel destroyed in 1538.

                      However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
                      people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
                      from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
                      give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
                      'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
                      Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
                      Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
                      at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
                      hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
                      taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
                      at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
                      seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
                      blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
                      of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
                      Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
                      (8).

                      Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

                      (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
                      veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
                      Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
                      half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
                      appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
                      versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
                      its retelling here mediжval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
                      communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
                      confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
                      usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
                      tradition).

                      (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
                      Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
                      fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
                      Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
                      Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
                      martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
                      only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
                      beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
                      the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
                      was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
                      the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
                      1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
                      name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
                      Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
                      buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
                      Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

                      (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
                      Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
                      commemorated on 17 March.

                      (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
                      figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
                      transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
                      Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Жlfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
                      Жthelmar from 1047 to 1070.

                      (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
                      St Walstan - since lost.

                      (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
                      difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
                      'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
                      confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
                      existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
                      that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
                      The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
                      Ages.

                      (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

                      (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
                      England, Vol 2, No 3.

                      http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

                      In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
                      scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
                      (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
                      ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
                      area (Husenbeth).

                      Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
                      http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

                      Icon of St Walstan
                      http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Walstan.htm



                      St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
                      ------------------------------------------------------------
                      Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
                      French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
                      (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
                      Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
                      Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


                      Sources:
                      ========

                      Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                      Penguin Books.

                      Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                      P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                      Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                      (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

                      Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
                      Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
                      Green & Co.

                      Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                      Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                      London: Virtue & Co.

                      Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                      Regnery.

                      For All the Saints:
                      http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                      An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                      http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                      These Lives are archived at:
                      http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                    • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                      Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
                      Message 10 of 14 , May 29, 2011
                      • 0 Attachment
                        Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

                        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                        * St. Walstan the Generous
                        * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
                        =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                        St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
                        -----------------------------------------------------------

                        In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
                        to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
                        and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
                        House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
                        his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

                        From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
                        studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
                        implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
                        be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
                        disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
                        from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Р–lred, the
                        parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
                        to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
                        of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
                        eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
                        anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
                        nobility.

                        Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
                        must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
                        renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
                        son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
                        for him and they consented to his wish(3).

                        Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
                        he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
                        northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
                        parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
                        village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
                        rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
                        labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

                        Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
                        developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
                        giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
                        Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
                        shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
                        food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
                        beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
                        were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
                        providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
                        than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
                        at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
                        of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
                        Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
                        thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
                        this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
                        Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
                        crown of thorns'.

                        Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
                        fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
                        approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
                        were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
                        his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
                        prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
                        poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
                        he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
                        only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
                        good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
                        be their son.

                        So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
                        to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
                        True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
                        this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
                        service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
                        and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
                        fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

                        In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
                        labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
                        third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
                        Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
                        village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
                        midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
                        of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
                        bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
                        angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
                        Trinity.

                        Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
                        was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
                        amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
                        whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
                        English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
                        authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
                        take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
                        sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
                        his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
                        shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
                        kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
                        he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
                        the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
                        on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
                        take communion.

                        Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
                        Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
                        until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
                        to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
                        their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
                        he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
                        there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
                        and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
                        calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
                        labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
                        that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
                        heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
                        Come from thy labours and rest'

                        With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
                        upwards.

                        As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
                        wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
                        banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
                        the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
                        followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
                        came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
                        gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

                        The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
                        mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
                        land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
                        and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
                        the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
                        which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
                        afternoon when Bishop Р–lfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
                        service.

                        The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
                        childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
                        him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
                        enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
                        relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
                        effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

                        The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
                        church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
                        became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
                        bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
                        sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
                        particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
                        and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
                        in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
                        church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Р–thelmar of Elmham
                        to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

                        The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
                        English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
                        Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediжval churches with other
                        'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
                        St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
                        border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
                        St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
                        screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
                        depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
                        white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
                        East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
                        site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
                        Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
                        chapel destroyed in 1538.

                        However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
                        people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
                        from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
                        give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
                        'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
                        Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
                        Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
                        at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
                        hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
                        taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
                        at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
                        seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
                        blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
                        of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
                        Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
                        (8).

                        Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

                        (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
                        veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
                        Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
                        half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
                        appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
                        versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
                        its retelling here mediжval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
                        communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
                        confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
                        usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
                        tradition).

                        (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
                        Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
                        fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
                        Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
                        Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
                        martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
                        only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
                        beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
                        the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
                        was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
                        the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
                        1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
                        name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
                        Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
                        buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
                        Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

                        (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
                        Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
                        commemorated on 17 March.

                        (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
                        figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
                        transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
                        Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Р–lfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
                        Р–thelmar from 1047 to 1070.

                        (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
                        St Walstan - since lost.

                        (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
                        difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
                        'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
                        confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
                        existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
                        that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
                        The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
                        Ages.

                        (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

                        (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
                        England, Vol 2, No 3.

                        http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

                        In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
                        scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
                        (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
                        ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
                        area (Husenbeth).

                        Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
                        http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

                        Icon of St Walstan
                        http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Walstan.htm



                        St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
                        ------------------------------------------------------------
                        Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
                        French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
                        (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
                        Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
                        Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


                        Sources:
                        ========

                        Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                        Penguin Books.

                        Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                        P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                        Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                        (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

                        Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
                        Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
                        Green & Co.

                        Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                        Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                        London: Virtue & Co.

                        Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                        Regnery.

                        For All the Saints:
                        http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                        An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                        http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                        These Lives are archived at:
                        http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                      • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                        Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
                        Message 11 of 14 , May 30, 2012
                        • 0 Attachment
                          Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

                          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                          * St. Walstan the Generous
                          * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
                          =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                          St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
                          -----------------------------------------------------------

                          In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
                          to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
                          and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
                          House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
                          his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

                          From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
                          studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
                          implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
                          be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
                          disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
                          from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Р–lred, the
                          parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
                          to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
                          of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
                          eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
                          anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
                          nobility.

                          Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
                          must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
                          renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
                          son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
                          for him and they consented to his wish(3).

                          Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
                          he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
                          northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
                          parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
                          village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
                          rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
                          labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

                          Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
                          developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
                          giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
                          Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
                          shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
                          food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
                          beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
                          were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
                          providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
                          than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
                          at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
                          of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
                          Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
                          thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
                          this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
                          Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
                          crown of thorns'.

                          Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
                          fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
                          approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
                          were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
                          his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
                          prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
                          poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
                          he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
                          only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
                          good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
                          be their son.

                          So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
                          to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
                          True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
                          this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
                          service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
                          and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
                          fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

                          In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
                          labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
                          third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
                          Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
                          village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
                          midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
                          of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
                          bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
                          angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
                          Trinity.

                          Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
                          was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
                          amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
                          whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
                          English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
                          authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
                          take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
                          sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
                          his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
                          shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
                          kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
                          he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
                          the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
                          on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
                          take communion.

                          Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
                          Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
                          until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
                          to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
                          their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
                          he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
                          there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
                          and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
                          calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
                          labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
                          that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
                          heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
                          Come from thy labours and rest'

                          With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
                          upwards.

                          As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
                          wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
                          banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
                          the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
                          followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
                          came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
                          gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

                          The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
                          mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
                          land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
                          and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
                          the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
                          which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
                          afternoon when Bishop Р–lfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
                          service.

                          The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
                          childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
                          him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
                          enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
                          relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
                          effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

                          The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
                          church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
                          became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
                          bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
                          sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
                          particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
                          and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
                          in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
                          church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Р–thelmar of Elmham
                          to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

                          The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
                          English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
                          Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediжval churches with other
                          'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
                          St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
                          border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
                          St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
                          screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
                          depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
                          white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
                          East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
                          site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
                          Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
                          chapel destroyed in 1538.

                          However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
                          people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
                          from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
                          give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
                          'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
                          Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
                          Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
                          at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
                          hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
                          taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
                          at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
                          seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
                          blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
                          of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
                          Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
                          (8).

                          Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

                          (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
                          veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
                          Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
                          half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
                          appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
                          versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
                          its retelling here mediжval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
                          communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
                          confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
                          usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
                          tradition).

                          (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
                          Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
                          fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
                          Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
                          Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
                          martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
                          only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
                          beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
                          the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
                          was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
                          the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
                          1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
                          name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
                          Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
                          buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
                          Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

                          (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
                          Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
                          commemorated on 17 March.

                          (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
                          figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
                          transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
                          Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Р–lfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
                          Р–thelmar from 1047 to 1070.

                          (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
                          St Walstan - since lost.

                          (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
                          difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
                          'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
                          confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
                          existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
                          that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
                          The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
                          Ages.

                          (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

                          (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
                          England, Vol 2, No 3.

                          http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

                          In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
                          scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
                          (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
                          ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
                          area (Husenbeth).

                          Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
                          http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

                          Icon of St Walstan
                          http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Walstan.htm



                          St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
                          ------------------------------------------------------------
                          Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
                          French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
                          (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
                          Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
                          Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


                          Sources:
                          ========

                          Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                          Penguin Books.

                          Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                          P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                          Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                          (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

                          Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
                          Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
                          Green & Co.

                          Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                          Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                          London: Virtue & Co.

                          Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                          Regnery.

                          For All the Saints:
                          http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/ss-index.htm

                          An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West
                          http://www.orthodoxengland.btinternet.co.uk/saintsa.htm

                          These Lives are archived at:
                          http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
                        • ambrois@xtra.co.nz
                          Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-= * St. Walstan the Generous * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
                          Message 12 of 14 , May 29, 2013
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                            Celtic and Old English Saints 30 May

                            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=
                            * St. Walstan the Generous
                            * Saint Mauguille of Picardy
                            =-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=-=


                            St. Walstan the Generous, of Bawburgh (of Taverham)
                            -----------------------------------------------------------

                            In the year 975 a child was born in the village of Bawburgh, a few miles
                            to the west of Norwich in Norfolk(1). His parents were called Benedict
                            and Blide and were nobles related to the English Royal Family of the
                            House of Wessex. His mother indeed was a kinswoman of King Ethelred and
                            his son Edmund Ironside(2). This child was baptized Walstan.

                            From the example of his parents, who possessed books, the child Walstan
                            studied the Scriptures. In particular he was troubled by the meaning and
                            implications of a verse in the Gospel of St Luke (14, 33): 'Whosoever he
                            be of you that forsaketh not all that he hath, he cannot be my
                            disciple'. At the age of seven Walstan received instruction in the Faith
                            from Bishop Theodred of Elmham with the assistance of Fr Р–lred, the
                            parish priest of Bawburgh. At this early date the child Walstan pledged
                            to renounce all for love of God, asking not for an earthly crown as he
                            of noble blood might perhaps expect, but for a crown of thorns and an
                            eternal reward. He vowed to devote himself to God in humility and
                            anonymity, forsaking the material security of his home and his ties of
                            nobility.

                            Shortly before his thirteenth birthday, Walstan told his parents that he
                            must now leave their home. Although forewarned of their son's
                            renunciation in a dream, Benedict and Blide were reluctant to let their
                            son depart. Eventually, however, they realised that this was God's Will
                            for him and they consented to his wish(3).

                            Thus Walstan left his parents' home and took to the road. Almost at once
                            he met two beggars to whom he gave his rich garments. He then walked on
                            northwards, clad in the poorest of clothes, with no outward sign of his
                            parents' wealth. Within an hour or so the path had taken him to the
                            village of Taverham, only a few miles north of Bawburgh, where he
                            rested. A landed peasant called Nalga saw him and, in need of a
                            labourer, offered Walstan work. The latter agreed.

                            Walstan soon gained a reputation for hard work and piety and also
                            developed an affinity with the poor and was charitable in the extreme,
                            giving both his food and clothing to those less fortunate than himself.
                            Often he would carry out his work barefoot, having given away even his
                            shoes. Nalga's wife, seeing him thus, once gave him new shoes and extra
                            food. Within a short time Walstan had given all away to two passing
                            beggars, one of them barefoot. When Nalga and his wife heard this, they
                            were angry with him, but Walstan answered that the men had been sent
                            providentially by God to find out whether he, Walstan, loved God more
                            than himself: 'I shod Christ in the poor man', he said. The wife sneered
                            at this and ordered Walstan to take a cart to the forest to fetch a load
                            of briars, treading the thorns well down with his unshod feet.
                            Miraculously, Walstan appeared to be treading on rose leaves and the
                            thorns, as soft as petals ever were, gave out a sweet fragrance. Seeing
                            this, Nalga and his wife fell at Walstan's feet and begged forgiveness.
                            Thus did Walstan 'forsake all' to be the Lord's disciple and win 'a
                            crown of thorns'.

                            Over the years Walstan became known and loved for his prayer and
                            fasting, hard work, chastity and love for all. As a sign of His
                            approval, God allowed miracles to occur through His servant. Animals
                            were brought to him to be healed and people too claimed cures through
                            his prayers and ministrations. Whatever he did, God blessed. Everything
                            prospered through his labours. All the while he continued to live in
                            poverty, keeping his royal identity a secret and giving away the money
                            he earned. Such was the secret of his anonymity that even his parents,
                            only a few miles away at Bawburgh, never came to suspect that the
                            good-hearted labourer at Taverham, of whom they must have heard, could
                            be their son.

                            So it was that Nalga and his wife, having no children of their own, grew
                            to love Walstan and made him many gifts, wanting to make him their heir.
                            True to his self-denial in accordance with the Gospel, he refused all
                            this, continuing to labour on the land for thirty years of unbroken
                            service. Finally, he did accept from Nalga the gift of two white calves
                            and a small wagon. However this was not for covetousness sake but to
                            fulfil God's Will, an angel having commanded him to do so.

                            In May 1016, at the start of hay making, Walstan was mowing with another
                            labourer when an angel appeared to him, saying: 'Brother Walstan, on the
                            third day after this thou shalt depart this life in peace and enter
                            Paradise'. At once Walstan put down his scythe and went in search of the
                            village priest. The next day, being a Saturday, Walstan stopped work at
                            midday in accordance with the laws of the Church, for this was the eve
                            of the Sabbath Day. Then there could be heard the ringing of heavenly
                            bells and an indescribable unearthly music: the heavens opened and
                            angels appeared ringing to the glory and praise of the Undivided
                            Trinity.

                            Now, that Saturday afternoon Nalga went to the market in Norwich, which
                            was then under the government of the Danish King Canute. To his
                            amazement he heard there a proclamation that anyone knowing the
                            whereabouts of Walstan, son of Benedict and Blide and kinsman of the
                            English King Edmund of the House of Wessex, should inform the
                            authorities. Nalga learned that the Danes under Canute were about to
                            take over the whole of England. The proclamation warned that whoever was
                            sheltering Walstan must deliver him up forthwith or else forsake both
                            his wealth and his life. Alarmed, Nalga hastened back to Taverham. 'What
                            shall I say', he asked, 'when I tell the Danes that all the while I have
                            kept thee, heir to the Kingdom of England, here'. Walstan answered that
                            he must tell the truth and that he was his servant. He then disclosed
                            the angelic revelation and asked Nalga to tell the priest to come to him
                            on Monday when Walstan would be at work so that he could confess and
                            take communion.

                            Thus it was that on Monday 30 May 1016 the village priest came to
                            Walstan as he was mowing in the fields. He had worked with his scythe
                            until the morning ended and then his hour came. As the priest prepared
                            to give Walstan communion, he realised that he had no water to wash
                            their hands. Walstan prayed and at once a spring gushed up before him as
                            he knelt in prayer. Having then taken communion, he told those gathered
                            there that after his repose, they were to place his body on the wagon
                            and yoke it to the two white calves. No one should lead them, but the
                            calves should go where God pleased. He then besought God that every sick
                            labourer and beast should obtain healing of their infirmity, provided
                            that they asked with reverent devotion. At that a voice was heard from
                            heaven, saying: 'O Holy Walstan, that which thou hast asked is granted.
                            Come from thy labours and rest'

                            With that Walstan gave up the ghost and a white dove was seen flying
                            upwards.

                            As directed, Nalga and the people of Taverham laid Walstan's body on the
                            wagon and attached the calves to it. The calves then proceeded along the
                            banks of the River Wensum and through a wood. At the deepest point of
                            the river they crossed, passing over the water dry shod and those who
                            followed passed along dry wheel tracks and hoof prints. The white calves
                            came to Costessey Wood nearby and stopped to rest. Here a second spring
                            gushed forth and flowed with clear water.

                            The procession, gaining in numbers, then continued, crossing marsh and
                            mire, until they came to Walstan's birthplace, Bawburgh, near where the
                            land rises away from the banks of the River Yare. Here they paused again
                            and a third spring gushed up. The calves then mounted the steep hill to
                            the Church and entered through an opening in the wall, made by angels,
                            which then closed up behind them. They remained there until the third
                            afternoon when Bishop Р–lfgar of Elmham came with monks for the funeral
                            service.

                            The Bishop, knowing from his predecessor Theodred something of Walstan's
                            childhood, listened attentively to Nalga and the local people. They told
                            him of the many wonders of Walstan and the Bishop made diligent
                            enquiries as to the truth(4). Then, being satisfied, he allowed the
                            relics to be venerated as those of a Saint and sent notice to that
                            effect to all the neighbouring churches (5).

                            The body was enshrined in a chapel in the north transept of Bawburgh
                            church. With the Bishop's blessing and by popular consent (6), the site
                            became a place of pilgrimage. Through Walstan's intercessions, the Lord
                            bestowed miracles of healing on man and beast alike and all those who
                            sought healing at the three springs were rewarded with cure. In
                            particular the possessed were exorcised, the deaf and dumb were healed
                            and those with troubled eyesight had it restored by bathing their eyes
                            in the water from the spring at Bawburgh. And in 1047 the enhanced
                            church and shrine chapel were rededicated by Bishop Р–thelmar of Elmham
                            to Mary the Mother of God and St Walstan.

                            The veneration of St Walstan survived 'the first reformation of the
                            English Church'(7); the 'Old Faith' continued for a while yet. St
                            Walstan was portrayed in a number of mediжval churches with other
                            'Eastern Saints'. Thus at Great Ryburgh in Norfolk, he may be seen with
                            St Felix, St Audrey and St Withburgh. At Fritton on the Norfolk-Suffolk
                            border, he is portrayed together with St Felix, St Fursey, St Audrey and
                            St Withburgh. At Foxearth on the Essex-Suffolk border he is shown on a
                            screen together with St Alban, St Felix and St Edmund. His portraits
                            depict him with a scythe and a crown or sceptre, at times with the two
                            white calves in the background. St Walstan was particularly beloved of
                            East Anglian farmers and farm workers. Indeed his shrine continued as a
                            site of pilgrimage until the second reformation of the English Church.
                            Sadly at that 'reformation', the holy relics were burned and the shrine
                            chapel destroyed in 1538.

                            However, local veneration has continued right up to the present time and
                            people have continued to bathe their eyes in the springs, place moss
                            from the springs on their eyes, especially that from Bawburgh, and also
                            give the waters to sick animals. At Taverham one may still find
                            'Walstanham Plantation', the reputed site of Nalga's farm and the
                            Saint's repose. In the nineteenth century, if not more recently, local
                            Catholics baptised their sons 'Walstan'. Annual pilgrimages were revived
                            at the beginning of the twentieth century; that of 1912 united five
                            hundred people. They have continued regularly ever since. Healings have
                            taken place within living memory. There is still a Saint Walstan's Well
                            at Costessey, a pilgrimage site for those
                            seeking his intercession for the cure of fevers, palsy, lameness, and
                            blindness. As recently as 1989 St Walstan was declared 'Patron-Saint
                            of British Food and Farming'. And in 1998 there took place the first
                            Orthodox pilgrimage to Bawburgh, which is to be continued in the future
                            (8).

                            Holy Righteous Walstan, pray to God for us!

                            (1) The Life of St Walstan provides a good example of a local saint. His
                            veneration never spread outside the Eastern Counties. Details of his
                            Life were no doubt compiled by the East Anglian bishops of the first
                            half of the eleventh century, but all was later lost. The Life as it now
                            appears was probably written down only in the fourteenth century and the
                            versions that we have are later still. We have therefore removed from
                            its retelling here mediжval anachronisms such as Walstan's first
                            communion at age seven. (Right up until the end of the twelfth century,
                            confirmation and therefore communion followed baptism very closely,
                            usually within weeks or months in accordance with ancient Christian
                            tradition).

                            (2) According to the Life of St Walstan, his mother Blide was related to
                            Elgiva, the first wife of King Ethelred 'the Unready'. Ethelred's
                            fateful rule had begun from the martyrdom of his half-brother Edward the
                            Martyr on 18 March 978 and lasted until 23 April 1015 when he died.
                            Ethelred would never have been King if it had not been for Edward's
                            martyrdom. Everything this hapless man undertook went awry and he not
                            only managed to lose most of his Kingdom to the Danish Canute at the
                            beginning of the eleventh century but also married a second time into
                            the Norman ruling family, thus ensuring the Norman Invasion in 1066. He
                            was succeeded by his valiant son Edmund 'Ironside', who nearly defeated
                            the Danish Cnut or Canute. Edmund fathered two children between 1016 and
                            1017 but he himself died on 30 November 1016. Blide or 'Blythe', whose
                            name means 'Joy', reposed in old age. She was revered as a saint at
                            Martham, some fifteen miles to the north west of Norwich where she was
                            buried. Here a chapel was dedicated to her and there was a local cult in
                            Norfolk. We do not know the date of her feast.

                            (3) It is interesting to note the resemblance between the Life of the
                            Righteous St Walstan and that of St Alexis of Rome, 'the Man of God',
                            commemorated on 17 March.

                            (4) The Bishops of Norfolk referred to in the Life are all historic
                            figures. Their See was then at North Elmham in central Norfolk. This was
                            transferred to Thetford and then Norwich only later by the Normans.
                            Theodred II was bishop from 980 to 995, Р–lfgar from 1001 to 1021 and
                            Р–thelmar from 1047 to 1070.

                            (5) This would have been the starting-point of the first written Life of
                            St Walstan - since lost.

                            (6) In Orthodox theology these few words are the very definition of the
                            difference between 'glorification' (popular consent and veneration) and
                            'canonisation' (official investigation and episcopal blessing and
                            confirmation). Some do not realise this and incorrectly deny the
                            existence of the canonisation process in the Orthodox Church. Of course
                            that process is very different from that in the Roman Catholic Church.
                            The latter only developed its present canonisation process in the Middle
                            Ages.

                            (7) See Carol Twinch, In Search of St Walstan, Norwich 1995, P. 36.

                            (8) For a description of the 1998 Orthodox Pilgrimage, see Orthodox
                            England, Vol 2, No 3.

                            http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/v04i4.htm

                            In art, Saint Walstan is depicted as a crowned farm labourer holding a
                            scythe. At times the picture may include (1) the word "Opifer" by him;
                            (2) scythe and sceptre; (3) scythe, crown, and two calves; or scythe and
                            ermine cape (Roeder). He is the patron of mowers and husbandmen in the
                            area (Husenbeth).

                            Canon to the Holy Righteous Walstan of Taverham
                            http://members.netscapeonline.co.uk/dvjdvs/canstwal.htm

                            Icon of St Walstan
                            http://www.allmercifulsavior.com/icons/Icons-Walstan.htm



                            St. Madelgisilus (Maguil, Mauguille), Hermit
                            ------------------------------------------------------------
                            Born in Ireland; died c. 655. Saint Mauguille, as he is known among the
                            French, was an Irish monk, disciple, and confidant of Saint Fursey
                            (f.d. January 16). After living some years at Saint-Riquier Abbey,
                            Mauguille and Saint Vulgan (Pulcan?) became hermits near Monstrelet in
                            Picardy, where Mauguille died (Benedictines).


                            Sources:
                            ========

                            Attwater, D. (1983). The Penguin Dictionary of Saints, NY:
                            Penguin Books.

                            Attwater, D. (1958). A Dictionary of Saints. New York:
                            P. J. Kenedy & Sons. [Attwater 2]

                            Benedictine Monks of Saint Augustine Abbey, Ramsgate.
                            (1947). The Book of saints. NY: Macmillan.

                            Coulson, J. (ed.). (1960). The Saints: A Concise Biographical
                            Dictionary. New York: Hawthorn Books.
                            Green & Co.

                            Husenbeth, Rev. F. C., DD, VG (ed.). (1928). Butler's
                            Lives of the Fathers, Martyrs, and Other Principal Saints.
                            London: Virtue & Co.

                            Roeder, H. (1956). Saints and Their Attributes, Chicago: Henry
                            Regnery.

                            For All the Saints: - new active link
                            http://www.saintpatrickdc.org/ss/saint_a.shtml

                            An Alphabetical Index of the Saints of the West - new active link
                            http://orthodoxengland.org.uk/saintsa.htm

                            These Lives are archived at:
                            http://groups.yahoo.com/group/celt-saints
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